Abstract

Grazing incidence optics are a key element of x-ray and extreme ultraviolet astronomy and are becoming increasingly important in aspects of far-ultraviolet astronomy. Metal optics have figured prominently in this work, and machined metal optics offer distinct advantages in some applications. New methods of metrology have combined with innovations in fabrication to produce metal optics of second of arc quality. In this paper we review the fabrication, evaluation, and performance of machined grazing incidence metal optics produced, or in production, for astronomical telescopes.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Finley, J. Green, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “The Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 91 (1986).
  2. P. Agrawal, G. Garmire, G. Riegler, I. Tuohy, “X-Ray Telescope for Sounding Rocket-Borne Observations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 93, 113 (1976).
  3. S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Performance Results,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Optics Workshop, Annapolis, MD (Apr.1985).
  4. R. Willingale, S. R. Milward, M. R. Sims, “The Performance of the ROSAT WFC Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 233 (1986).
  5. C. Martin, Columbia U., Physics Dept.; private correspondence.
  6. W. Cash, “Stellar Extreme Ultraviolet Astronomy,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. California, Berkeley (1973).
  7. P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broadband X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 787 (1984).
  8. R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Polishing of X-Ray Optics,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1563 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Nousek, G. P. Garmire, R. J. Pipetti, D. N. Burrows, W. H.-M. Ku, K. S. K. Lum, “Diamond-Turned Lacquer-Coated Soft X-Ray Telescope Mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1430 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, “Fabrication of Imaging X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 138 (1986).
  11. D. Finley, U. California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory; private correspondence.
  12. E. L. Church, “Fractal Surface Finish,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1518 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Willingale, “ROSAT Wide Field Camera Mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1423 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. O. Rice, “Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves from Slightly Rough Surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 351, 4 (1951).
  15. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).
  16. J. Green, D. Finley, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Surface Evaluation of the Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 238 (1986).
  17. C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1967 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector Scattering Theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Design of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Long-Wavelength Grazing Incidence Telescope Optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1476 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Grazing Incidence Optics for the U.S. High-Resolution X-Ray Astronomy Program,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1398 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).
  23. B. Aschenbach, “Design, Construction, and Performance of the ROSAT High-Resolution X-Ray Mirror Assembly,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1404 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

1987

1986

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, “Fabrication of Imaging X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 138 (1986).

D. Finley, J. Green, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “The Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 91 (1986).

R. Willingale, S. R. Milward, M. R. Sims, “The Performance of the ROSAT WFC Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 233 (1986).

J. Green, D. Finley, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Surface Evaluation of the Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 238 (1986).

1985

A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).

1984

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broadband X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 787 (1984).

1981

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1967 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector Scattering Theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

P. Agrawal, G. Garmire, G. Riegler, I. Tuohy, “X-Ray Telescope for Sounding Rocket-Borne Observations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 93, 113 (1976).

1951

R. O. Rice, “Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves from Slightly Rough Surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 351, 4 (1951).

Agrawal, P.

P. Agrawal, G. Garmire, G. Riegler, I. Tuohy, “X-Ray Telescope for Sounding Rocket-Borne Observations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 93, 113 (1976).

Anger, H. O.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1967 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aschenbach, B.

Babish, R.

A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector Scattering Theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Birsa, F.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broadband X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 787 (1984).

Bowyer, S.

D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Design of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Long-Wavelength Grazing Incidence Telescope Optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Finley, J. Green, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “The Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 91 (1986).

J. Green, D. Finley, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Surface Evaluation of the Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 238 (1986).

S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Performance Results,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Optics Workshop, Annapolis, MD (Apr.1985).

Brookover, W. J.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Polishing of X-Ray Optics,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1563 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, “Fabrication of Imaging X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 138 (1986).

Burrows, D. N.

California, U.

D. Finley, U. California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory; private correspondence.

Cash, W.

W. Cash, “Stellar Extreme Ultraviolet Astronomy,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. California, Berkeley (1973).

Catura, R. C.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Polishing of X-Ray Optics,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1563 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, “Fabrication of Imaging X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 138 (1986).

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, “Fractal Surface Finish,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1518 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Elson, J. M.

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector Scattering Theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Finley, D.

D. Finley, J. Green, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “The Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 91 (1986).

J. Green, D. Finley, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Surface Evaluation of the Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 238 (1986).

S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Performance Results,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Optics Workshop, Annapolis, MD (Apr.1985).

D. Finley, U. California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory; private correspondence.

Finley, D. S.

Garmire, G.

P. Agrawal, G. Garmire, G. Riegler, I. Tuohy, “X-Ray Telescope for Sounding Rocket-Borne Observations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 93, 113 (1976).

Garmire, G. P.

Glasser, C.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broadband X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 787 (1984).

Glenn, P.

A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).

Green, J.

D. Finley, J. Green, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “The Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 91 (1986).

J. Green, D. Finley, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Surface Evaluation of the Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 238 (1986).

S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Performance Results,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Optics Workshop, Annapolis, MD (Apr.1985).

Jelinsky, P.

Jenkinson, H. A.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Joki, E. G.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, D. T. Roethig, W. J. Brookover, “Lacquer Polishing of X-Ray Optics,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1563 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, “Fabrication of Imaging X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 138 (1986).

Ku, W. H.-M.

Lampton, M.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1967 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lum, K. S. K.

Malina, R. F.

D. S. Finley, P. Jelinsky, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Design of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Long-Wavelength Grazing Incidence Telescope Optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Finley, J. Green, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “The Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 91 (1986).

J. Green, D. Finley, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Surface Evaluation of the Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 238 (1986).

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1967 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Performance Results,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Optics Workshop, Annapolis, MD (Apr.1985).

Martin, C.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1967 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, Columbia U., Physics Dept.; private correspondence.

Milward, S. R.

R. Willingale, S. R. Milward, M. R. Sims, “The Performance of the ROSAT WFC Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 233 (1986).

Nousek, J. A.

Petre, R.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broadband X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 787 (1984).

Pipetti, R. J.

Rice, R. O.

R. O. Rice, “Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves from Slightly Rough Surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 351, 4 (1951).

Riegler, G.

P. Agrawal, G. Garmire, G. Riegler, I. Tuohy, “X-Ray Telescope for Sounding Rocket-Borne Observations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 93, 113 (1976).

Roethig, D. T.

Serlemitsos, P. J.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broadband X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 787 (1984).

Sims, M. R.

R. Willingale, S. R. Milward, M. R. Sims, “The Performance of the ROSAT WFC Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 233 (1986).

Slomba, A.

A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Tuohy, I.

P. Agrawal, G. Garmire, G. Riegler, I. Tuohy, “X-Ray Telescope for Sounding Rocket-Borne Observations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 93, 113 (1976).

Van Speybroeck, L. P.

Willingale, R.

R. Willingale, “ROSAT Wide Field Camera Mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1423 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Willingale, S. R. Milward, M. R. Sims, “The Performance of the ROSAT WFC Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 233 (1986).

Zavada, J. M.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Commun. Pure Appl. Math.

R. O. Rice, “Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves from Slightly Rough Surfaces,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 351, 4 (1951).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

P. J. Serlemitsos, R. Petre, C. Glasser, F. Birsa, “Broadband X-Ray Astronomical Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-31, 787 (1984).

Opt. Eng.

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, “Vector Scattering Theory,” Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Relationship Between Surface Scattering and Microtopographic Features,” Opt. Eng. 18, 125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

R. C. Catura, E. G. Joki, W. J. Brookover, “Fabrication of Imaging X-Ray Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 138 (1986).

J. Green, D. Finley, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “Surface Evaluation of the Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 238 (1986).

D. Finley, J. Green, S. Bowyer, R. F. Malina, “The Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 91 (1986).

P. Agrawal, G. Garmire, G. Riegler, I. Tuohy, “X-Ray Telescope for Sounding Rocket-Borne Observations,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 93, 113 (1976).

R. Willingale, S. R. Milward, M. R. Sims, “The Performance of the ROSAT WFC Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 233 (1986).

A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. Martin, P. Jelinsky, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1967 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

C. Martin, Columbia U., Physics Dept.; private correspondence.

W. Cash, “Stellar Extreme Ultraviolet Astronomy,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. California, Berkeley (1973).

S. Bowyer, J. Green, D. Finley, R. F. Malina, “Diamond Turned Grazing Incidence Mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet: Ten Years of Fabrication and Performance Results,” in Proceedings, Grazing Incidence Optics Workshop, Annapolis, MD (Apr.1985).

D. Finley, U. California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory; private correspondence.

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Tables (1)

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Table I Performance of Grazing Incidence Optics

Equations (9)

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HEW = 2 r 1 / 2 ,
0 r 1 / 2 0 2 π I ( r , θ ) r d r d θ = 1 2 0 0 2 π I ( r , θ ) r d r d θ .
total integrated scatter TIS = I r { 1 exp ( 2 k σ sin θ G ) 2 } ,
TIS = ( 4 π sin θ G σ / λ ) 2 .
D ( a ) d a = 16 π 2 λ 3 θ G 3 W ( p ) d a ,
d I d Ω = 2 k 4 π sin θ G sin 2 θ s σ 2 ρ 2 ( 1 + ρ 2 k 2 Λ ) 3 2 ,
d I d Ω = k 4 π sin θ G sin 2 θ s σ 2 ρ 2 exp ( ρ 2 k 2 Λ 4 ) .
Λ = cos 2 θ G + cos 2 θ s 2 cos θ G cos θ s cos ϕ s ,
Q = measured throughput theoretical throughput = measured effective area theoretical effective area ,

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