Abstract

A grazing incidence telescope has been developed for the x-ray astronomy satellite ROSAT including a verification model and a flight model. The telescope consists of a fourfold nested Wolter type I mirror assembly of 84-cm front aperture and 240-cm focal length. The verification model has been built and fully assembled to a telescope. Full aperture x-ray measurements performed in our 130-m long-beam facility are pesented and successfully compared with model predictions based on mirror metrology data. An energy independent angular resolution of 4-sec of arc half-energy width for the encircled point spread function and a mirror surface microroughness of <3 Å have been achieved. Metrology of the actual flight mirrors (although not yet assembled to a telescope) indicates an even better performance.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Giacconi, B. Rossi, “A Telescope for Soft X-Ray Astronomy,” J. Geophys. Res. 65, 773 (1960)
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein Observatory and Future X-Ray Telescopes,” in Telescopes for the 1980s, G. Burbidge, A. Hewitt, Eds. (Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, 1981), p. 195.
  3. I. M. Goia et al., “The Medium Sensitivity Survey: A New Sample of X-Ray Sources with Optical Identifications and the Revised Extragalactic Log N - S,” Astrophys. J. 283, 495 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Trumper, “X-Ray Sky Surveys and the ROSAT Mission,” in Cosmic Radiation in Contemporary Astrophysics, M. M. Shapiro, Ed. (D. Reidel Publ. Comp., 1986), p. 241.
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Pfeffermann et al., “The Focal Plane Instrumentation of the ROSAT Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 519 (1986).
  6. R. Willingale, “The ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) Mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1423 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K.-H. Stephan, H. Brauninger, H. Kaase, H. J. Maier, W. Schone, H. Wilski, “Multilayered Foils as Radiation Entrance Windows and Spectral Filters for Image Converters in the Ultrasoft X-Ray Wavelength Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 379 (1986).
  8. B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Van Speybroeck, R. C. Chase, “Design Parameters of Paraboloid–Hyperboloid Telescopes for X-Ray Astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 11, 440 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).
  11. B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Kettenring, “Design and Construction of the ROSAT 5 Arcsec Mirror Assembly,” Adv. Space Res. 2, 251 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Heynacher, D. Reinhardt, “Measurement Equipment for Testing the Directrix of High-Resolution Wolter-Type Telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 167 (1979).
  13. K.-H. Stephan, P. Predehl, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, “Soft X-Ray Sources for the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) Long Beam (130 m) Test Facility,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 203 (1981).
  14. M. V. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AX-AF),” Opt. Eng. 20, 297 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. A. J. de Korte, R. Giralt, J. N. Coste, C. Ernu, S. Frindel, J. Flamand, J. J. Contet, “EXOSAT X-Ray Imaging Optics.” Appl. Opt. 20, 1080 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, P. Predehl, “X-Ray Scattering of Superpolished Flat Mirror Samples,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 187 (1981).
  17. L. Van Speybroeck, “Einstein Observatory (HEAO-B) Mirror Design and Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 2 (1979).
  18. C. L. Wyman et al., “The AXAF Technology Mirror Program: an Overview,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 2 (1985).
  19. J. P. Henry, “X-Ray Imaging Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei and Quasars,” in X-Ray Astronomy with the Einstein Satellite, R. Giacconi, Ed. (Reidel, Boston, 1981), p. 261.
    [CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (2)

K.-H. Stephan, H. Brauninger, H. Kaase, H. J. Maier, W. Schone, H. Wilski, “Multilayered Foils as Radiation Entrance Windows and Spectral Filters for Image Converters in the Ultrasoft X-Ray Wavelength Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 379 (1986).

E. Pfeffermann et al., “The Focal Plane Instrumentation of the ROSAT Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 519 (1986).

1985 (2)

B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Wyman et al., “The AXAF Technology Mirror Program: an Overview,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 2 (1985).

1984 (1)

I. M. Goia et al., “The Medium Sensitivity Survey: A New Sample of X-Ray Sources with Optical Identifications and the Revised Extragalactic Log N - S,” Astrophys. J. 283, 495 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Kettenring, “Design and Construction of the ROSAT 5 Arcsec Mirror Assembly,” Adv. Space Res. 2, 251 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (4)

K.-H. Stephan, P. Predehl, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, “Soft X-Ray Sources for the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) Long Beam (130 m) Test Facility,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 203 (1981).

M. V. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AX-AF),” Opt. Eng. 20, 297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. A. J. de Korte, R. Giralt, J. N. Coste, C. Ernu, S. Frindel, J. Flamand, J. J. Contet, “EXOSAT X-Ray Imaging Optics.” Appl. Opt. 20, 1080 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, P. Predehl, “X-Ray Scattering of Superpolished Flat Mirror Samples,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 187 (1981).

1980 (1)

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

1979 (2)

E. Heynacher, D. Reinhardt, “Measurement Equipment for Testing the Directrix of High-Resolution Wolter-Type Telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 167 (1979).

L. Van Speybroeck, “Einstein Observatory (HEAO-B) Mirror Design and Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 2 (1979).

1972 (1)

1960 (1)

R. Giacconi, B. Rossi, “A Telescope for Soft X-Ray Astronomy,” J. Geophys. Res. 65, 773 (1960)
[CrossRef]

Aschenbach, B.

B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Kettenring, “Design and Construction of the ROSAT 5 Arcsec Mirror Assembly,” Adv. Space Res. 2, 251 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Stephan, P. Predehl, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, “Soft X-Ray Sources for the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) Long Beam (130 m) Test Facility,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 203 (1981).

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, P. Predehl, “X-Ray Scattering of Superpolished Flat Mirror Samples,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 187 (1981).

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

Brauninger, H.

K.-H. Stephan, H. Brauninger, H. Kaase, H. J. Maier, W. Schone, H. Wilski, “Multilayered Foils as Radiation Entrance Windows and Spectral Filters for Image Converters in the Ultrasoft X-Ray Wavelength Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 379 (1986).

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Kettenring, “Design and Construction of the ROSAT 5 Arcsec Mirror Assembly,” Adv. Space Res. 2, 251 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, P. Predehl, “X-Ray Scattering of Superpolished Flat Mirror Samples,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 187 (1981).

K.-H. Stephan, P. Predehl, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, “Soft X-Ray Sources for the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) Long Beam (130 m) Test Facility,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 203 (1981).

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

Chase, R. C.

Contet, J. J.

Coste, J. N.

de Korte, P. A. J.

Ernu, C.

Flamand, J.

Frindel, S.

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi, B. Rossi, “A Telescope for Soft X-Ray Astronomy,” J. Geophys. Res. 65, 773 (1960)
[CrossRef]

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein Observatory and Future X-Ray Telescopes,” in Telescopes for the 1980s, G. Burbidge, A. Hewitt, Eds. (Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, 1981), p. 195.

Giralt, R.

Goia, I. M.

I. M. Goia et al., “The Medium Sensitivity Survey: A New Sample of X-Ray Sources with Optical Identifications and the Revised Extragalactic Log N - S,” Astrophys. J. 283, 495 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hasinger, G.

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

Henry, J. P.

J. P. Henry, “X-Ray Imaging Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei and Quasars,” in X-Ray Astronomy with the Einstein Satellite, R. Giacconi, Ed. (Reidel, Boston, 1981), p. 261.
[CrossRef]

Heynacher, E.

E. Heynacher, D. Reinhardt, “Measurement Equipment for Testing the Directrix of High-Resolution Wolter-Type Telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 167 (1979).

Kaase, H.

K.-H. Stephan, H. Brauninger, H. Kaase, H. J. Maier, W. Schone, H. Wilski, “Multilayered Foils as Radiation Entrance Windows and Spectral Filters for Image Converters in the Ultrasoft X-Ray Wavelength Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 379 (1986).

Kettenring, G.

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Kettenring, “Design and Construction of the ROSAT 5 Arcsec Mirror Assembly,” Adv. Space Res. 2, 251 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Maier, H. J.

K.-H. Stephan, H. Brauninger, H. Kaase, H. J. Maier, W. Schone, H. Wilski, “Multilayered Foils as Radiation Entrance Windows and Spectral Filters for Image Converters in the Ultrasoft X-Ray Wavelength Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 379 (1986).

Ondrusch, A.

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, P. Predehl, “X-Ray Scattering of Superpolished Flat Mirror Samples,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 187 (1981).

K.-H. Stephan, P. Predehl, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, “Soft X-Ray Sources for the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) Long Beam (130 m) Test Facility,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 203 (1981).

Pfeffermann, E.

E. Pfeffermann et al., “The Focal Plane Instrumentation of the ROSAT Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 519 (1986).

Predehl, P.

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, P. Predehl, “X-Ray Scattering of Superpolished Flat Mirror Samples,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 187 (1981).

K.-H. Stephan, P. Predehl, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, “Soft X-Ray Sources for the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) Long Beam (130 m) Test Facility,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 203 (1981).

Reinhardt, D.

E. Heynacher, D. Reinhardt, “Measurement Equipment for Testing the Directrix of High-Resolution Wolter-Type Telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 167 (1979).

Rossi, B.

R. Giacconi, B. Rossi, “A Telescope for Soft X-Ray Astronomy,” J. Geophys. Res. 65, 773 (1960)
[CrossRef]

Schone, W.

K.-H. Stephan, H. Brauninger, H. Kaase, H. J. Maier, W. Schone, H. Wilski, “Multilayered Foils as Radiation Entrance Windows and Spectral Filters for Image Converters in the Ultrasoft X-Ray Wavelength Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 379 (1986).

Stephan, K.-H.

K.-H. Stephan, H. Brauninger, H. Kaase, H. J. Maier, W. Schone, H. Wilski, “Multilayered Foils as Radiation Entrance Windows and Spectral Filters for Image Converters in the Ultrasoft X-Ray Wavelength Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 379 (1986).

K.-H. Stephan, P. Predehl, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, “Soft X-Ray Sources for the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) Long Beam (130 m) Test Facility,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 203 (1981).

Trumper, J.

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

J. Trumper, “X-Ray Sky Surveys and the ROSAT Mission,” in Cosmic Radiation in Contemporary Astrophysics, M. M. Shapiro, Ed. (D. Reidel Publ. Comp., 1986), p. 241.
[CrossRef]

Van Speybroeck, L.

L. Van Speybroeck, “Einstein Observatory (HEAO-B) Mirror Design and Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 2 (1979).

L. Van Speybroeck, R. C. Chase, “Design Parameters of Paraboloid–Hyperboloid Telescopes for X-Ray Astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 11, 440 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Willingale, R.

Wilski, H.

K.-H. Stephan, H. Brauninger, H. Kaase, H. J. Maier, W. Schone, H. Wilski, “Multilayered Foils as Radiation Entrance Windows and Spectral Filters for Image Converters in the Ultrasoft X-Ray Wavelength Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 379 (1986).

Wyman, C. L.

C. L. Wyman et al., “The AXAF Technology Mirror Program: an Overview,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 2 (1985).

Zombeck, M. V.

M. V. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AX-AF),” Opt. Eng. 20, 297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Kettenring, “Design and Construction of the ROSAT 5 Arcsec Mirror Assembly,” Adv. Space Res. 2, 251 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. J. (1)

I. M. Goia et al., “The Medium Sensitivity Survey: A New Sample of X-Ray Sources with Optical Identifications and the Revised Extragalactic Log N - S,” Astrophys. J. 283, 495 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. Giacconi, B. Rossi, “A Telescope for Soft X-Ray Astronomy,” J. Geophys. Res. 65, 773 (1960)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. V. Zombeck, “Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AX-AF),” Opt. Eng. 20, 297 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (8)

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, P. Predehl, “X-Ray Scattering of Superpolished Flat Mirror Samples,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 187 (1981).

L. Van Speybroeck, “Einstein Observatory (HEAO-B) Mirror Design and Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 2 (1979).

C. L. Wyman et al., “The AXAF Technology Mirror Program: an Overview,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 2 (1985).

K.-H. Stephan, H. Brauninger, H. Kaase, H. J. Maier, W. Schone, H. Wilski, “Multilayered Foils as Radiation Entrance Windows and Spectral Filters for Image Converters in the Ultrasoft X-Ray Wavelength Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 379 (1986).

E. Heynacher, D. Reinhardt, “Measurement Equipment for Testing the Directrix of High-Resolution Wolter-Type Telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 167 (1979).

K.-H. Stephan, P. Predehl, B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, A. Ondrusch, “Soft X-Ray Sources for the Max-Planck-Institut (MPI) Long Beam (130 m) Test Facility,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 203 (1981).

E. Pfeffermann et al., “The Focal Plane Instrumentation of the ROSAT Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 519 (1986).

B. Aschenbach, H. Brauninger, G. Hasinger, J. Trumper, “Measurements of X-Ray Scattering from Wolter Type Telescopes and Various Flat Zerodur Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 257, 223 (1980).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

B. Aschenbach, “X-Ray Telescopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 48, 579 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. P. Henry, “X-Ray Imaging Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei and Quasars,” in X-Ray Astronomy with the Einstein Satellite, R. Giacconi, Ed. (Reidel, Boston, 1981), p. 261.
[CrossRef]

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein Observatory and Future X-Ray Telescopes,” in Telescopes for the 1980s, G. Burbidge, A. Hewitt, Eds. (Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, CA, 1981), p. 195.

J. Trumper, “X-Ray Sky Surveys and the ROSAT Mission,” in Cosmic Radiation in Contemporary Astrophysics, M. M. Shapiro, Ed. (D. Reidel Publ. Comp., 1986), p. 241.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical effective collecting area for the ROSAT x-ray mirror assembly at field angles of 0, 20, 40, 60 min of arc from top to bottom; obstruction from the telescope support structure is included.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical rms blur circle radius for the ROSAT x-ray mirror assembly on an optimally curved focal surface (dashed), the flat Gaussian focal plane (solid), and a flat focal plane shifted by 1 mm toward the mirrors (label a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lowering a ROSAT Zerodur mirror shell into its aluminum support structure prior to grinding and polishing (photo Carl Zeiss).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Complete assembly of the ROSAT mirror verification model with the paraboloid and the hyperboloid mounted below and on top of the center support flange. At the top the exit flange of the hyperboloid can be seen (photo Carl Zeiss).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

View of the entrance aperture of the ROSAT verification x-ray telescope. Note the four entrance annuli of the four paraboloid–hyperboloid mirror pairs (photo Dornier System).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Meridional surface profile of the paraboloid mirror of the ROSAT verification model measured with a stylus instrument at Carl Zeiss. Short scale wiggles are due to measurement noise.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fourier amplitude square spectrum of the mirror profile shown in Fig. 6. Wavenumber 1 corresponds to a spatial surface wavelength of 500 mm. The power for wavenumbers ≳100 is due to measurement noise including the peak at about wavenumber 800.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Noise cleaned profile of the meridional mirror trace shown in Fig. 6, using wavenumbers ≤100 only.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Axial slope error vs axial distance derived from the profile shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average axial slope error integrated over wavenumbers for the meridional profile shown in Fig. 6. The rapid increase for wavenumbers greater than a few hundred is due to measurement noise.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Circumferential surface profile of the ROSAT verification model (out of roundness).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fourier amplitude square spectrum of the mirror profile shown in Fig. 11. Wavenumber 1 corresponds to the full circumference. The power for wavenumbers ≳30 is due to measurement noise.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Average circumferential slope error integrated over wavenumber for the circumferential profile shown in Fig. 11. The rapid increase for wavenumbers ≳100 is due to measurement noise.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Angular scattering distribution of a meridional section of the second outermost ROSAT flight model hyperboloid taken at λ = 13.3 Å. The upper dotted line represents the x-ray flux monitor signal. The lower dotted line shows the scattering wings uncorrected for background events. The rms mirror surface microroughness is σ = 2.1 Å.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Encircled energy function vs image radius for the ROSAT mirror assembly verification model as measured in the MPI 130-m long-beam test facility at x-ray energies of 0.28 and 1.49 keV. The dotted line shows the result of model calculations including the effects of the testing geometry.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

True encircled energy function vs image radius for the ROSAT mirror assembly verification model for an on-axis parallel x-ray beam at 1.49 keV, after unfolding the effects of the testing geometry from the measurement shown in Fig. 15. For comparison the data of the Einstein17 and AXAF TMA18 have been reproduced.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

X-ray image of the Quasar 3C273 simulated by ray tracing using the encircled energy function of the ROSAT verification model telescope including a HRI focal plane detector of 3-sec of arc FWHM angular resolution. Note the high contrast in the image by which the 0.3% bright jet can be clearly seen.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Properties of the ROSAT Flight Mirror Shells

Tables Icon

Table II ROSAT Mirror Metrology and X-Ray Scattering Results

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = 1 exp [ ( 4 π / λ · sin β · σ ) 2 ] ,
sin ϕ = λ d · sin β .

Metrics