Abstract

The major telescopes in this program are the one flown on the Einstein or HEAO-B satellite in 1978 and the one planned for the AXAF which should be launched in late 1995. The x-ray performance of the Einstein mirror is reviewed briefly, and its surface properties are inferred from a combination of its x-ray properties and the information available from the limited fabrication metrology of that era. The improvements necessary for satisfying the AXAF specification are summarized. Much of this technology already has been demonstrated in the TMA program, and this progress is reviewed.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO 2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230 (2, Part 1), 540 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. S. Young, “Fabrication of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly for the HEAO-2 X-Ray Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 131 (1979).
  3. D. P. Mathur, D. R. Adamo, R. C. Bastien, E. A. Strouse, “Optical Coating Techniques for Wolter-Type Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 139 (1979).
  4. L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Design, Fabrication, and Expected Performance of the HEAO-B X-Ray Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 106, 136 (1977).
  5. L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Einstein Observatory (HEAO-B) Mirror Design and Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 2 (1979).
  6. R. A. Jones, N. Geril, “Automated Cylindrical Polishing of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 22 (1981).
  7. P. Glenn, A. Slomba, R. Babish, “Technology Mirror Assembly Mirror Quality Requirements and Achievements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 45 (1986).
  8. A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).
  9. N. A. De Filippis, P. Glenn, R. Cahill, “Assembly and Alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 155 (1986).
  10. D. A. Schwartz et al., “X-Ray Testing of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 10 (1985).
  11. L. P. Van Speybroeck et al., “Correspondence Between AXAF TMA X-Ray Performance and Models Based Upon Mechanical and Visible Light Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 20 (1985).
  12. P. Glenn, P. Reid, A. Slomba, L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Performance Prediction of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly Using Measured Mirror Errors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1539 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1986 (2)

N. A. De Filippis, P. Glenn, R. Cahill, “Assembly and Alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 155 (1986).

P. Glenn, A. Slomba, R. Babish, “Technology Mirror Assembly Mirror Quality Requirements and Achievements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 45 (1986).

1985 (3)

A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).

D. A. Schwartz et al., “X-Ray Testing of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 10 (1985).

L. P. Van Speybroeck et al., “Correspondence Between AXAF TMA X-Ray Performance and Models Based Upon Mechanical and Visible Light Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 20 (1985).

1981 (1)

R. A. Jones, N. Geril, “Automated Cylindrical Polishing of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 22 (1981).

1979 (4)

L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Einstein Observatory (HEAO-B) Mirror Design and Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 2 (1979).

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO 2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230 (2, Part 1), 540 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Young, “Fabrication of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly for the HEAO-2 X-Ray Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 131 (1979).

D. P. Mathur, D. R. Adamo, R. C. Bastien, E. A. Strouse, “Optical Coating Techniques for Wolter-Type Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 139 (1979).

1977 (1)

L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Design, Fabrication, and Expected Performance of the HEAO-B X-Ray Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 106, 136 (1977).

Adamo, D. R.

D. P. Mathur, D. R. Adamo, R. C. Bastien, E. A. Strouse, “Optical Coating Techniques for Wolter-Type Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 139 (1979).

Babish, R.

P. Glenn, A. Slomba, R. Babish, “Technology Mirror Assembly Mirror Quality Requirements and Achievements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 45 (1986).

A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).

Bastien, R. C.

D. P. Mathur, D. R. Adamo, R. C. Bastien, E. A. Strouse, “Optical Coating Techniques for Wolter-Type Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 139 (1979).

Cahill, R.

N. A. De Filippis, P. Glenn, R. Cahill, “Assembly and Alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 155 (1986).

De Filippis, N. A.

N. A. De Filippis, P. Glenn, R. Cahill, “Assembly and Alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 155 (1986).

Geril, N.

R. A. Jones, N. Geril, “Automated Cylindrical Polishing of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 22 (1981).

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO 2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230 (2, Part 1), 540 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, P.

P. Glenn, P. Reid, A. Slomba, L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Performance Prediction of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly Using Measured Mirror Errors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1539 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. De Filippis, P. Glenn, R. Cahill, “Assembly and Alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 155 (1986).

P. Glenn, A. Slomba, R. Babish, “Technology Mirror Assembly Mirror Quality Requirements and Achievements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 45 (1986).

A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).

Jones, R. A.

R. A. Jones, N. Geril, “Automated Cylindrical Polishing of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 22 (1981).

Mathur, D. P.

D. P. Mathur, D. R. Adamo, R. C. Bastien, E. A. Strouse, “Optical Coating Techniques for Wolter-Type Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 139 (1979).

Reid, P.

Schwartz, D. A.

D. A. Schwartz et al., “X-Ray Testing of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 10 (1985).

Slomba, A.

P. Glenn, P. Reid, A. Slomba, L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Performance Prediction of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly Using Measured Mirror Errors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1539 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Glenn, A. Slomba, R. Babish, “Technology Mirror Assembly Mirror Quality Requirements and Achievements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 45 (1986).

A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).

Strouse, E. A.

D. P. Mathur, D. R. Adamo, R. C. Bastien, E. A. Strouse, “Optical Coating Techniques for Wolter-Type Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 139 (1979).

Van Speybroeck, L. P.

P. Glenn, P. Reid, A. Slomba, L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Performance Prediction of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly Using Measured Mirror Errors,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1539 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Van Speybroeck et al., “Correspondence Between AXAF TMA X-Ray Performance and Models Based Upon Mechanical and Visible Light Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 20 (1985).

L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Einstein Observatory (HEAO-B) Mirror Design and Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 2 (1979).

L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Design, Fabrication, and Expected Performance of the HEAO-B X-Ray Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 106, 136 (1977).

Young, P. S.

P. S. Young, “Fabrication of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly for the HEAO-2 X-Ray Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 131 (1979).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO 2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230 (2, Part 1), 540 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (10)

P. S. Young, “Fabrication of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly for the HEAO-2 X-Ray Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 131 (1979).

D. P. Mathur, D. R. Adamo, R. C. Bastien, E. A. Strouse, “Optical Coating Techniques for Wolter-Type Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 139 (1979).

L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Design, Fabrication, and Expected Performance of the HEAO-B X-Ray Telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 106, 136 (1977).

L. P. Van Speybroeck, “Einstein Observatory (HEAO-B) Mirror Design and Performance,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 184, 2 (1979).

R. A. Jones, N. Geril, “Automated Cylindrical Polishing of Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 316, 22 (1981).

P. Glenn, A. Slomba, R. Babish, “Technology Mirror Assembly Mirror Quality Requirements and Achievements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 45 (1986).

A. Slomba, R. Babish, P. Glenn, “Mirror Surface Metrology and Polishing for AXAF/TMA,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 40 (1985).

N. A. De Filippis, P. Glenn, R. Cahill, “Assembly and Alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 640, 155 (1986).

D. A. Schwartz et al., “X-Ray Testing of the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) Mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 10 (1985).

L. P. Van Speybroeck et al., “Correspondence Between AXAF TMA X-Ray Performance and Models Based Upon Mechanical and Visible Light Measurements,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 597, 20 (1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical effective area of the AXAF mirror with three nickel and three gold-coated mirrors is plotted as a function of energy and compared with that of the Einstein (HEAO-B) mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured effective areas of the TMA at 1.49, 2.98, 4.95, and 6.40 keV are plotted against the expected area for a source located at the test distance. The error bars represent possible systematic errors of 10%; the statistical errors are negligible.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TMA angular resolution. One-dimensional scan through the core of the image of 1.49-keV x-rays. The inner Gaussian curve (dashed) is an approximation to the effect of the finite source size. The deduced FWHM or the mirror due to a point source is 0.4 sec of arc. This result essentially is independent of energy (from Schwartz et al.10).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Encircled energy from dust scattering. The integral of the normalized scattering distribution at 1.49 keV calculated for the dust estimated to have been on the TMA during its x-ray test.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power spectral density which characterized a sample of the TMA surface. The curve extending from ~0.002 to 0.5 mm−1 was calculated from fringe scanner data; the curve extending from ~0.1 to 3 mm−1 was calculated from overlapping low horizontal resolution Wyko-scans; the curve extending from ~1.5 to 770 mm−1 was calculated from high horizontal resolution Wyko data. The midfrequency errors at 2.5 and 1.25 mm−1 are quite obvious and dominate the integrated power in their frequency region. The smooth curve is the PSD of the model which was sugggested by the x-ray scattering data.

Tables (5)

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Table I Einstein Mirror Encircled Energy Performance

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Table II Einstein Mirror Critical Parameters

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Table III Expected AXAF Encircled Energy Performance

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Table IV Summary of the Effects of Dust on the TMA Performance

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Table V TMA and AXAF Critical Mirror Parameters

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