Abstract

We present detailed stability measurements on six He–Ne lasers which have been stabilized by matching the intensity of the two orthogonal polarization modes. The frequencies of five different lasers were closely monitored for 1 month. Another laser was studied for 2 yr. All the lasers exhibited a stability of 1 part in 1010 over the periods of about an hour and better than 1 part in 108 over 1 yr. An absolute accuracy of ~1 part in 109 can be attained by interpolating the linear drift between calibrations performed 6 months to 1 yr apart. These 1-mW lasers are rugged and simple to operate.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. M. Niebauer, J. K. Hoskins, J. E. Faller, “Absolute Gravity: a Reconnaisance Tool for Studying Crustal Motions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 9145 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. The model 1003 laser tubes were obtained from the Uniphase Corp., Mountain View, CA; see Ref. 3.
  3. Mention of vendor names and model numbers is for technical communication purposes only and does not necessarily imply recommendation of these units, nor does it imply that comparible units from another vendor would be any less suitable for this application.
  4. R. Balhorn, H. Kunzmann, F. Lebowsky, “Frequency Stabilization of Internal-Mirror Helium-Neon Lasers,” App. Opt. 11, 742 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. The design and construction of these modifications were carried out by R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall.
  6. Model HK5419, Minco Corp., Minneapolis, MN.
  7. A nearly identical laser, model NL-1, is available from Newport Corp.
  8. D. W. Allan, “Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Baer, F. V. Kowalski, J. L. Hall, “Frequency Stabilization of a 0.633-μm He–Ne Longitudinal Zeeman Laser,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3173 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Ohta, J. L. Hall, “Zeeman-Stabilized Laser with Improved Performance,” journal00, 000 (198X), to be published? impress?
  11. M. A. Zumberge, “Frequency Stability of a Zeeman-Stabilized Laser,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1902 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. A. Mikhnenko, E. D. Protsenko, E. A. Sedoi, “Investigation of the 0.63μm Line Shift in a He–Ne20 Laser with an Absorption Cell,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 151 (1972).
  13. Some rather large transient shifts were observed immediately following temperature changes and are not yet well understood.
  14. D. Crane, Uniphase Corp.; private communication.

1986

T. M. Niebauer, J. K. Hoskins, J. E. Faller, “Absolute Gravity: a Reconnaisance Tool for Studying Crustal Motions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 9145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

1980

1972

G. A. Mikhnenko, E. D. Protsenko, E. A. Sedoi, “Investigation of the 0.63μm Line Shift in a He–Ne20 Laser with an Absorption Cell,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 151 (1972).

R. Balhorn, H. Kunzmann, F. Lebowsky, “Frequency Stabilization of Internal-Mirror Helium-Neon Lasers,” App. Opt. 11, 742 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

Balhorn, R.

R. Balhorn, H. Kunzmann, F. Lebowsky, “Frequency Stabilization of Internal-Mirror Helium-Neon Lasers,” App. Opt. 11, 742 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Crane, D.

D. Crane, Uniphase Corp.; private communication.

Faller, J. E.

T. M. Niebauer, J. K. Hoskins, J. E. Faller, “Absolute Gravity: a Reconnaisance Tool for Studying Crustal Motions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 9145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

T. Baer, F. V. Kowalski, J. L. Hall, “Frequency Stabilization of a 0.633-μm He–Ne Longitudinal Zeeman Laser,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3173 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ohta, J. L. Hall, “Zeeman-Stabilized Laser with Improved Performance,” journal00, 000 (198X), to be published? impress?

Hoskins, J. K.

T. M. Niebauer, J. K. Hoskins, J. E. Faller, “Absolute Gravity: a Reconnaisance Tool for Studying Crustal Motions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 9145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

Kunzmann, H.

R. Balhorn, H. Kunzmann, F. Lebowsky, “Frequency Stabilization of Internal-Mirror Helium-Neon Lasers,” App. Opt. 11, 742 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lebowsky, F.

R. Balhorn, H. Kunzmann, F. Lebowsky, “Frequency Stabilization of Internal-Mirror Helium-Neon Lasers,” App. Opt. 11, 742 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mikhnenko, G. A.

G. A. Mikhnenko, E. D. Protsenko, E. A. Sedoi, “Investigation of the 0.63μm Line Shift in a He–Ne20 Laser with an Absorption Cell,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 151 (1972).

Niebauer, T. M.

T. M. Niebauer, J. K. Hoskins, J. E. Faller, “Absolute Gravity: a Reconnaisance Tool for Studying Crustal Motions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 9145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, T.

T. Ohta, J. L. Hall, “Zeeman-Stabilized Laser with Improved Performance,” journal00, 000 (198X), to be published? impress?

Protsenko, E. D.

G. A. Mikhnenko, E. D. Protsenko, E. A. Sedoi, “Investigation of the 0.63μm Line Shift in a He–Ne20 Laser with an Absorption Cell,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 151 (1972).

Sedoi, E. A.

G. A. Mikhnenko, E. D. Protsenko, E. A. Sedoi, “Investigation of the 0.63μm Line Shift in a He–Ne20 Laser with an Absorption Cell,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 151 (1972).

Zumberge, M. A.

App. Opt.

R. Balhorn, H. Kunzmann, F. Lebowsky, “Frequency Stabilization of Internal-Mirror Helium-Neon Lasers,” App. Opt. 11, 742 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. A. Mikhnenko, E. D. Protsenko, E. A. Sedoi, “Investigation of the 0.63μm Line Shift in a He–Ne20 Laser with an Absorption Cell,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 151 (1972).

J. Geophys. Res.

T. M. Niebauer, J. K. Hoskins, J. E. Faller, “Absolute Gravity: a Reconnaisance Tool for Studying Crustal Motions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 9145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Ohta, J. L. Hall, “Zeeman-Stabilized Laser with Improved Performance,” journal00, 000 (198X), to be published? impress?

The model 1003 laser tubes were obtained from the Uniphase Corp., Mountain View, CA; see Ref. 3.

Mention of vendor names and model numbers is for technical communication purposes only and does not necessarily imply recommendation of these units, nor does it imply that comparible units from another vendor would be any less suitable for this application.

The design and construction of these modifications were carried out by R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall.

Model HK5419, Minco Corp., Minneapolis, MN.

A nearly identical laser, model NL-1, is available from Newport Corp.

Some rather large transient shifts were observed immediately following temperature changes and are not yet well understood.

D. Crane, Uniphase Corp.; private communication.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Allan variance plot for a typical side lock. Measurements taken every 4 s.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

One-month study of five different polarization-stabilized lasers. Circles, squares, and triangles represent the blue side locks, red side locks, and the center frequency, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Center frequency drift of the five lasers shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-year record of a polarization-stabilized laser which has been used extensively in the field. Circles, squares, and triangles denote the blue side lock, red side lock, and center frequency, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Trends (MHz/yr)

Tables Icon

Table II Frequencies Relative to the j Iodine Line

Metrics