Abstract

Flow cytometric measurements of light scatter, near-forward light scatter (θ = 1.5–19°) and side scatter (θ = 73–107°), from individual marine particles is modeled using Mie theory. Particles are assumed to be homogeneous and nearly spherical in shape. Uniform polystyrene microspheres and oil suspensions are used to estimate model accuracy. Within the particle diameter range of 1–32 μm, the mean error for near-forward scatter and side scatter is 16.9% and 30.1%, respectively. The model is used to estimate size and refractive index of several nannoplankton species and the results are compared with microscopic measurements of cell size and published values of phytoplankton refractive index. Within the refractive-index range of 1.01–1.1, the model may be inverted to yield refractive index with an absolute error of between 0.01 and 0.003. Measurements of particle size distributions in clear ocean water indicate this range accounts for 99% of all nannoplankton and 39% of all particles within the size range from 1 to 10 μm.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Under Water (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970).
  2. T. J. Petzold, “Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters,” SIO Ref. 72–78 (1972).
  3. A. Morel, “Measurements of Spectral and Total Radiant Flux,” in SCOR-UNESCO Data Report Discoverer Expedition, J. E. Tyler, Ed., SIO Ref. 73–16:Fl (1973).
  4. A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Pak, G. F. Beardsley, P. K. Pak, “The Columbia River as a Source of Marine Light Scattering Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4570 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution of Oceanic Particulates,” J. Goeophys. Res. 79, 4091 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, “Reflectance Spectroscopy of Marine Phytoplankton. Part 1. Optical Properties as Related to Age and Growth Rate,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Spinrad, C. M. Yentsch, “Observations on the Intra-and Interspecific Single Cell Optical Variability of Marine Phytoplankton,” Appl. Opt. 26, 357 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. M. Yentsch et al., “Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting: a Technique for Analysis and Sorting of Aquatic Particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine Phytoplankton Distributions Measured Using Shipboard Flow Cytometry,” Deep See Res. 32, 1273 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. K. Sharpless, M. Bartholdi, M. R. Melamed, “Size and Refractive Index Dependence of Simple Forward Angle Scattering Measurements in a Flow System Using Sharply-Focused Illumination,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 25, 845 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The Application of Perpendicular and Forward Light Scatter to Assess Nuclear and Cellular Morphology,” Cytometry 5, 515 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. W. Spinrad, “Flow Cytometric Analysis of the Optical Characteristics of Marine Particulates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 489, 335 (1984).
  15. H. W. Schrader, W. G. Eisert, “High Resolution Particle Sizing Using the Combination of Time-of-Flight and Light-Scattering Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4396 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. J. Trask, G. J. van den Engh, J. H. B. W. Elgershuizen, “Analysis of Phytoplankton by Flow Cytometry,” Cytometry 2, 258 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. W. Spinrad, J. F. Brown, “Relative Real Refractive Index of Marine Microorganisms: a Technique for Flow Cytometric Estimation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1930 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. H. Tycko, M. H. Metz, E. A. Epstein, A. Grinbaum, “Flow-Cytometric Light Scattering Measurement of Red Blood Cell Volume and Hemoglobin Concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1355 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. G. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  20. J. V. Dave, “Subroutines for Computing the Parameters of the Electromagnetic Radiation Scattered by a Sphere,” IBM Palo Alto Scientific Center, Publication 320–3237 (1968).
  21. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1957).
  22. J-P. Chevaillier, J. Fabre, P. Hamelin, “Forward Scattered Light Intensities by a Sphere Located Anywhere in a Gaussian Beam,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1222 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. C. Weast, Ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, OH, 1975).
  24. R. R. L. Guillard, J. H. Rythe, “Studies on Marine Planktonic Diatoms I. Cyclotella nana Hustedt and Detonula confervacae (cleve) Gran,” Can. J. Microbiol. 8, 229 (1962).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. O. B. Brown, H. R. Gordon, “Size—Refractive Index Distribution of Clear Coastal Water Particulates from Light Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2874 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Jonasz, H. Prandke, “Comparison of Measured and Computed Light Scattering in the Baltic,” Tellus 13B, 144 (1986).
  27. A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical Results Concerning Light Absorption in a Discrete Medium, and Application to Absorption of Phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. 28, 1375 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical Efficiency Factors of Some Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, New York, 1976).
  30. I. A. Schafer, A. M. Jamieson, M. Petrelli, B. J. Price, G. C. Salzman, “Multiangle Light Scattering Flow Photometry of Cultured Human Fibroblasts: Comparison of Normal Cells with a Mutant Line Containing Cytoplasmic Inclusions,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24, 359 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of Light by Sargasso Sea Water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

1987 (1)

1986 (4)

1985 (2)

D. H. Tycko, M. H. Metz, E. A. Epstein, A. Grinbaum, “Flow-Cytometric Light Scattering Measurement of Red Blood Cell Volume and Hemoglobin Concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1355 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine Phytoplankton Distributions Measured Using Shipboard Flow Cytometry,” Deep See Res. 32, 1273 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

M. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The Application of Perpendicular and Forward Light Scatter to Assess Nuclear and Cellular Morphology,” Cytometry 5, 515 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Spinrad, “Flow Cytometric Analysis of the Optical Characteristics of Marine Particulates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 489, 335 (1984).

1983 (2)

C. M. Yentsch et al., “Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting: a Technique for Analysis and Sorting of Aquatic Particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical Efficiency Factors of Some Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

B. J. Trask, G. J. van den Engh, J. H. B. W. Elgershuizen, “Analysis of Phytoplankton by Flow Cytometry,” Cytometry 2, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical Results Concerning Light Absorption in a Discrete Medium, and Application to Absorption of Phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. 28, 1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, “Reflectance Spectroscopy of Marine Phytoplankton. Part 1. Optical Properties as Related to Age and Growth Rate,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Schafer, A. M. Jamieson, M. Petrelli, B. J. Price, G. C. Salzman, “Multiangle Light Scattering Flow Photometry of Cultured Human Fibroblasts: Comparison of Normal Cells with a Mutant Line Containing Cytoplasmic Inclusions,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24, 359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

T. K. Sharpless, M. Bartholdi, M. R. Melamed, “Size and Refractive Index Dependence of Simple Forward Angle Scattering Measurements in a Flow System Using Sharply-Focused Illumination,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 25, 845 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution of Oceanic Particulates,” J. Goeophys. Res. 79, 4091 (1974).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Brown, H. R. Gordon, “Size—Refractive Index Distribution of Clear Coastal Water Particulates from Light Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2874 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. Pak, G. F. Beardsley, P. K. Pak, “The Columbia River as a Source of Marine Light Scattering Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4570 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of Light by Sargasso Sea Water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

1962 (1)

R. R. L. Guillard, J. H. Rythe, “Studies on Marine Planktonic Diatoms I. Cyclotella nana Hustedt and Detonula confervacae (cleve) Gran,” Can. J. Microbiol. 8, 229 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartholdi, M.

T. K. Sharpless, M. Bartholdi, M. R. Melamed, “Size and Refractive Index Dependence of Simple Forward Angle Scattering Measurements in a Flow System Using Sharply-Focused Illumination,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 25, 845 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beardsley, G. F.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Pak, G. F. Beardsley, P. K. Pak, “The Columbia River as a Source of Marine Light Scattering Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4570 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Benson, M. C.

M. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The Application of Perpendicular and Forward Light Scatter to Assess Nuclear and Cellular Morphology,” Cytometry 5, 515 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohren, C. G.

C. G. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical Efficiency Factors of Some Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical Results Concerning Light Absorption in a Discrete Medium, and Application to Absorption of Phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. 28, 1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. F.

Brown, O. B.

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chevaillier, J-P.

Chisholm, S. W.

R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine Phytoplankton Distributions Measured Using Shipboard Flow Cytometry,” Deep See Res. 32, 1273 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, D. S.

M. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The Application of Perpendicular and Forward Light Scatter to Assess Nuclear and Cellular Morphology,” Cytometry 5, 515 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dave, J. V.

J. V. Dave, “Subroutines for Computing the Parameters of the Electromagnetic Radiation Scattered by a Sphere,” IBM Palo Alto Scientific Center, Publication 320–3237 (1968).

Eisert, W. G.

Elgershuizen, J. H. B. W.

B. J. Trask, G. J. van den Engh, J. H. B. W. Elgershuizen, “Analysis of Phytoplankton by Flow Cytometry,” Cytometry 2, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epstein, E. A.

Fabre, J.

Gordon, H. R.

Grinbaum, A.

Guillard, R. R. L.

R. R. L. Guillard, J. H. Rythe, “Studies on Marine Planktonic Diatoms I. Cyclotella nana Hustedt and Detonula confervacae (cleve) Gran,” Can. J. Microbiol. 8, 229 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamelin, P.

Huffman, D. R.

C. G. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Jamieson, A. M.

I. A. Schafer, A. M. Jamieson, M. Petrelli, B. J. Price, G. C. Salzman, “Multiangle Light Scattering Flow Photometry of Cultured Human Fibroblasts: Comparison of Normal Cells with a Mutant Line Containing Cytoplasmic Inclusions,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24, 359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, New York, 1976).

Jonasz, M.

M. Jonasz, H. Prandke, “Comparison of Measured and Computed Light Scattering in the Baltic,” Tellus 13B, 144 (1986).

Kiefer, D. A.

D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, “Reflectance Spectroscopy of Marine Phytoplankton. Part 1. Optical Properties as Related to Age and Growth Rate,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kullenberg, G.

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of Light by Sargasso Sea Water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

McDougal, D. C.

M. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The Application of Perpendicular and Forward Light Scatter to Assess Nuclear and Cellular Morphology,” Cytometry 5, 515 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melamed, M. R.

T. K. Sharpless, M. Bartholdi, M. R. Melamed, “Size and Refractive Index Dependence of Simple Forward Angle Scattering Measurements in a Flow System Using Sharply-Focused Illumination,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 25, 845 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metz, M. H.

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical Efficiency Factors of Some Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical Results Concerning Light Absorption in a Discrete Medium, and Application to Absorption of Phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. 28, 1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Measurements of Spectral and Total Radiant Flux,” in SCOR-UNESCO Data Report Discoverer Expedition, J. E. Tyler, Ed., SIO Ref. 73–16:Fl (1973).

Olson, R. J.

R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine Phytoplankton Distributions Measured Using Shipboard Flow Cytometry,” Deep See Res. 32, 1273 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, “Reflectance Spectroscopy of Marine Phytoplankton. Part 1. Optical Properties as Related to Age and Growth Rate,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pak, H.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution of Oceanic Particulates,” J. Goeophys. Res. 79, 4091 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. Pak, G. F. Beardsley, P. K. Pak, “The Columbia River as a Source of Marine Light Scattering Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4570 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pak, P. K.

H. Pak, G. F. Beardsley, P. K. Pak, “The Columbia River as a Source of Marine Light Scattering Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4570 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Petrelli, M.

I. A. Schafer, A. M. Jamieson, M. Petrelli, B. J. Price, G. C. Salzman, “Multiangle Light Scattering Flow Photometry of Cultured Human Fibroblasts: Comparison of Normal Cells with a Mutant Line Containing Cytoplasmic Inclusions,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24, 359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters,” SIO Ref. 72–78 (1972).

Prandke, H.

M. Jonasz, H. Prandke, “Comparison of Measured and Computed Light Scattering in the Baltic,” Tellus 13B, 144 (1986).

Price, B. J.

I. A. Schafer, A. M. Jamieson, M. Petrelli, B. J. Price, G. C. Salzman, “Multiangle Light Scattering Flow Photometry of Cultured Human Fibroblasts: Comparison of Normal Cells with a Mutant Line Containing Cytoplasmic Inclusions,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24, 359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical Efficiency Factors of Some Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Roach, D. M.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution of Oceanic Particulates,” J. Goeophys. Res. 79, 4091 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rythe, J. H.

R. R. L. Guillard, J. H. Rythe, “Studies on Marine Planktonic Diatoms I. Cyclotella nana Hustedt and Detonula confervacae (cleve) Gran,” Can. J. Microbiol. 8, 229 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salzman, G. C.

I. A. Schafer, A. M. Jamieson, M. Petrelli, B. J. Price, G. C. Salzman, “Multiangle Light Scattering Flow Photometry of Cultured Human Fibroblasts: Comparison of Normal Cells with a Mutant Line Containing Cytoplasmic Inclusions,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24, 359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, I. A.

I. A. Schafer, A. M. Jamieson, M. Petrelli, B. J. Price, G. C. Salzman, “Multiangle Light Scattering Flow Photometry of Cultured Human Fibroblasts: Comparison of Normal Cells with a Mutant Line Containing Cytoplasmic Inclusions,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24, 359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schrader, H. W.

Sharpless, T. K.

T. K. Sharpless, M. Bartholdi, M. R. Melamed, “Size and Refractive Index Dependence of Simple Forward Angle Scattering Measurements in a Flow System Using Sharply-Focused Illumination,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 25, 845 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. C.

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Under Water (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970).

Spinrad, R. W.

Tomlinson, R. D.

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Trask, B. J.

B. J. Trask, G. J. van den Engh, J. H. B. W. Elgershuizen, “Analysis of Phytoplankton by Flow Cytometry,” Cytometry 2, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tycko, D. H.

Tyler, J. E.

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Under Water (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1957).

van den Engh, G. J.

B. J. Trask, G. J. van den Engh, J. H. B. W. Elgershuizen, “Analysis of Phytoplankton by Flow Cytometry,” Cytometry 2, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaulot, D.

R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine Phytoplankton Distributions Measured Using Shipboard Flow Cytometry,” Deep See Res. 32, 1273 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, W. H.

D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, “Reflectance Spectroscopy of Marine Phytoplankton. Part 1. Optical Properties as Related to Age and Growth Rate,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yentsch, C. M.

R. W. Spinrad, C. M. Yentsch, “Observations on the Intra-and Interspecific Single Cell Optical Variability of Marine Phytoplankton,” Appl. Opt. 26, 357 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Yentsch et al., “Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting: a Technique for Analysis and Sorting of Aquatic Particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution of Oceanic Particulates,” J. Goeophys. Res. 79, 4091 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Can. J. Microbiol. (1)

R. R. L. Guillard, J. H. Rythe, “Studies on Marine Planktonic Diatoms I. Cyclotella nana Hustedt and Detonula confervacae (cleve) Gran,” Can. J. Microbiol. 8, 229 (1962).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cytometry (2)

B. J. Trask, G. J. van den Engh, J. H. B. W. Elgershuizen, “Analysis of Phytoplankton by Flow Cytometry,” Cytometry 2, 258 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Benson, D. C. McDougal, D. S. Coffey, “The Application of Perpendicular and Forward Light Scatter to Assess Nuclear and Cellular Morphology,” Cytometry 5, 515 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep Sea Res. (2)

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, “Theoretical Results Concerning Light Absorption in a Discrete Medium, and Application to Absorption of Phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. 28, 1375 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of Light by Sargasso Sea Water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

Deep See Res. (1)

R. J. Olson, D. Vaulot, S. W. Chisholm, “Marine Phytoplankton Distributions Measured Using Shipboard Flow Cytometry,” Deep See Res. 32, 1273 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

H. Pak, G. F. Beardsley, P. K. Pak, “The Columbia River as a Source of Marine Light Scattering Particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4570 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Goeophys. Res. (1)

J. R. V. Zaneveld, D. M. Roach, H. Pak, “The Determination of the Index of Refraction Distribution of Oceanic Particulates,” J. Goeophys. Res. 79, 4091 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2)

T. K. Sharpless, M. Bartholdi, M. R. Melamed, “Size and Refractive Index Dependence of Simple Forward Angle Scattering Measurements in a Flow System Using Sharply-Focused Illumination,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 25, 845 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Schafer, A. M. Jamieson, M. Petrelli, B. J. Price, G. C. Salzman, “Multiangle Light Scattering Flow Photometry of Cultured Human Fibroblasts: Comparison of Normal Cells with a Mutant Line Containing Cytoplasmic Inclusions,” J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24, 359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (5)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Optical Efficiency Factors of Some Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, “Reflectance Spectroscopy of Marine Phytoplankton. Part 1. Optical Properties as Related to Age and Growth Rate,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Yentsch et al., “Flow Cytometry and Cell Sorting: a Technique for Analysis and Sorting of Aquatic Particles,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 1275 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. D. Tomlinson, G. F. Beardsley, “A Technique for the Estimation of Indices of Refraction of Marine Phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 833 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

R. W. Spinrad, “Flow Cytometric Analysis of the Optical Characteristics of Marine Particulates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 489, 335 (1984).

Tellus (1)

M. Jonasz, H. Prandke, “Comparison of Measured and Computed Light Scattering in the Baltic,” Tellus 13B, 144 (1986).

Other (8)

R. C. Weast, Ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, OH, 1975).

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, New York, 1976).

C. G. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

J. V. Dave, “Subroutines for Computing the Parameters of the Electromagnetic Radiation Scattered by a Sphere,” IBM Palo Alto Scientific Center, Publication 320–3237 (1968).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1957).

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance Under Water (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970).

T. J. Petzold, “Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters,” SIO Ref. 72–78 (1972).

A. Morel, “Measurements of Spectral and Total Radiant Flux,” in SCOR-UNESCO Data Report Discoverer Expedition, J. E. Tyler, Ed., SIO Ref. 73–16:Fl (1973).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coulter EPICS V flow cytometer measures single-particle near-forward light scatter (θS3 = 1.5–19°) and side scatter (θS4 = 73–107°). Individual particles are injected into a fluid stream and illuminated at right angles with an argon-ion laser beam operating at 514 nm. Light scatter from the air–stream interface is blocked by positioning an obscuration bar across the entrance to each detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of measured (data points) and predicted (solid lines) differential scattering cross section from polystyrene particles measured by the Coulter EPICS V flow cytometer. The upper curve is near-forward angle light scatter (θS3 = 1.5–19°) and the lower curve is side scatter (θS4 = 73–107°). Bars indicate the 90% confidence interval for each measurement where the number of observations is 10,000.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flow cytometric measurements of differential scattering cross section from three oil suspensions: heptane (H, n′ = 1.0435); nonane (N, n′ = 1.0567); and dodecane (D, n′ = 1.0689). The background grid represents Mie scatter computations where solid lines indicate constant refractive index (n + 0i) and dashed lines indicate constant droplet size.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flow cytometric measurements of differential scattering cross section from three species of phytoplankton, Emiliania huxleyi (BT6), Thalassiosira pseudonana (3H), and Dunaliella tertiolecta (DUN). The background grid represents Mie scatter computations where solid lines indicate constant refractive index (n′ + 0.01i) and dashed lines indicate constant cell size.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microphotographs of three species of phytoplankton, Emiliania huxleyi (BT6;A), Thalassiosira pseudonana (3H;B), and Dunaliella tertiolecta (DUN;C).

Tables (4)

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Table I Uniform Polystyrene Microspheres

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Table II Refractive Index of Hydrocarbon Dispersions

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Table III Percentage of Sargasso Sea Particles Included Within the Mie Scattering Model Singularity Range: D = 1–10 μm and n′ = 1.01–1.1

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Table IV Flow Cytometric Estimations of Cell Refractive Index and Size for Emiliania huxleyi (BT6), Thalassiosira pseudonana (3H), and Dunaliella tertiolecta (DUN)

Equations (6)

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S ( i ) p = X ( i ) I ( i ) p G ( i ) p ( d C sca / d Ω i ) p ,
S ( i ) r = X ( i ) I ( i ) r G ( i ) r ( d C sca / d Ω i ) r ,
( d C sca / d Ω i ) p = S ( i ) p I ( i ) r G ( i ) r S ( i ) r I ( i ) p G ( i ) p ( d C sca / d Ω i ) r .
d C sca / d Ω s 3 = θ = 1 . 5 ° 19 ° W ( θ ) d C sca / d Ω ,
d C sca / d Ω s 4 = θ = 73 ° 107 ° W ( θ ) d C sca / d Ω .
f ( D ) 1 . 05 = 4 × 10 3 D 3 . 65 , f ( D ) 1 . 075 = 2 × 10 3 D 4 , f ( D ) 1 . 15 = 7 × 10 3 D 3 . 67 ,

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