Abstract

A high resolution spectrometer has been developed for studies of minor constituents in the middle atmosphere at ultraviolet wavelengths. In particular, the instrument is intended for observations of upper stratospheric UV bands. The spectrometer has a slit width of 0.08 Å obtained by means of an echelle grating and a cross-disperser grating. The image plane detector is an intensified charge coupled device consisting of a high gain proximity focused image intensifier that is fiber optically coupled to a 2-D CCD array. An instantaneous bandwidth of 9.2 Å is resolved across 488 pixels at 0.018 Å/pixel, permitting simultaneous acquisition of multiple lines of selected OH bands and the neighboring background. The spectrometer and the approach have been successfully demonstrated as a technique for measuring the concentration of OH on two high altitude balloon flights. We report the instrument design and its achieved performance.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “Spectroscopic Measurements of the Vertical Column Abundance of Hydroxyl (OH) in the Earth’s Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5185 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “Observational Results on the Vertical Column Abundance of Atmospheric Hydroxyl: Description of its Seasonal Behavior 1977–1982 and of the 1982 El Chichon Perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9603 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. G. Anderson, “The Absolute Concentration of OH(X2π) in the Earth’s Stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 165 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. S. Heaps, T. J. McGee, “Progress in Stratospheric Hydroxyl Measurement by Balloon-Borne LIDAR,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 7913 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, W. Swift, J. Fennelly, G. Liu, “Measurements of OH(X2π) in the Stratosphere by High Resolution UV Spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 937 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. E. Bennett, “Scattering Characteristics of Optical Materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. R. Torr, J. Devlin, “Intensified Charge Coupled Devices for use as a Spaceborne Spectrographic Image-Plane Detector System,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3091 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. R. Torr, D. G. Torr, R. Baum, R. Spielmaker, “Intensified-CCD Focal Plane Detector for Space Applications: A Second Generation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2768 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, W. Swift, J. Fennelly, G. Liu, “Measurements of OH(X2π) in the Stratosphere by High Resolution UV Spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 937 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

W. S. Heaps, T. J. McGee, “Progress in Stratospheric Hydroxyl Measurement by Balloon-Borne LIDAR,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 7913 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “Observational Results on the Vertical Column Abundance of Atmospheric Hydroxyl: Description of its Seasonal Behavior 1977–1982 and of the 1982 El Chichon Perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9603 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

1981

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “Spectroscopic Measurements of the Vertical Column Abundance of Hydroxyl (OH) in the Earth’s Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5185 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering Characteristics of Optical Materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. G. Anderson, “The Absolute Concentration of OH(X2π) in the Earth’s Stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 165 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. G.

J. G. Anderson, “The Absolute Concentration of OH(X2π) in the Earth’s Stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 165 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Baum, R.

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering Characteristics of Optical Materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, C. R.

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “Observational Results on the Vertical Column Abundance of Atmospheric Hydroxyl: Description of its Seasonal Behavior 1977–1982 and of the 1982 El Chichon Perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9603 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “Spectroscopic Measurements of the Vertical Column Abundance of Hydroxyl (OH) in the Earth’s Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5185 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, E. B.

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “Observational Results on the Vertical Column Abundance of Atmospheric Hydroxyl: Description of its Seasonal Behavior 1977–1982 and of the 1982 El Chichon Perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9603 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “Spectroscopic Measurements of the Vertical Column Abundance of Hydroxyl (OH) in the Earth’s Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5185 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Devlin, J.

Fennelly, J.

D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, W. Swift, J. Fennelly, G. Liu, “Measurements of OH(X2π) in the Stratosphere by High Resolution UV Spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 937 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Heaps, W. S.

W. S. Heaps, T. J. McGee, “Progress in Stratospheric Hydroxyl Measurement by Balloon-Borne LIDAR,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 7913 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, W. Swift, J. Fennelly, G. Liu, “Measurements of OH(X2π) in the Stratosphere by High Resolution UV Spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 937 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McGee, T. J.

W. S. Heaps, T. J. McGee, “Progress in Stratospheric Hydroxyl Measurement by Balloon-Borne LIDAR,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 7913 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Spielmaker, R.

Swift, W.

D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, W. Swift, J. Fennelly, G. Liu, “Measurements of OH(X2π) in the Stratosphere by High Resolution UV Spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 937 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Torr, D. G.

D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, W. Swift, J. Fennelly, G. Liu, “Measurements of OH(X2π) in the Stratosphere by High Resolution UV Spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 937 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Torr, D. G. Torr, R. Baum, R. Spielmaker, “Intensified-CCD Focal Plane Detector for Space Applications: A Second Generation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2768 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torr, M. R.

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

D. G. Torr, M. R. Torr, W. Swift, J. Fennelly, G. Liu, “Measurements of OH(X2π) in the Stratosphere by High Resolution UV Spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 937 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Anderson, “The Absolute Concentration of OH(X2π) in the Earth’s Stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 165 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

W. S. Heaps, T. J. McGee, “Progress in Stratospheric Hydroxyl Measurement by Balloon-Borne LIDAR,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 7913 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “Spectroscopic Measurements of the Vertical Column Abundance of Hydroxyl (OH) in the Earth’s Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5185 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, “Observational Results on the Vertical Column Abundance of Atmospheric Hydroxyl: Description of its Seasonal Behavior 1977–1982 and of the 1982 El Chichon Perturbation,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9603 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

H. E. Bennett, “Scattering Characteristics of Optical Materials,” Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Resonance fluorescence scattering of sunlight by OH.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of echelle cross-disperser optical configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spot diagram at edge of detector of rays (a) passing through the center of the entrance slit; (b) passing through the end of the slit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical system layout showing the view perpendicular and parallel to the optical bench and cross section of the optical beam at various points in the optical path.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Echellogram near 3080 Å with adjacent orders. The rectangular outline shows the image area. The smaller parallel slit is for the built-in tantalum line source.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of what is meant by (a) symmetric and (b) unsymmetric off-axis parabolic mirror systems.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

System analyzed to compare symmetric and unsymmetric parabolic mirror systems.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Percent energy within a given slit width for the symmetric and unsymmetric systems.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sensitivity of the apparent intensity of the feature to the location within the predisperser bandpass.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

ISUS in the pressurized cylindrical container.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

ISUS instrument in the thermal blanket and gondola suspended from the launch vehicle.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectral response of the instrument to the laboratory line source.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

An example of the brightest OH resonance fluorescence spectrum measured at 40-km altitude viewing at 5° above the horizontal. Shown superimposed is the Rayleigh scattered background derived from a measured reference spectrum. The extracted OH signal is also shown. These spectra have been processed to remove the effects of a relative thermally induced drift between the OH spectrum and the reference. Also a contaminating signal of electronic origin has been filtered out. The residual noise is Poisson and is not visible on the scale shown; (from Ref. 5).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Measured OH intensity profiles as a function of scan angle (from Ref. 5).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Hydroxyl concentration profiles inferred from Fig. 14 (from Ref. 5).

Tables (2)

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Table I Summary of Key Optics Parameters

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Table II Energy Distribution—Knife-Edge Test and Expanding Slit in Spectral Direction

Equations (1)

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λ Δ λ = 2 f tan β 0 s ,

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