Abstract

Two camera/photometers were included as part of the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor on STS-2, -3, -4, and -9 orbital missions to record photographically Shuttle-induced particulate and background contamination. The cameras collected stereoscopic data continuously during the on-orbit phases of these missions making exposures every 150 s. The results recorded throughout a 32° field-of-view indicate high particle concentrations during early mission operations. These decay to a quiescent rate of 500 particles of >10-μm radius observed per orbit. Preliminary size and velocity distributions of measured particles are presented as are measurements of background brightness due to unresolved particles in the visible spectral region.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. P. Simpson, F. C. Witteborn, “Effect of the Shuttle Contaminant Environment on a Sensitive Infrared Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2051 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. N. Newkirk, “The Optical Environment of Manned Spacecraft,” Planet. Space Sci. 15, 1267 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. S. Kovar, R. P. Kovar, G. P. Bonner, “Light Scattering by Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres,” Planet. Space Sci., 17, 143 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. D. Grobman, C. Buffalano, “New Conclusions Concerning the Observation of Faint Sources from a Sunlit Spacecraft,” Planet. Space Sci. 17, 1089 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. J. Naumann, “Apollo 15 Contamination Photography,” NASA TMX-64681 (1972).
  6. R. J. Naumann, “Results of the Induced Atmosphere Measurements from the Apollo Program,” NASA TND-7854 (1974).
  7. J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Halm, “The Optical Environment of Skylab, Mission SL-2,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337, 1974).
  8. D. W. Schuerman, J. L. Weinberg, “Preliminary Study of Contaminant Particulates Around Skylab,” NASA Contract., Rep. 2759 (1976).
  9. R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. W. Schuerman, D. E. Beeson, F. Giovane, “Coronagraphic Technique to Infer the Nature of the Skylab Particulate Environment,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1591 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. W. Schuerman, “Skylab Contamination Results, SO52 Particle Analysis and TO25 Analysis, Final Report,” Contract NAS8-32485 (1977).
  12. “Payload Contamination Control Requirement for Shuttle Transportation System (STS) Induced Environment,” STS Payload Contamination Requirements Definition Group Report, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (1975).
  13. C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone, London, 1973), p. 134.
  14. E. R. Miller, R. Decher, “An Induced Environment Contamination Monitor for the Space Shuttle,” NASA Tech., Memo. 78193 (1978).
  15. K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Monitoring of Particulate Contamination and Background Brightness from IECM Based Instrumentation,” in Proceedings, Tenth Space Simulation Conference, Bethesda, MD (AIAA, New York, 1978), p 55.
  16. R. C. Jones, “On the Quantum Efficiency of Photographic Negatives,” Photo. Sci. Eng. 2, 57 (1958).
  17. D. G. Falconer, “Noise and Distortion in Photographic Data Storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 521 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in STS-2 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM)-Quick-Look Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82457 (1982), p. 63.
  19. K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Camera/Photometers,” in “STS-3 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM)-Quick-Look Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82489 (1982), p. 33.
  20. K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Camera/Photometer Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 338, 30 (1982).
  21. J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in “STS-2, -3, -4 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM) Summary Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82524 (1983), p. 77.
  22. H. K. F. Ehlers, S. Jacobs, L. J. Leger, “Space Shuttle Contamination Measurements from Flights STS-1 Through STS-4,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 21, 301 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. D. Green, “The Particle Environment On-Orbit: Observations, Calculations, and Implications,” accepted for publication in Adv. Space Res. (1987).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in “Induced Environment Contamination Monitor-Preliminary Results from the Spacelab 1 Flight,” NASA Tech., Memo. 86461 (1984), p. 32.
  25. R. J. Naumann, “Contamination Assessment and Control in Scientific Satellites,” NASA Tech. Note D-7433 (1973), p. 23.
  26. J. J. Scialdone, “Particulate Contaminant Relocation During Shuttle Ascent,” NASA Tech., Memo. 87794 (1986).

1984 (2)

R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
[Crossref]

H. K. F. Ehlers, S. Jacobs, L. J. Leger, “Space Shuttle Contamination Measurements from Flights STS-1 Through STS-4,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 21, 301 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Camera/Photometer Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 338, 30 (1982).

1977 (2)

1974 (1)

J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Halm, “The Optical Environment of Skylab, Mission SL-2,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337, 1974).

1970 (1)

D. G. Falconer, “Noise and Distortion in Photographic Data Storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 521 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (2)

N. S. Kovar, R. P. Kovar, G. P. Bonner, “Light Scattering by Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres,” Planet. Space Sci., 17, 143 (1969).
[Crossref]

W. D. Grobman, C. Buffalano, “New Conclusions Concerning the Observation of Faint Sources from a Sunlit Spacecraft,” Planet. Space Sci. 17, 1089 (1969).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

G. N. Newkirk, “The Optical Environment of Manned Spacecraft,” Planet. Space Sci. 15, 1267 (1967).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

R. C. Jones, “On the Quantum Efficiency of Photographic Negatives,” Photo. Sci. Eng. 2, 57 (1958).

Allen, C. W.

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone, London, 1973), p. 134.

Beeson, D. E.

Bonner, G. P.

N. S. Kovar, R. P. Kovar, G. P. Bonner, “Light Scattering by Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres,” Planet. Space Sci., 17, 143 (1969).
[Crossref]

Buffalano, C.

W. D. Grobman, C. Buffalano, “New Conclusions Concerning the Observation of Faint Sources from a Sunlit Spacecraft,” Planet. Space Sci. 17, 1089 (1969).
[Crossref]

Clifton, K. S.

K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Camera/Photometer Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 338, 30 (1982).

J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in STS-2 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM)-Quick-Look Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82457 (1982), p. 63.

K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Camera/Photometers,” in “STS-3 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM)-Quick-Look Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82489 (1982), p. 33.

J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in “STS-2, -3, -4 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM) Summary Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82524 (1983), p. 77.

J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in “Induced Environment Contamination Monitor-Preliminary Results from the Spacelab 1 Flight,” NASA Tech., Memo. 86461 (1984), p. 32.

K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Monitoring of Particulate Contamination and Background Brightness from IECM Based Instrumentation,” in Proceedings, Tenth Space Simulation Conference, Bethesda, MD (AIAA, New York, 1978), p 55.

Decher, R.

E. R. Miller, R. Decher, “An Induced Environment Contamination Monitor for the Space Shuttle,” NASA Tech., Memo. 78193 (1978).

Eddy, J. A.

R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ehlers, H. K. F.

H. K. F. Ehlers, S. Jacobs, L. J. Leger, “Space Shuttle Contamination Measurements from Flights STS-1 Through STS-4,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 21, 301 (1984).
[Crossref]

Falconer, D. G.

D. G. Falconer, “Noise and Distortion in Photographic Data Storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 521 (1970).
[Crossref]

Giovane, F.

Gosling, J. T.

R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
[Crossref]

Green, B. D.

B. D. Green, “The Particle Environment On-Orbit: Observations, Calculations, and Implications,” accepted for publication in Adv. Space Res. (1987).
[Crossref]

Grobman, W. D.

W. D. Grobman, C. Buffalano, “New Conclusions Concerning the Observation of Faint Sources from a Sunlit Spacecraft,” Planet. Space Sci. 17, 1089 (1969).
[Crossref]

Halm, R. C.

J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Halm, “The Optical Environment of Skylab, Mission SL-2,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337, 1974).

Hildner, E.

R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, S.

H. K. F. Ehlers, S. Jacobs, L. J. Leger, “Space Shuttle Contamination Measurements from Flights STS-1 Through STS-4,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 21, 301 (1984).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. C.

R. C. Jones, “On the Quantum Efficiency of Photographic Negatives,” Photo. Sci. Eng. 2, 57 (1958).

Kovar, N. S.

N. S. Kovar, R. P. Kovar, G. P. Bonner, “Light Scattering by Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres,” Planet. Space Sci., 17, 143 (1969).
[Crossref]

Kovar, R. P.

N. S. Kovar, R. P. Kovar, G. P. Bonner, “Light Scattering by Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres,” Planet. Space Sci., 17, 143 (1969).
[Crossref]

Leger, L. J.

H. K. F. Ehlers, S. Jacobs, L. J. Leger, “Space Shuttle Contamination Measurements from Flights STS-1 Through STS-4,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 21, 301 (1984).
[Crossref]

MacQueen, R. M.

R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mercer, R. D.

J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Halm, “The Optical Environment of Skylab, Mission SL-2,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337, 1974).

Miller, E. R.

E. R. Miller, R. Decher, “An Induced Environment Contamination Monitor for the Space Shuttle,” NASA Tech., Memo. 78193 (1978).

Munro, R. H.

R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
[Crossref]

Naumann, R. J.

R. J. Naumann, “Apollo 15 Contamination Photography,” NASA TMX-64681 (1972).

R. J. Naumann, “Results of the Induced Atmosphere Measurements from the Apollo Program,” NASA TND-7854 (1974).

R. J. Naumann, “Contamination Assessment and Control in Scientific Satellites,” NASA Tech. Note D-7433 (1973), p. 23.

Newkirk, G. A.

R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
[Crossref]

Newkirk, G. N.

G. N. Newkirk, “The Optical Environment of Manned Spacecraft,” Planet. Space Sci. 15, 1267 (1967).
[Crossref]

Owens, J. K.

K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Camera/Photometer Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 338, 30 (1982).

J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in “STS-2, -3, -4 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM) Summary Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82524 (1983), p. 77.

K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Camera/Photometers,” in “STS-3 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM)-Quick-Look Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82489 (1982), p. 33.

J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in “Induced Environment Contamination Monitor-Preliminary Results from the Spacelab 1 Flight,” NASA Tech., Memo. 86461 (1984), p. 32.

J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in STS-2 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM)-Quick-Look Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82457 (1982), p. 63.

K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Monitoring of Particulate Contamination and Background Brightness from IECM Based Instrumentation,” in Proceedings, Tenth Space Simulation Conference, Bethesda, MD (AIAA, New York, 1978), p 55.

Poland, A. I.

R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ross, C. L.

R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
[Crossref]

Schuerman, D. W.

D. W. Schuerman, D. E. Beeson, F. Giovane, “Coronagraphic Technique to Infer the Nature of the Skylab Particulate Environment,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1591 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Schuerman, J. L. Weinberg, “Preliminary Study of Contaminant Particulates Around Skylab,” NASA Contract., Rep. 2759 (1976).

D. W. Schuerman, “Skylab Contamination Results, SO52 Particle Analysis and TO25 Analysis, Final Report,” Contract NAS8-32485 (1977).

Scialdone, J. J.

J. J. Scialdone, “Particulate Contaminant Relocation During Shuttle Ascent,” NASA Tech., Memo. 87794 (1986).

Simpson, J. P.

Weinberg, J. L.

J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Halm, “The Optical Environment of Skylab, Mission SL-2,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337, 1974).

D. W. Schuerman, J. L. Weinberg, “Preliminary Study of Contaminant Particulates Around Skylab,” NASA Contract., Rep. 2759 (1976).

Witteborn, F. C.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. M. MacQueen, J. A. Eddy, J. T. Gosling, E. Hildner, R. H. Munro, G. A. Newkirk, A. I. Poland, C. L. Ross, “The Outer Solar Corona as Observed from Skylab: Preliminary Results,” Astrophys. J. 187, L85 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. (1)

J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Halm, “The Optical Environment of Skylab, Mission SL-2,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337, 1974).

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

D. G. Falconer, “Noise and Distortion in Photographic Data Storage,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 521 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Spacecr. Rockets (1)

H. K. F. Ehlers, S. Jacobs, L. J. Leger, “Space Shuttle Contamination Measurements from Flights STS-1 Through STS-4,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 21, 301 (1984).
[Crossref]

Photo. Sci. Eng. (1)

R. C. Jones, “On the Quantum Efficiency of Photographic Negatives,” Photo. Sci. Eng. 2, 57 (1958).

Planet. Space Sci. (3)

G. N. Newkirk, “The Optical Environment of Manned Spacecraft,” Planet. Space Sci. 15, 1267 (1967).
[Crossref]

N. S. Kovar, R. P. Kovar, G. P. Bonner, “Light Scattering by Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres,” Planet. Space Sci., 17, 143 (1969).
[Crossref]

W. D. Grobman, C. Buffalano, “New Conclusions Concerning the Observation of Faint Sources from a Sunlit Spacecraft,” Planet. Space Sci. 17, 1089 (1969).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Camera/Photometer Results,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 338, 30 (1982).

Other (15)

J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in “STS-2, -3, -4 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM) Summary Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82524 (1983), p. 77.

J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in STS-2 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM)-Quick-Look Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82457 (1982), p. 63.

K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Camera/Photometers,” in “STS-3 Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM)-Quick-Look Report,” NASA Tech., Memo. 82489 (1982), p. 33.

D. W. Schuerman, J. L. Weinberg, “Preliminary Study of Contaminant Particulates Around Skylab,” NASA Contract., Rep. 2759 (1976).

R. J. Naumann, “Apollo 15 Contamination Photography,” NASA TMX-64681 (1972).

R. J. Naumann, “Results of the Induced Atmosphere Measurements from the Apollo Program,” NASA TND-7854 (1974).

D. W. Schuerman, “Skylab Contamination Results, SO52 Particle Analysis and TO25 Analysis, Final Report,” Contract NAS8-32485 (1977).

“Payload Contamination Control Requirement for Shuttle Transportation System (STS) Induced Environment,” STS Payload Contamination Requirements Definition Group Report, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (1975).

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone, London, 1973), p. 134.

E. R. Miller, R. Decher, “An Induced Environment Contamination Monitor for the Space Shuttle,” NASA Tech., Memo. 78193 (1978).

K. S. Clifton, J. K. Owens, “Monitoring of Particulate Contamination and Background Brightness from IECM Based Instrumentation,” in Proceedings, Tenth Space Simulation Conference, Bethesda, MD (AIAA, New York, 1978), p 55.

B. D. Green, “The Particle Environment On-Orbit: Observations, Calculations, and Implications,” accepted for publication in Adv. Space Res. (1987).
[Crossref]

J. K. Owens, K. S. Clifton, “Camera/Photometer,” in “Induced Environment Contamination Monitor-Preliminary Results from the Spacelab 1 Flight,” NASA Tech., Memo. 86461 (1984), p. 32.

R. J. Naumann, “Contamination Assessment and Control in Scientific Satellites,” NASA Tech. Note D-7433 (1973), p. 23.

J. J. Scialdone, “Particulate Contaminant Relocation During Shuttle Ascent,” NASA Tech., Memo. 87794 (1986).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the IECM camera/photometer indicating relative placement of the baffle assembly and camera with associated instrumentation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Orbiter body coordinate system defining body axes and angles of azimuth and coelevation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed particulate contamination during the first 38 h of a composite mission utilizing data from STS-3, -3, -4, and -9.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Approximately a 2-s exposure of typical particulate contamination observed during an early portion of the STS-2 mission (mission elapsed time = 2 h, 52 min).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distribution of observed particles as a function of size using data from STS-2, -3, -4, and -9.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Concentration of observed particles as a function of velocity using data from STS-2, -3, -4, and -9.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sunlit exposure taken of the region near the constellation of Corvus (α = 184°; δ = −11°) with stars detected to magnitude 9.5.

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DQE = ξ log 2 e σ D 2 A E ( d D d log E ) 2 .
log ( S / N ) in = log ( S / N ) out 1 2 log ( D Q E ) ,
m a = R p 2 F p ,
a = 3 4 ρ A ρ P V 2 R p ,
ε n = E ¯ · A f = i = 1 N E i N · N A R = A R i = 1 N E i ,
E ¯ = I ¯ f · t ,
ε n = I ¯ f · A f · t = Φ f · t ,
Φ f = I s A D T ,
I s = I 1 r 2 ( d σ d Ω ) θ ,
( d σ d Ω ) θ
( d σ d Ω ) θ = π s 2 2 K 3 π 2 ( sin θ θ cos θ ) ,
ε n = I A D T t 1 r 2 2 s 2 3 π ( sin θ θ cos θ ) .
S = M s A ,
n s = n s λ ( 0 ) Δ λ T d A 2 / d 1 2 ,
S = 0 . 4 m n s λ ( 0 ) Δ λ T d A 2 t A / d i 2 .
N = ( M b A ) 1 / 2 ,
M b = π B b T t / 4 f 2 ξ ,
( S / N ) in = 0 . 4 m n s λ ( 0 ) Δ λ 2 f d A 2 ( ξ A T t / π B b ) 1 / 2 / d i 2 .
DQE = ( S / N ) out 2 ( S / N ) in 2 ,

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