Abstract

Gradient-index rod lenses with a parabolic-index profile have been fabricated by a double Na–Ag ion-exchange process, and their optical characteristics have been evaluated. The numerical aperture and minimum focused spot diameter of the 2-mm diam rod lens were 0.58 and 2.5 μm for λ = 0.63 μm, respectively. Because of the high diffusing rate for Ag ions, this technique offers the possibility of making large-sized (larger than 10 mm-diam) rod lenses for photographic uses.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. J. Tomlinson, “Application of GRIN-Rod Lenses in Optical Fiber Communication Systems,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1127 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “Light-Focusing Glass Fiber and Rods,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, I. Kitano, “Fabrication of a New Gradient-Index Rod Lens with High Performance,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 283 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Asahara, H. Sakai, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, T. Izumitani, “Gradient-Index Slab Lens with High Numerical Aperture,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3384 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, “A Method of Producing a Gradient Index Lens,” Japanese patent Application 60-63697 (1985).
  6. J. H. Simmons, R. K. Mohr, D. C. Tran, P. B. Macedo, T. A. Litovitz, “Optical Properties of Waveguides Made by a Porous Glass Process,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2732 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Oikawa, K. Iga, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1052 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. I. Kitano, M. Toyama, H. Nishi, “Spherical Aberration of Gradient-Index Rod Lenses,” Appl. Opt. 22, 396 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, I. Kitano, “Fabrication of a New Gradient-Index Rod Lens with High Performance,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 283 (1982).
[Crossref]

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1052 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1971 (1)

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “Light-Focusing Glass Fiber and Rods,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[Crossref]

Asahara, Y.

Y. Asahara, H. Sakai, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, T. Izumitani, “Gradient-Index Slab Lens with High Numerical Aperture,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3384 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, “A Method of Producing a Gradient Index Lens,” Japanese patent Application 60-63697 (1985).

Fujii, K.

T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, I. Kitano, “Fabrication of a New Gradient-Index Rod Lens with High Performance,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 283 (1982).
[Crossref]

Furukawa, M.

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “Light-Focusing Glass Fiber and Rods,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[Crossref]

Iga, K.

Izumitani, T.

Kita, H.

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “Light-Focusing Glass Fiber and Rods,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[Crossref]

Kitano, I.

I. Kitano, M. Toyama, H. Nishi, “Spherical Aberration of Gradient-Index Rod Lenses,” Appl. Opt. 22, 396 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, I. Kitano, “Fabrication of a New Gradient-Index Rod Lens with High Performance,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 283 (1982).
[Crossref]

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “Light-Focusing Glass Fiber and Rods,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[Crossref]

Litovitz, T. A.

Macedo, P. B.

Mohr, R. K.

Nakayama, S.

Y. Asahara, H. Sakai, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, T. Izumitani, “Gradient-Index Slab Lens with High Numerical Aperture,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3384 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, “A Method of Producing a Gradient Index Lens,” Japanese patent Application 60-63697 (1985).

Nishi, H.

Ohmi, S.

Y. Asahara, H. Sakai, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, T. Izumitani, “Gradient-Index Slab Lens with High Numerical Aperture,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3384 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, “A Method of Producing a Gradient Index Lens,” Japanese patent Application 60-63697 (1985).

Oikawa, M.

Sakai, H.

Y. Asahara, H. Sakai, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, T. Izumitani, “Gradient-Index Slab Lens with High Numerical Aperture,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3384 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, “A Method of Producing a Gradient Index Lens,” Japanese patent Application 60-63697 (1985).

Simmons, J. H.

Tomlinson, W. J.

Toyama, M.

Tran, D. C.

Uchida, T.

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, “Light-Focusing Glass Fiber and Rods,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[Crossref]

Yamagishi, T.

T. Yamagishi, K. Fujii, I. Kitano, “Fabrication of a New Gradient-Index Rod Lens with High Performance,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 283 (1982).
[Crossref]

Yoneda, Y.

Y. Asahara, H. Sakai, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, T. Izumitani, “Gradient-Index Slab Lens with High Numerical Aperture,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3384 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sakai, Y. Asahara, S. Ohmi, S. Nakayama, Y. Yoneda, “A Method of Producing a Gradient Index Lens,” Japanese patent Application 60-63697 (1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ion stuffing technique for fabricating a GRIN rod lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ag2O and Na2O concentration profile in 2-mm diam glass rod (a) after ion stuffing and (b) after ion unstuffing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical example of the radial variation of refractive index of the 2-mm diam lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Longitudinal aberration of the 2-mm diameter lens (3.4 mm in length = 0.17 pitch).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image of spot formed by the 2-mm diam lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical micrograph of the image of the resolution target formed by the 2-mm diam lens.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

GRIN lens 9.4 mm in diameter and 5.3 mm in length.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Characteristics of Na-Glass and Ag-Glass Made by the Ion Stuffing Process

Tables Icon

Table II Optical Characteristics of GRIN Rod Lenses Made by the Ion Stuffing Technique

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( r ) 2 = n 0 2 ( 1 g 0 2 r 2 ) .

Metrics