Abstract

A new interfacial-gel copolymerization technique is proposed to prepare steric gradient-index (GRIN) optical waveguides and lens arrays. Since the GRIN profile is obtained from the thin-gel phase formed on the wall of a polymer substrate, many geometrical GRIN materials, such as axial-, radial-, and spherical-GRIN, can be monolithically fabricated. In this paper the principle of GRIN formation is clarified, and a few steric radial-GRIN circuit components are demonstrated.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. G. Rawson, D. Bailey, “Bitaper Star Couplers with up to 100 Fiber Channels,” Electron. Lett. 15, 432 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Fabrication of a High Silica Glass Waveguide Optical Accessor,” Electron. Lett. 20, 589 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Brandrup, E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), p. II–387.
  13. F. A. Bovey, F. H. Winslow, Macromolecules: an Introduction to Polymer Science (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 145.
  14. Registered trade name of Nippon Sheet Glass, Japan.

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

1984 (3)

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

1981 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. IX: Chemical Composition of the Copolymer Rod-Diethylene Glycol Bis(allyl Carbonate) with 2,2,3,3-Tetrafluoropropyl Methacrylate,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

E. G. Rawson, D. Bailey, “Bitaper Star Couplers with up to 100 Fiber Channels,” Electron. Lett. 15, 432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, D.

E. G. Rawson, D. Bailey, “Bitaper Star Couplers with up to 100 Fiber Channels,” Electron. Lett. 15, 432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bovey, F. A.

F. A. Bovey, F. H. Winslow, Macromolecules: an Introduction to Polymer Science (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 145.

Brandrup, J.

J. Brandrup, E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), p. II–387.

Hidaka, H.

Immergut, E. H.

J. Brandrup, E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), p. II–387.

Kawachi, M.

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Fabrication of a High Silica Glass Waveguide Optical Accessor,” Electron. Lett. 20, 589 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kimoto, Y.

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Fabrication of a High Silica Glass Waveguide Optical Accessor,” Electron. Lett. 20, 589 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

Kurokawa, T.

Ohtsuka, Y.

Okuda, E.

Rawson, E. G.

E. G. Rawson, D. Bailey, “Bitaper Star Couplers with up to 100 Fiber Channels,” Electron. Lett. 15, 432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sugano, T.

Sumi, Y.

Takato, N.

Tanaka, I.

Terao, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. IX: Chemical Composition of the Copolymer Rod-Diethylene Glycol Bis(allyl Carbonate) with 2,2,3,3-Tetrafluoropropyl Methacrylate,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Winslow, F. H.

F. A. Bovey, F. H. Winslow, Macromolecules: an Introduction to Polymer Science (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 145.

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Fabrication of a High Silica Glass Waveguide Optical Accessor,” Electron. Lett. 20, 589 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

Yasu, M.

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Fabrication of a High Silica Glass Waveguide Optical Accessor,” Electron. Lett. 20, 589 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Electron. Lett. (2)

E. G. Rawson, D. Bailey, “Bitaper Star Couplers with up to 100 Fiber Channels,” Electron. Lett. 15, 432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Fabrication of a High Silica Glass Waveguide Optical Accessor,” Electron. Lett. 20, 589 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, “Studies on the Light-Focusing Plastic Rod. IX: Chemical Composition of the Copolymer Rod-Diethylene Glycol Bis(allyl Carbonate) with 2,2,3,3-Tetrafluoropropyl Methacrylate,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Brandrup, E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), p. II–387.

F. A. Bovey, F. H. Winslow, Macromolecules: an Introduction to Polymer Science (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 145.

Registered trade name of Nippon Sheet Glass, Japan.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Formation of interfacial-gel phase in MMA/VPAc = 4/1 (wt./wt.) mixture including hydroquinone in cuvette at 60°C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of preparation procedure of radial-GRIN waveguide in interfacial-gel copolymerization technique.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Steric radial-GRIN optical devices.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Index distribution of radial-GRIN Y-branching waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ray tracing of radial-GRIN Y-branching waveguide in the meridional plane. The scale of the ordinate is twice that of the abscissa. (a) All parallel rays focus at junction P. (b) All rays passing through P are parallel.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Index distribution of steric radial-GRIN 4-port branching waveguide.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

2-D radial-GRIN lens array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Real images through 2-D radial-GRIN lens array where both ends of each lens are flat. The diameter and length of each lens are 6.0 and 35 mm, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Refractive-index distribution of radial-GRIN lens in the lens array in Fig. 8.

Tables (3)

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Table I Technologies of Fabricating GRIN Polymers

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Table II Physical Properties of Monomers and Polymers

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Table III Monomer Reactivity Ratios in MMA-BzA–VPAc Monomer System

Equations (4)

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M i · + M i k i i M i M i · M i · + M j k i j M i M · , ( polymer radical ) ( monomer ) ( polymer radical )
r i j > 1 r j i < 1 ( i < j ) .
r i j = k i i k i j ( i = 1 , 2 , , n j = 1 , 2 , , n i j ) .
r i j = Q i Q j exp [ e i ( e i e j ) ] , r j i = Q j Q i exp [ e j ( e j e i ) ] .

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