Abstract

Spherical microlens arrays are produced directly from glass by a photothermal process. The method, performance of lenses, and applications are discussed.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. F. Borrelli et al. “Photolytic Technique for Producing Microlenses in Photosensitive Glass” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 2520 (1985).
  2. N. Stauffer, D. Wilwerding, “Electronic Focus for Cameras,” Scientific Honeyweller 3, 1 (1982).
  3. W. Lama, J. Durbin, Xerox Corp., APT/RTD/Optics Tech.; private communication.
  4. W. L. Lama, “Optical Properties of GRIN Fiber Lens Arrays: Dependence on Fiber Length,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2739 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

N. F. Borrelli et al. “Photolytic Technique for Producing Microlenses in Photosensitive Glass” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 2520 (1985).

1982 (2)

N. Stauffer, D. Wilwerding, “Electronic Focus for Cameras,” Scientific Honeyweller 3, 1 (1982).

W. L. Lama, “Optical Properties of GRIN Fiber Lens Arrays: Dependence on Fiber Length,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2739 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borrelli, N. F.

N. F. Borrelli et al. “Photolytic Technique for Producing Microlenses in Photosensitive Glass” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 2520 (1985).

Durbin, J.

W. Lama, J. Durbin, Xerox Corp., APT/RTD/Optics Tech.; private communication.

Lama, W.

W. Lama, J. Durbin, Xerox Corp., APT/RTD/Optics Tech.; private communication.

Lama, W. L.

Stauffer, N.

N. Stauffer, D. Wilwerding, “Electronic Focus for Cameras,” Scientific Honeyweller 3, 1 (1982).

Wilwerding, D.

N. Stauffer, D. Wilwerding, “Electronic Focus for Cameras,” Scientific Honeyweller 3, 1 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. F. Borrelli et al. “Photolytic Technique for Producing Microlenses in Photosensitive Glass” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 2520 (1985).

Scientific Honeyweller (1)

N. Stauffer, D. Wilwerding, “Electronic Focus for Cameras,” Scientific Honeyweller 3, 1 (1982).

Other (1)

W. Lama, J. Durbin, Xerox Corp., APT/RTD/Optics Tech.; private communication.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of photothermal development of a microlens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM photomicrograph of the surface after development showing spherical protrusions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Deviation of the measured surface from a perfect spherical surface. Abscissa is the length along the chord, and the ordinate is the square root of the sum of the squares of the chord length and the vertical displacement referenced to the least-square fit to the radius of curvature. Rank Taylor Hobson Form Talysurf.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image plane irradiance profile as measured with Leitz-TAS microscope system He–Ne source.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photomicrographs of images formed from linear array, EFL = 0.4 mm; lens diameter, 0.16 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Bundle of rays filling the entrance aperture proceeding to the exit aperture defining the circles shown in (b) whose intersection determines unvignetted light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimentally measured relative radiometric efficiency as a function of lens radius (a) and lens thickness (b).

Equations (10)

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δ = R c [ 1 1 ( R L / R c ) 2 ] ,
EFL = T / n + s 0 ,
t = T R c / [ ( n 1 ) T 2 n R c ] ,
Δ = T Y / n t ,
h ( Y ) = 2 / π { N π R L 2 t } [ cos 1 ( Y / k ) Y / k 1 ( Y / k ) 2 ] ,
k = 2 n R L t / T
R c F = T ( n 1 ) / 2 n ,
h ( Y ) = N π R L 2 / t .
0 2 π 0 k h ( Y ) Y d Y d θ
ε = n π 2 R L 2 / 2 3 b 2 T 2 single , ε = 2 π n 2 R L 2 3 b 2 T 2 double .

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