Abstract

Silver–sodium ion exchange is a commonly used method for making waveguides in glass. This paper discusses two exchange media, KNO3:AgNO3 and AgNO3 in NaNO3:KNO3 which increase the flexibility of the process and decrease its cost. Exchange in the KNO3:AgNO3 can be performed at temperatures as low as 150°C, which is particularly useful for field assisted exchange. When exchange is performed in a NaNO3:KNO3 eutectic with small (≤5 mole %) added quantities of AgNO3, it is possible to control the guide’s surface index within the range Δn ≤ 0.01–0.09 and simultaneously allow the exchange to take place at temperatures as low as 220°C. Because the latter process requires very little of the relatively expensive AgNO3, it can reduce the cost of the process.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: a Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244 (1985) provides a recent review.
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Stewart, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Fabrication of Ion-Exchanged Optical Waveguides from Dilute Silver Nitrate Melts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 930 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. V. Ramaswamy, S. I. Najafi, “Planar, Buried, Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: Diffusion Characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 883 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. V. Ramaswamy, personal communication.
  5. J. M. White, P. F. Heidrich, “Optical Waveguide Refractive Index Profiles Determined from Measurement of Mode Indices: a Simple Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15, 151 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguides Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, E. M. Vogel, “Ion Exchanged Optical Waveguides in Glasses with Large Optical Nonlinearities,” to be published.

1986 (1)

R. V. Ramaswamy, S. I. Najafi, “Planar, Buried, Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: Diffusion Characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 883 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: a Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244 (1985) provides a recent review.
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

G. Stewart, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Fabrication of Ion-Exchanged Optical Waveguides from Dilute Silver Nitrate Melts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 930 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1972 (1)

T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguides Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Findakly, T.

T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: a Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244 (1985) provides a recent review.
[CrossRef]

Friberg, S. R.

J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, E. M. Vogel, “Ion Exchanged Optical Waveguides in Glasses with Large Optical Nonlinearities,” to be published.

Heidrich, P. F.

Izawa, T.

T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguides Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, E. M. Vogel, “Ion Exchanged Optical Waveguides in Glasses with Large Optical Nonlinearities,” to be published.

Laybourn, P. J. R.

G. Stewart, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Fabrication of Ion-Exchanged Optical Waveguides from Dilute Silver Nitrate Melts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 930 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

R. V. Ramaswamy, S. I. Najafi, “Planar, Buried, Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: Diffusion Characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 883 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nakagome, H.

T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguides Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

R. V. Ramaswamy, S. I. Najafi, “Planar, Buried, Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: Diffusion Characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 883 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ramaswamy, personal communication.

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Fabrication of Ion-Exchanged Optical Waveguides from Dilute Silver Nitrate Melts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 930 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, E. M. Vogel, “Ion Exchanged Optical Waveguides in Glasses with Large Optical Nonlinearities,” to be published.

White, J. M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Izawa, H. Nakagome, “Optical Waveguides Formed by Electrically Induced Migration of Ions in Glass Plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 584 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. Stewart, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Fabrication of Ion-Exchanged Optical Waveguides from Dilute Silver Nitrate Melts,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 930 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ramaswamy, S. I. Najafi, “Planar, Buried, Ion-Exchanged Glass Waveguides: Diffusion Characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 883 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Findakly, “Glass Waveguides by Ion-Exchange: a Review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244 (1985) provides a recent review.
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. V. Ramaswamy, personal communication.

J. L. Jackel, S. R. Friberg, E. M. Vogel, “Ion Exchanged Optical Waveguides in Glasses with Large Optical Nonlinearities,” to be published.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Index profiles for Fisher Premium slides exchanged: *, 3.5 h at 268°C; ×, 18.25 h at 208°C; Δ, 3.5 h at 238°C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffusion coefficients as a function of inverse temperature (K1) in μm2/h for Labmate and Fisher Premium microscope slides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Index profiles for exchange of Labmate slides at 160°C: ○, 24 h, no field; *, 1 h, 320 V/mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Prism coupler output from a planar KNO3 exchanged waveguide with exchanged grating. The input angle has been adjusted so that output (at left) has approximately equal power in the diffracted and undiffracted beams.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffusion coefficients (log scale) and maximum index change (linear scale) vs mole fraction of AgNO3 in melt for Fisher Premium glass exchanged at T = 250°C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffusion coefficients vs inverse temperature (K−1) for Fisher Premium slides exchanged in melts containing 1 and 5 mole % AgNO3.

Tables (1)

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Table I Characteristics of Some Commonly Used Nitrate Melts and Waveguides Made In Soda-Lime Glass

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d = [ 4 D ( T ) t ] 1 / 2 ,
d thermal = ( 4 k T d field / e E ) 1 / 2 .
D ( T ) = D 0 exp ( T 0 / T ) ,
D 0 = 2 . 21 × 10 8 μ 2 / h and T 0 = 9959 K for 5 mole % AgNO 3 ; D 0 = 1 . 09 × 10 8 μ 2 / h and T 0 = 9828 K for 1 mole % AgNO 3 .

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