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  1. D. C. Agnew, “Strainmeters and Tiltmeters,” Rev. Geophys. 24, 579 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Berger, R. H. Lovberg, “Earth Strain Measurements with a Laser Interferometer,” Science 170, 296 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Channel Industries, 839 Ward Drive, Santa Barbara, CA 93111 (model C5400: 3 in. long, 1.625 in. in diameter, and with 0.125-in. wall thickness; strain coefficient 4.24 × 10−8∊/V).
  4. T. Baer, F. V. Kowalski, J. L. Hall, “Frequency Stabilization of a 0.633-μm He–Ne Longitudinal Zeeman Laser,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3173 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Laser frequency shift as a function of piezovoltage V and heater current A is given byΔf(V,A)=−25GHz−(0.0094GHz/V)ΔV−(64GHz/A)ΔA,where the constant term represents the frequency offset at nominal operating conditions of 4-mA plasma tube current and 100-mA heater current (into 50 Ω). The expression for longitudinal stress on the laser plasma tube isΔσ(V,A)=−3.8MPa+(0.0021MPa/V)ΔV+(2.9MPa/A)ΔA.These expressions are not simply related because the heater current affects both the piezo and plasma tube, resulting in very little stress on the tube for a large change in frequency.
  6. Basicon Inc., 11895 NW Cornell Road, Portland, OR 97229.

1986

D. C. Agnew, “Strainmeters and Tiltmeters,” Rev. Geophys. 24, 579 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980

1970

J. Berger, R. H. Lovberg, “Earth Strain Measurements with a Laser Interferometer,” Science 170, 296 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agnew, D. C.

D. C. Agnew, “Strainmeters and Tiltmeters,” Rev. Geophys. 24, 579 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

Berger, J.

J. Berger, R. H. Lovberg, “Earth Strain Measurements with a Laser Interferometer,” Science 170, 296 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

Kowalski, F. V.

Lovberg, R. H.

J. Berger, R. H. Lovberg, “Earth Strain Measurements with a Laser Interferometer,” Science 170, 296 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Rev. Geophys.

D. C. Agnew, “Strainmeters and Tiltmeters,” Rev. Geophys. 24, 579 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. Berger, R. H. Lovberg, “Earth Strain Measurements with a Laser Interferometer,” Science 170, 296 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Channel Industries, 839 Ward Drive, Santa Barbara, CA 93111 (model C5400: 3 in. long, 1.625 in. in diameter, and with 0.125-in. wall thickness; strain coefficient 4.24 × 10−8∊/V).

Laser frequency shift as a function of piezovoltage V and heater current A is given byΔf(V,A)=−25GHz−(0.0094GHz/V)ΔV−(64GHz/A)ΔA,where the constant term represents the frequency offset at nominal operating conditions of 4-mA plasma tube current and 100-mA heater current (into 50 Ω). The expression for longitudinal stress on the laser plasma tube isΔσ(V,A)=−3.8MPa+(0.0021MPa/V)ΔV+(2.9MPa/A)ΔA.These expressions are not simply related because the heater current affects both the piezo and plasma tube, resulting in very little stress on the tube for a large change in frequency.

Basicon Inc., 11895 NW Cornell Road, Portland, OR 97229.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram showing the main and auxiliary (heavy dashed line) feedback loops for frequency tunable hard-sealed laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross sectional and end view of laser assembly and supports.

Equations (3)

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heater current = [ base value + G l × ( error value ) + G s × t = 5 min t = error value ] 1 / 2 .
Δf(V,A)=25GHz(0.0094GHz/V)ΔV(64GHz/A)ΔA,
Δσ(V,A)=3.8MPa+(0.0021MPa/V)ΔV+(2.9MPa/A)ΔA.

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