Abstract

A study of the major deposition parameters including source material, oxygen partial pressure, substrate temperature, and deposition rate affecting the optical quality of electron beam evaporated TiO2 films is presented. After careful optimization of these parameters it is possible to reproducibly deposit TiO2 films from TiO2 source material mixed with 5% CeO2 at an oxygen partial pressure of 5 × 10−5 Torr, a substrate temperature of 320°C, and a deposition rate of 2 Å/s.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Ritter, “Deposition of Oxide Films by Reactive Evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, “Refractive Indices of TiO2 Films Produced by Reactive Evaporation of Various Titanium–Oxygen Phases,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2986 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Herrmann, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films: Low Energy vs High Energy Bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Aschwanden, M. T. Gale, P. Kieffer, K. Knop, “Single-Chip Color Camera Using a Frame-Transfer CCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-32, 1396 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Frick, H. W. Lehmann, “Annealing of TiO2 Films Monitored by Ellipsometry at Elevated Temperature,” to be published.
  6. M. T. Gale, K. Frick, H. W. Lehmann, “In-Situ Monitoring of Thin Films During Evaporation,” in Proceedings, International Congress of Optical Science Engineering, Hamburg (1988), paper 1019–12.
  7. ELPO A1 and ELPO A113 distributed by ELPO AG, Wetzikon, Switzerland.
  8. H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), p. 377.
  9. B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, H. W. Lehmann, H. Schütz, R. Widmer, “Fabrication of Mosaic Color Filters by Dry-Etching Dielectric Stacks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 70 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (1)

B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, H. W. Lehmann, H. Schütz, R. Widmer, “Fabrication of Mosaic Color Filters by Dry-Etching Dielectric Stacks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 70 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

F. Aschwanden, M. T. Gale, P. Kieffer, K. Knop, “Single-Chip Color Camera Using a Frame-Transfer CCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-32, 1396 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1976 (1)

1966 (1)

E. Ritter, “Deposition of Oxide Films by Reactive Evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Aschwanden, F.

F. Aschwanden, M. T. Gale, P. Kieffer, K. Knop, “Single-Chip Color Camera Using a Frame-Transfer CCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-32, 1396 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barron, A. C.

Curtis, B. J.

B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, H. W. Lehmann, H. Schütz, R. Widmer, “Fabrication of Mosaic Color Filters by Dry-Etching Dielectric Stacks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 70 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Frick, K.

K. Frick, H. W. Lehmann, “Annealing of TiO2 Films Monitored by Ellipsometry at Elevated Temperature,” to be published.

M. T. Gale, K. Frick, H. W. Lehmann, “In-Situ Monitoring of Thin Films During Evaporation,” in Proceedings, International Congress of Optical Science Engineering, Hamburg (1988), paper 1019–12.

Gale, M. T.

B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, H. W. Lehmann, H. Schütz, R. Widmer, “Fabrication of Mosaic Color Filters by Dry-Etching Dielectric Stacks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 70 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Aschwanden, M. T. Gale, P. Kieffer, K. Knop, “Single-Chip Color Camera Using a Frame-Transfer CCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-32, 1396 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Gale, K. Frick, H. W. Lehmann, “In-Situ Monitoring of Thin Films During Evaporation,” in Proceedings, International Congress of Optical Science Engineering, Hamburg (1988), paper 1019–12.

Herrmann, W. C.

Kieffer, P.

F. Aschwanden, M. T. Gale, P. Kieffer, K. Knop, “Single-Chip Color Camera Using a Frame-Transfer CCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-32, 1396 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Knop, K.

F. Aschwanden, M. T. Gale, P. Kieffer, K. Knop, “Single-Chip Color Camera Using a Frame-Transfer CCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-32, 1396 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, H. W.

B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, H. W. Lehmann, H. Schütz, R. Widmer, “Fabrication of Mosaic Color Filters by Dry-Etching Dielectric Stacks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 70 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Gale, K. Frick, H. W. Lehmann, “In-Situ Monitoring of Thin Films During Evaporation,” in Proceedings, International Congress of Optical Science Engineering, Hamburg (1988), paper 1019–12.

K. Frick, H. W. Lehmann, “Annealing of TiO2 Films Monitored by Ellipsometry at Elevated Temperature,” to be published.

McNeil, J. R.

Paesold, G.

Pulker, H. K.

Ritter, E.

Schütz, H.

B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, H. W. Lehmann, H. Schütz, R. Widmer, “Fabrication of Mosaic Color Filters by Dry-Etching Dielectric Stacks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 70 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Widmer, R.

B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, H. W. Lehmann, H. Schütz, R. Widmer, “Fabrication of Mosaic Color Filters by Dry-Etching Dielectric Stacks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 70 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. R.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

F. Aschwanden, M. T. Gale, P. Kieffer, K. Knop, “Single-Chip Color Camera Using a Frame-Transfer CCD,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED-32, 1396 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

E. Ritter, “Deposition of Oxide Films by Reactive Evaporation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, H. W. Lehmann, H. Schütz, R. Widmer, “Fabrication of Mosaic Color Filters by Dry-Etching Dielectric Stacks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 70 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

K. Frick, H. W. Lehmann, “Annealing of TiO2 Films Monitored by Ellipsometry at Elevated Temperature,” to be published.

M. T. Gale, K. Frick, H. W. Lehmann, “In-Situ Monitoring of Thin Films During Evaporation,” in Proceedings, International Congress of Optical Science Engineering, Hamburg (1988), paper 1019–12.

ELPO A1 and ELPO A113 distributed by ELPO AG, Wetzikon, Switzerland.

H. K. Pulker, Coatings on Glass (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), p. 377.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive index as a function of oxygen partial pressure of TiO2 films deposited on a substrate kept at 320°C (upper curve Ti2O3, source material; lower curve, TiO2 source material).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

O2 partial pressure (as measured with a UTI quadrupole mass spectrometer at AMU = 32) as a function of time for two different flows of O2 (flow rates were set at the beginning of the experiment to yield either an O2 partial pressure of 5 × 10−5 or 2 × 10−5 Torr, respectively).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index as a function of substrate temperature at fixed O2 partial pressure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic view of the vacuum system (Balzers model BAK 550 box coater).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electron beam deposition system. Note location of the substrate heater.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distribution of film thickness and refractive index across a 5-cm diam substrate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of O2 partial pressure control.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic representation of the variation of the most important deposition parameters as a function of time (time axis not to scale).

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