Abstract

We report a series of atmospheric aerosol backscatter measurements at two widely spaced CO2 laser wavelengths: 9.25 and 10.6 μm. Comparisons are made beween backscatter coefficient profiles at these two wavelengths up to 20-km altitude. Measurements such as those reported here can be used to assess the feasibility of coherent and they also provide a partial test of backscatter CO2 lidar for wind measurements, model predictions.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. A. Bowdle, “Aerosol Measurement Program Strategy for Global Aerosol Backscatter Model Development,” in Proceedings, NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements (Deepak, Hampton, VA, 1985).
  2. R. T. Menzies, “Doppler Lidar Atmospheric Wind Sensors: a Comparative Performance Evaluation for Global Measurement Applications from Earth Orbit,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2546 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, U. O. Farrukh, A. Deepak, “Modeling Atmospheric Aerosol Backscatter at CO2 Laser Wavelengths. 3. Effects of Changes in Wavelength and Ambient Conditions,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1671 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. T. Menzies, M. J. Kavaya, P. H. Flamant, D. A. Haner, “Atmospheric Aerosol Backscatter Measurements Using a Tunable Coherent CO2 Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2510 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. J. Post, “Aerosol Backscattering Profiles at CO2 Wavelengths: the NOAA Data Base,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2507 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, “Lidar Aerosol Backscatter Measurements: Systematic, Modeling, and Calibration Error Considerations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3444 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. S. Rothman et al., “AFGL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation: 1982 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2247 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067 (1980).
  9. G. M. Ancellet, M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, A. M. Brothers, “Lidar Telescope Overlap Function and Effects of Misalignment for Unstable Resonator Transmitter and Coherent Receiver,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2886 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Haner, U. P. Oppenheim, P. H. Flamant, “Target Reflectance Measurements for Calibration of Lidar Atmospheric Backscatter Data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2619 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. A. Haner, R. T. Menzies, “Reflectance Characteristics of Reference Materials Used in Lidar Hard Target Calibration,” Appl. Opt.28 (1989), to be published.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and Seasonal Characteristics of Aerosol Backscatter at Thermal IR Wavelengths Using Lidar Observations from Coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, (1989).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. J. Post, “Atmospheric Purging of El Chichón Debris,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5222 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. M. Wakimoto, J. L. McElroy, “Lidar Observation of Elevated Pollution Layers Over Los Angeles,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 1583 (1986).
  15. G. S. Kent, P. M. Wang, V. Farrukh, A. Deepak, E. M. Patterson, “Development of a Global Model for Atmospheric Backscatter at CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Report 3959 (1986).
  16. J. Rothermel, W. D. Jones, “Ground-Based Measurements of Atmospheric Backscatter and Absorption Using Coherent CO2 Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3487 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. J. Post, “Infrared Backscattering from the Atmosphere: Some Observations,” Opt. News, 39 (May1985).
  18. H. T. Mudd, C. H. Kruger, E. R. Murray, “Measurement of IR Laser Backscatter Spectra from Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1146 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. D. P. Walter, D. E. Cooper, J. E. van der Laan, E. R. Murray, “Carbon Dioxide Laser Backscatter Signatures from Laboratory-Generated Dust,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2506 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. J. Nevitt, C. F. Bohren, “Infrared Backscattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles: a Statistical Approach,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1342 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  21. E. M. Patterson, C. S. Kiang, A. C. Delany, A. F. Wartburg, A. C. D. Leslie, B. J. Huebert, “Global Measurements of Aerosols in Remote Continental and Marine Regions: Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Optical Properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7361 (1980).
    [Crossref]

1989 (1)

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and Seasonal Characteristics of Aerosol Backscatter at Thermal IR Wavelengths Using Lidar Observations from Coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (5)

1985 (3)

1984 (3)

1983 (3)

1982 (1)

1980 (2)

E. M. Patterson, C. S. Kiang, A. C. Delany, A. F. Wartburg, A. C. D. Leslie, B. J. Huebert, “Global Measurements of Aerosols in Remote Continental and Marine Regions: Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Optical Properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7361 (1980).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067 (1980).

Ancellet, G. M.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and Seasonal Characteristics of Aerosol Backscatter at Thermal IR Wavelengths Using Lidar Observations from Coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, (1989).
[Crossref]

G. M. Ancellet, M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, A. M. Brothers, “Lidar Telescope Overlap Function and Effects of Misalignment for Unstable Resonator Transmitter and Coherent Receiver,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2886 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bohren, C. F.

T. J. Nevitt, C. F. Bohren, “Infrared Backscattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles: a Statistical Approach,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1342 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bowdle, D. A.

D. A. Bowdle, “Aerosol Measurement Program Strategy for Global Aerosol Backscatter Model Development,” in Proceedings, NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements (Deepak, Hampton, VA, 1985).

Brothers, A. M.

Cooper, D. E.

Deepak, A.

G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, U. O. Farrukh, A. Deepak, “Modeling Atmospheric Aerosol Backscatter at CO2 Laser Wavelengths. 3. Effects of Changes in Wavelength and Ambient Conditions,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1671 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Kent, P. M. Wang, V. Farrukh, A. Deepak, E. M. Patterson, “Development of a Global Model for Atmospheric Backscatter at CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Report 3959 (1986).

Delany, A. C.

E. M. Patterson, C. S. Kiang, A. C. Delany, A. F. Wartburg, A. C. D. Leslie, B. J. Huebert, “Global Measurements of Aerosols in Remote Continental and Marine Regions: Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Optical Properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7361 (1980).
[Crossref]

Farrukh, U. O.

Farrukh, V.

G. S. Kent, P. M. Wang, V. Farrukh, A. Deepak, E. M. Patterson, “Development of a Global Model for Atmospheric Backscatter at CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Report 3959 (1986).

Flamant, P. H.

Haner, D. A.

Huebert, B. J.

E. M. Patterson, C. S. Kiang, A. C. Delany, A. F. Wartburg, A. C. D. Leslie, B. J. Huebert, “Global Measurements of Aerosols in Remote Continental and Marine Regions: Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Optical Properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7361 (1980).
[Crossref]

Jones, W. D.

Kavaya, M. J.

Kent, G. S.

G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, U. O. Farrukh, A. Deepak, “Modeling Atmospheric Aerosol Backscatter at CO2 Laser Wavelengths. 3. Effects of Changes in Wavelength and Ambient Conditions,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1671 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Kent, P. M. Wang, V. Farrukh, A. Deepak, E. M. Patterson, “Development of a Global Model for Atmospheric Backscatter at CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Report 3959 (1986).

Kiang, C. S.

E. M. Patterson, C. S. Kiang, A. C. Delany, A. F. Wartburg, A. C. D. Leslie, B. J. Huebert, “Global Measurements of Aerosols in Remote Continental and Marine Regions: Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Optical Properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7361 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067 (1980).

Kruger, C. H.

Leslie, A. C. D.

E. M. Patterson, C. S. Kiang, A. C. Delany, A. F. Wartburg, A. C. D. Leslie, B. J. Huebert, “Global Measurements of Aerosols in Remote Continental and Marine Regions: Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Optical Properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7361 (1980).
[Crossref]

McElroy, J. L.

R. M. Wakimoto, J. L. McElroy, “Lidar Observation of Elevated Pollution Layers Over Los Angeles,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 1583 (1986).

Menzies, R. T.

Mudd, H. T.

Murray, E. R.

Nevitt, T. J.

T. J. Nevitt, C. F. Bohren, “Infrared Backscattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles: a Statistical Approach,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1342 (1984).
[Crossref]

Oppenheim, U. P.

Patterson, E. M.

E. M. Patterson, C. S. Kiang, A. C. Delany, A. F. Wartburg, A. C. D. Leslie, B. J. Huebert, “Global Measurements of Aerosols in Remote Continental and Marine Regions: Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Optical Properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7361 (1980).
[Crossref]

G. S. Kent, P. M. Wang, V. Farrukh, A. Deepak, E. M. Patterson, “Development of a Global Model for Atmospheric Backscatter at CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Report 3959 (1986).

Pi, W.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and Seasonal Characteristics of Aerosol Backscatter at Thermal IR Wavelengths Using Lidar Observations from Coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, (1989).
[Crossref]

Post, M. J.

M. J. Post, “Atmospheric Purging of El Chichón Debris,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5222 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. J. Post, “Infrared Backscattering from the Atmosphere: Some Observations,” Opt. News, 39 (May1985).

M. J. Post, “Aerosol Backscattering Profiles at CO2 Wavelengths: the NOAA Data Base,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2507 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothermel, J.

Rothman, L. S.

Tratt, D. M.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and Seasonal Characteristics of Aerosol Backscatter at Thermal IR Wavelengths Using Lidar Observations from Coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, (1989).
[Crossref]

van der Laan, J. E.

Wakimoto, R. M.

R. M. Wakimoto, J. L. McElroy, “Lidar Observation of Elevated Pollution Layers Over Los Angeles,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 1583 (1986).

Walter, D. P.

Wang, P. M.

G. S. Kent, P. M. Wang, V. Farrukh, A. Deepak, E. M. Patterson, “Development of a Global Model for Atmospheric Backscatter at CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Report 3959 (1986).

Wartburg, A. F.

E. M. Patterson, C. S. Kiang, A. C. Delany, A. F. Wartburg, A. C. D. Leslie, B. J. Huebert, “Global Measurements of Aerosols in Remote Continental and Marine Regions: Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Optical Properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7361 (1980).
[Crossref]

Wright, J. C.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and Seasonal Characteristics of Aerosol Backscatter at Thermal IR Wavelengths Using Lidar Observations from Coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, (1989).
[Crossref]

Wurtele, M. G.

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and Seasonal Characteristics of Aerosol Backscatter at Thermal IR Wavelengths Using Lidar Observations from Coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, (1989).
[Crossref]

Yue, G. K.

AFGL-TR-80-0067 (1)

F. X. Kneizys et al., “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran 5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (11)

H. T. Mudd, C. H. Kruger, E. R. Murray, “Measurement of IR Laser Backscatter Spectra from Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate Aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1146 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, U. O. Farrukh, A. Deepak, “Modeling Atmospheric Aerosol Backscatter at CO2 Laser Wavelengths. 3. Effects of Changes in Wavelength and Ambient Conditions,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1671 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman et al., “AFGL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation: 1982 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2247 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, D. A. Haner, U. P. Oppenheim, P. H. Flamant, “Target Reflectance Measurements for Calibration of Lidar Atmospheric Backscatter Data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2619 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Post, “Aerosol Backscattering Profiles at CO2 Wavelengths: the NOAA Data Base,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2507 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, M. J. Kavaya, P. H. Flamant, D. A. Haner, “Atmospheric Aerosol Backscatter Measurements Using a Tunable Coherent CO2 Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2510 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, “Lidar Aerosol Backscatter Measurements: Systematic, Modeling, and Calibration Error Considerations,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3444 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rothermel, W. D. Jones, “Ground-Based Measurements of Atmospheric Backscatter and Absorption Using Coherent CO2 Lidar,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3487 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Walter, D. E. Cooper, J. E. van der Laan, E. R. Murray, “Carbon Dioxide Laser Backscatter Signatures from Laboratory-Generated Dust,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2506 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, “Doppler Lidar Atmospheric Wind Sensors: a Comparative Performance Evaluation for Global Measurement Applications from Earth Orbit,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2546 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Ancellet, M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, A. M. Brothers, “Lidar Telescope Overlap Function and Effects of Misalignment for Unstable Resonator Transmitter and Coherent Receiver,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2886 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

R. M. Wakimoto, J. L. McElroy, “Lidar Observation of Elevated Pollution Layers Over Los Angeles,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 1583 (1986).

T. J. Nevitt, C. F. Bohren, “Infrared Backscattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles: a Statistical Approach,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1342 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

E. M. Patterson, C. S. Kiang, A. C. Delany, A. F. Wartburg, A. C. D. Leslie, B. J. Huebert, “Global Measurements of Aerosols in Remote Continental and Marine Regions: Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Optical Properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7361 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. T. Menzies, G. M. Ancellet, D. M. Tratt, M. G. Wurtele, J. C. Wright, W. Pi, “Altitude and Seasonal Characteristics of Aerosol Backscatter at Thermal IR Wavelengths Using Lidar Observations from Coastal California,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, (1989).
[Crossref]

M. J. Post, “Atmospheric Purging of El Chichón Debris,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5222 (1986).
[Crossref]

Opt. News (1)

M. J. Post, “Infrared Backscattering from the Atmosphere: Some Observations,” Opt. News, 39 (May1985).

Other (3)

D. A. Bowdle, “Aerosol Measurement Program Strategy for Global Aerosol Backscatter Model Development,” in Proceedings, NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements (Deepak, Hampton, VA, 1985).

G. S. Kent, P. M. Wang, V. Farrukh, A. Deepak, E. M. Patterson, “Development of a Global Model for Atmospheric Backscatter at CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Report 3959 (1986).

D. A. Haner, R. T. Menzies, “Reflectance Characteristics of Reference Materials Used in Lidar Hard Target Calibration,” Appl. Opt.28 (1989), to be published.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometric mean profiles of aerosol backscatter at 9.25- and 10.6-μm, based on the quasisimultaneous measurements described in Table I and in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometric mean profiles of aerosol backscatter at 9.25- and 10.6-μm, based on lidar measurements taken during the period 1983–1986.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gaussian cumulative probability distribution of aerosol backscatter coefficients at 5-km altitude for 9.25- and 10.6-μm lidar wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gaussian cumulative probability distribution of aerosol backscatter coefficients at 8-km altitude for 9.25- and 10.6-μm lidar wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gaussian cumulative probability distribution of aerosol backscatter coefficients at 12-km altitude for 9.25- and 10.6-μm lidar wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gaussian cumulative probability distribution of aerosol backscatter coefficients at 15-km altitude for 9.25- and 10.6-μm lidar wavelengths.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Quasislmultaneous Aerosol Backscatter Profiles

Tables Icon

Table II Number of Profiles Taken During 3-Month (Quarterly) Periods Between 1983 and 1986

Tables Icon

Table III Computed Backscatter Ratios for Wavelength-independent Refractive Indices

Metrics