Abstract

Loss characteristics and field intensity distributions of fused polarization-maintaining fiber couplers are measured. From the results, it is shown that excess loss spectra have a sinusoidal response. Further, the loss peaks of the usual polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing (PANDA) fiber couplers with index-depressed stress applying parts are larger than those of PANDA couplers with index-matched stress applying parts. It is also confirmed that low excess loss of <0.1 dB can be obtained for a large waist diameter of the fused region even in conventional PANDA fiber couplers.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Kawachi, B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of Single-Polarisation Single-Mode-Fibre Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 962 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Sasaki, T. Hosaka, J. Noda, “Low Crosstalk Polarisation-Maintaining Optical Fibre with an 11 km Length,” Electron. Lett. 20, 784 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-Taper Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 6, 327 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Bures, S. Lacroix, J. Lapierre, “Analyse d’un Coupleur Bidirectionnel a Fibres Optiques Monomodes Fusionnees,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1918 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. T. Cassidy, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, “Wavelength-Dependent Transmission of Monomode Optical Fiber Tapers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 945 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Yokohama, M. Kawachi, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Polarisation-Maintaining Fibre Couplers with Low Excess Loss,” Electron. Lett. 22, 929 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Yokohama, J. Noda, K. Okamoto, “Fiber-Coupler Fabrication with Automatic Fusion-Elongation Processes for Low Excess Loss and High Coupling-Ratio Accuracy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 910 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Stewart, J. D. Love, “Design Limitation on Tapers and Couplers in Single Mode Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 559.
  9. A. C. Boucouvalas, G. Georgiou, “Tapering of Single Mode Optical Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 575.
  10. J. D. Love, W. M. Henly, “Quantifying Loss Minimisation in Single-Mode Fibre Tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Yokohama, K. Chida, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Transmission Characteristics of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” in Extended Abstracts, Forty-Seventh Autumn Meeting 1986; The Japan Society of Applied Physics, 27p-x-2, 185 (1986).
  12. I. Yokahama, K. Okamoto, K. Chida, J. Noda, “Analysis of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” National Conference Record, 1987, Semiconductor Devices and Materials, The Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers448, 2–235 (1987).
  13. N. Shibata, M. Kawachi, M. Tokuda, “Differential Stress Distribution in a Polarisation-Holding Fibre Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 20, 244 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Kaiser, A. R. Tynes, H. W. Astle, A. D. Pearson, W. G. French, R. E. Jaeger, A. H. Cherin, “Specral Losses of Unclad Vitreous Silica and Soda-Lime-Silicate Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1141 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, R. G. Lamont, “Wavelength Dependence in Fused Biconical Taper Splitter: Measurement and Control,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 567.
  16. I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Analysis of Fiber-Optic Polarizing Beam Splitters Consisting of Fused-Taper Couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1352 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

I. Yokohama, J. Noda, K. Okamoto, “Fiber-Coupler Fabrication with Automatic Fusion-Elongation Processes for Low Excess Loss and High Coupling-Ratio Accuracy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 910 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henly, “Quantifying Loss Minimisation in Single-Mode Fibre Tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, M. Kawachi, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Polarisation-Maintaining Fibre Couplers with Low Excess Loss,” Electron. Lett. 22, 929 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Analysis of Fiber-Optic Polarizing Beam Splitters Consisting of Fused-Taper Couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1352 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

N. Shibata, M. Kawachi, M. Tokuda, “Differential Stress Distribution in a Polarisation-Holding Fibre Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 20, 244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasaki, T. Hosaka, J. Noda, “Low Crosstalk Polarisation-Maintaining Optical Fibre with an 11 km Length,” Electron. Lett. 20, 784 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

M. Kawachi, B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of Single-Polarisation Single-Mode-Fibre Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 962 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1973 (1)

Astle, H. W.

Boucouvalas, A. C.

A. C. Boucouvalas, G. Georgiou, “Tapering of Single Mode Optical Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 575.

Bures, J.

Cassidy, D. T.

Cherin, A. H.

Chida, K.

I. Yokahama, K. Okamoto, K. Chida, J. Noda, “Analysis of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” National Conference Record, 1987, Semiconductor Devices and Materials, The Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers448, 2–235 (1987).

I. Yokohama, K. Chida, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Transmission Characteristics of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” in Extended Abstracts, Forty-Seventh Autumn Meeting 1986; The Japan Society of Applied Physics, 27p-x-2, 185 (1986).

Edahiro, T.

M. Kawachi, B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of Single-Polarisation Single-Mode-Fibre Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 962 (1982).
[CrossRef]

French, W. G.

Georgiou, G.

A. C. Boucouvalas, G. Georgiou, “Tapering of Single Mode Optical Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 575.

Henly, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henly, “Quantifying Loss Minimisation in Single-Mode Fibre Tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

D. T. Cassidy, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, “Wavelength-Dependent Transmission of Monomode Optical Fiber Tapers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 945 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kawachi, B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of Single-Polarisation Single-Mode-Fibre Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 962 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-Taper Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 6, 327 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, R. G. Lamont, “Wavelength Dependence in Fused Biconical Taper Splitter: Measurement and Control,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 567.

Hosaka, T.

Y. Sasaki, T. Hosaka, J. Noda, “Low Crosstalk Polarisation-Maintaining Optical Fibre with an 11 km Length,” Electron. Lett. 20, 784 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, R. E.

Johnson, D. C.

D. T. Cassidy, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, “Wavelength-Dependent Transmission of Monomode Optical Fiber Tapers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 945 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, R. G. Lamont, “Wavelength Dependence in Fused Biconical Taper Splitter: Measurement and Control,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 567.

Kaiser, P.

Kawachi, M.

I. Yokohama, M. Kawachi, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Polarisation-Maintaining Fibre Couplers with Low Excess Loss,” Electron. Lett. 22, 929 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Shibata, M. Kawachi, M. Tokuda, “Differential Stress Distribution in a Polarisation-Holding Fibre Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 20, 244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawachi, B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of Single-Polarisation Single-Mode-Fibre Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 962 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

M. Kawachi, B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of Single-Polarisation Single-Mode-Fibre Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 962 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-Taper Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 6, 327 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacroix, S.

Lamont, R. G.

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-Taper Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 6, 327 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, R. G. Lamont, “Wavelength Dependence in Fused Biconical Taper Splitter: Measurement and Control,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 567.

Lapierre, J.

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henly, “Quantifying Loss Minimisation in Single-Mode Fibre Tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Stewart, J. D. Love, “Design Limitation on Tapers and Couplers in Single Mode Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 559.

Noda, J.

I. Yokohama, J. Noda, K. Okamoto, “Fiber-Coupler Fabrication with Automatic Fusion-Elongation Processes for Low Excess Loss and High Coupling-Ratio Accuracy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 910 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, M. Kawachi, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Polarisation-Maintaining Fibre Couplers with Low Excess Loss,” Electron. Lett. 22, 929 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Analysis of Fiber-Optic Polarizing Beam Splitters Consisting of Fused-Taper Couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1352 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasaki, T. Hosaka, J. Noda, “Low Crosstalk Polarisation-Maintaining Optical Fibre with an 11 km Length,” Electron. Lett. 20, 784 (1984).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, K. Chida, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Transmission Characteristics of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” in Extended Abstracts, Forty-Seventh Autumn Meeting 1986; The Japan Society of Applied Physics, 27p-x-2, 185 (1986).

I. Yokahama, K. Okamoto, K. Chida, J. Noda, “Analysis of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” National Conference Record, 1987, Semiconductor Devices and Materials, The Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers448, 2–235 (1987).

Okamoto, K.

I. Yokohama, J. Noda, K. Okamoto, “Fiber-Coupler Fabrication with Automatic Fusion-Elongation Processes for Low Excess Loss and High Coupling-Ratio Accuracy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 910 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, M. Kawachi, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Polarisation-Maintaining Fibre Couplers with Low Excess Loss,” Electron. Lett. 22, 929 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Analysis of Fiber-Optic Polarizing Beam Splitters Consisting of Fused-Taper Couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1352 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokahama, K. Okamoto, K. Chida, J. Noda, “Analysis of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” National Conference Record, 1987, Semiconductor Devices and Materials, The Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers448, 2–235 (1987).

I. Yokohama, K. Chida, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Transmission Characteristics of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” in Extended Abstracts, Forty-Seventh Autumn Meeting 1986; The Japan Society of Applied Physics, 27p-x-2, 185 (1986).

Pearson, A. D.

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, T. Hosaka, J. Noda, “Low Crosstalk Polarisation-Maintaining Optical Fibre with an 11 km Length,” Electron. Lett. 20, 784 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, M. Kawachi, M. Tokuda, “Differential Stress Distribution in a Polarisation-Holding Fibre Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 20, 244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

W. J. Stewart, J. D. Love, “Design Limitation on Tapers and Couplers in Single Mode Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 559.

Tokuda, M.

N. Shibata, M. Kawachi, M. Tokuda, “Differential Stress Distribution in a Polarisation-Holding Fibre Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 20, 244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tynes, A. R.

Yokahama, I.

I. Yokahama, K. Okamoto, K. Chida, J. Noda, “Analysis of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” National Conference Record, 1987, Semiconductor Devices and Materials, The Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers448, 2–235 (1987).

Yokohama, I.

I. Yokohama, J. Noda, K. Okamoto, “Fiber-Coupler Fabrication with Automatic Fusion-Elongation Processes for Low Excess Loss and High Coupling-Ratio Accuracy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 910 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, M. Kawachi, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Polarisation-Maintaining Fibre Couplers with Low Excess Loss,” Electron. Lett. 22, 929 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Analysis of Fiber-Optic Polarizing Beam Splitters Consisting of Fused-Taper Couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1352 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, K. Chida, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Transmission Characteristics of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” in Extended Abstracts, Forty-Seventh Autumn Meeting 1986; The Japan Society of Applied Physics, 27p-x-2, 185 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (5)

I. Yokohama, M. Kawachi, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Polarisation-Maintaining Fibre Couplers with Low Excess Loss,” Electron. Lett. 22, 929 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawachi, B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, T. Edahiro, “Fabrication of Single-Polarisation Single-Mode-Fibre Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 962 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasaki, T. Hosaka, J. Noda, “Low Crosstalk Polarisation-Maintaining Optical Fibre with an 11 km Length,” Electron. Lett. 20, 784 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love, W. M. Henly, “Quantifying Loss Minimisation in Single-Mode Fibre Tapers,” Electron. Lett. 22, 912 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Shibata, M. Kawachi, M. Tokuda, “Differential Stress Distribution in a Polarisation-Holding Fibre Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 20, 244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Analysis of Fiber-Optic Polarizing Beam Splitters Consisting of Fused-Taper Couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1352 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, J. Noda, K. Okamoto, “Fiber-Coupler Fabrication with Automatic Fusion-Elongation Processes for Low Excess Loss and High Coupling-Ratio Accuracy,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 910 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

I. Yokohama, K. Chida, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, “Transmission Characteristics of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” in Extended Abstracts, Forty-Seventh Autumn Meeting 1986; The Japan Society of Applied Physics, 27p-x-2, 185 (1986).

I. Yokahama, K. Okamoto, K. Chida, J. Noda, “Analysis of Birefringent Fiber Tapers,” National Conference Record, 1987, Semiconductor Devices and Materials, The Institute of Electronics, Information, and Communication Engineers448, 2–235 (1987).

W. J. Stewart, J. D. Love, “Design Limitation on Tapers and Couplers in Single Mode Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 559.

A. C. Boucouvalas, G. Georgiou, “Tapering of Single Mode Optical Fibers,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 575.

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, R. G. Lamont, “Wavelength Dependence in Fused Biconical Taper Splitter: Measurement and Control,” in Technical Digest, Fifth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication–Eleventh European Conference on Optical Communication, Venice (1985), p. 567.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of a polarization-maintaining fiber coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional views of PANDA fibers used: (a) conventional PANDA fiber with index-depressed stress applying parts (P1), and (b) PANDA fiber with index-matched stress applying parts (P2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional views of fused regions: (a) P1 coupler and (b) P2 coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral characteristics of excess loss and coupling ratio for y polarization: (a) P1 couplers and (b) P2 couplers. Solid, broken, dash–dot–dash, and dash–dot–dot–dash lines in (a) indicate characteristics of P1-1, P1-2, P1-3, and P1-4, respectively. And solid, broken, and dash–dot–dash lines in (b) indicate characteristics of P2-1, P2-2, and P2-3, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between waist diameter D2 and wavelength λ where excess loss for y polarization rises above 1 dB for P1 couplers. V is defined by V = [ ( π D 2 ) / λ ] / n 2 - 1 , where n is the refractive index of the cladding.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral characteristics of excess losses and coupling ratios of P1 couplers for x and y polarizations: (a) P1-1 and (b) P1-3. Solid and broken lines indicate characteristics for x and y polarizations, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral characteristics of excess losses and coupling ratios of P2 couplers for x and y polarizations: (a) P2-1 and (b) P2-2. Solid and broken lines indicate characteristics for x and y polarizations, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Field intensity distributions in fused regions of P1 couplers for y polarization at 1.3-μm wavelengths: (a) P1-1 and (b) P1-3.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Field intensity distributions in fused regions of P2-2 for y polarization at 1.3-μm wavelength.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Structural Parameters and Characteristics of Fused Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Couplers.

Equations (2)

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V = π D 2 λ n 2 - 1 ,
Δ θ = 0 L Δ β d z ,

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