Abstract

Described in detail is a new high resolution spectroscopic facility which utilizes a 6.65-m off-plane Eagle spectrometer and synchrotron radiation from an electron storage ring light source. This facility has been constructed to provide a national capability for research in the atomic and molecular sciences which combines spectroscopic resolution in excess of 105 with a stable and calibrated VUV continuum light source. High resolution is obtained using blazed 4800-groove/mm gratings, which produce linear dispersions of 0.3 Å/mm in first order. The fore optics in the beam line portion of the facility enhances the polarization of the VUV radiation from the storage ring to provide light to the experimental areas, which is highly polarized parallel to the plane of the storage ring. The beam line also contains several stages of differential pumping to permit high gas load experiments. There are three principal experimental areas in the facility: in front of the spectrometer’s entrance slit, on the carriage which scans along the focal curve of the 6.65-m instrument, and behind the chamber containing the focal curve scanner. Several experiments currently in progress or preparation are discussed briefly.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. L. Ginter, “The High Resolution (>1.5 × 105) VUV Spectroscopic Facilities in Japan and the United States,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 474 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. L. Ginter, C. M. Brown, “A New High Resolution VUV Spectroscopic Facility at SURF II,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 469 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Ederer, S. C. Ebner, “A User Guide to SURF,” U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC.
  4. C. M. Brown, M. L. Ginter, “Polarization Enhancing Optical System for a High-Resolution VUV Spectroscopic Facility at a Synchrotron Light Source,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4034 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Cooper, E. Saloman, U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology; private communication.
  6. G. A. Weissler, R. W. Carlson, Eds., Methods of Experimental Physics, Vol. 14, Vacuum Physics and Technology (Academic, New York, 1975), Chap. 1.
  7. T. Namioka, “Design of High-Resolution Monochromator for the Vacuum Ultraviolet: An Application of Off-Plane Eagle Mounting,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 961 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. B. Orth, M. L. Ginter, K. Yoshino, C. M. Brown, “Vacuum UV Performance of a New 6.65-m Concave Diffraction Grating with 4800 Grooves/mm,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2218 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Ueda, W. T. Hill, M. L. Ginter, “Short-Length, Large-Bore Metal Vapor Cell,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 888 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. T. Hill, “Column-Density Meter: A High Precision Technique for Measuring Line-of-Sight Vapor Densities,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4426 (1986).
  11. J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, B. E. Cole, Shardanand, “Electric Field Effects on the Absorption Spectra of H2 near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1832 (1983); J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Stark Effect on the Oscillator-Strength Distribution of Helium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 1452 (1982); B. E. Cole, J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Field-Induced Autoionization in Rare-Gas Absorption Spectra near the Ionization Threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 887 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, J. R. Roberts, “Capillary Array: A New Type of Window for the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2505 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (5)

M. L. Ginter, “The High Resolution (>1.5 × 105) VUV Spectroscopic Facilities in Japan and the United States,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 474 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Ginter, C. M. Brown, “A New High Resolution VUV Spectroscopic Facility at SURF II,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 469 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Ueda, W. T. Hill, M. L. Ginter, “Short-Length, Large-Bore Metal Vapor Cell,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 888 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Orth, M. L. Ginter, K. Yoshino, C. M. Brown, “Vacuum UV Performance of a New 6.65-m Concave Diffraction Grating with 4800 Grooves/mm,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2218 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Hill, “Column-Density Meter: A High Precision Technique for Measuring Line-of-Sight Vapor Densities,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4426 (1986).

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, B. E. Cole, Shardanand, “Electric Field Effects on the Absorption Spectra of H2 near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1832 (1983); J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Stark Effect on the Oscillator-Strength Distribution of Helium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 1452 (1982); B. E. Cole, J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Field-Induced Autoionization in Rare-Gas Absorption Spectra near the Ionization Threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 887 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, J. R. Roberts, “Capillary Array: A New Type of Window for the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2505 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

Brown, C. M.

Cole, B. E.

J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, B. E. Cole, Shardanand, “Electric Field Effects on the Absorption Spectra of H2 near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1832 (1983); J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Stark Effect on the Oscillator-Strength Distribution of Helium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 1452 (1982); B. E. Cole, J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Field-Induced Autoionization in Rare-Gas Absorption Spectra near the Ionization Threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 887 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

J. Cooper, E. Saloman, U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology; private communication.

Cooper, J. W.

J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, B. E. Cole, Shardanand, “Electric Field Effects on the Absorption Spectra of H2 near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1832 (1983); J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Stark Effect on the Oscillator-Strength Distribution of Helium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 1452 (1982); B. E. Cole, J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Field-Induced Autoionization in Rare-Gas Absorption Spectra near the Ionization Threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 887 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ebner, S. C.

D. L. Ederer, S. C. Ebner, “A User Guide to SURF,” U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC.

Ederer, D. L.

D. L. Ederer, S. C. Ebner, “A User Guide to SURF,” U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC.

Ginter, M. L.

M. L. Ginter, “The High Resolution (>1.5 × 105) VUV Spectroscopic Facilities in Japan and the United States,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 474 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Ueda, W. T. Hill, M. L. Ginter, “Short-Length, Large-Bore Metal Vapor Cell,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 888 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Ginter, C. M. Brown, “A New High Resolution VUV Spectroscopic Facility at SURF II,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 469 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Orth, M. L. Ginter, K. Yoshino, C. M. Brown, “Vacuum UV Performance of a New 6.65-m Concave Diffraction Grating with 4800 Grooves/mm,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2218 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Brown, M. L. Ginter, “Polarization Enhancing Optical System for a High-Resolution VUV Spectroscopic Facility at a Synchrotron Light Source,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4034 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, W. T.

W. T. Hill, “Column-Density Meter: A High Precision Technique for Measuring Line-of-Sight Vapor Densities,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4426 (1986).

K. Ueda, W. T. Hill, M. L. Ginter, “Short-Length, Large-Bore Metal Vapor Cell,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 888 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lucatorto, T. B.

T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, J. R. Roberts, “Capillary Array: A New Type of Window for the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2505 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIlrath, T. J.

T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, J. R. Roberts, “Capillary Array: A New Type of Window for the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2505 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namioka, T.

Orth, F. B.

Roberts, J. R.

T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, J. R. Roberts, “Capillary Array: A New Type of Window for the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2505 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saloman, E.

J. Cooper, E. Saloman, U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology; private communication.

Saloman, E. B.

J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, B. E. Cole, Shardanand, “Electric Field Effects on the Absorption Spectra of H2 near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1832 (1983); J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Stark Effect on the Oscillator-Strength Distribution of Helium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 1452 (1982); B. E. Cole, J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Field-Induced Autoionization in Rare-Gas Absorption Spectra near the Ionization Threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 887 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shardanand,

J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, B. E. Cole, Shardanand, “Electric Field Effects on the Absorption Spectra of H2 near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1832 (1983); J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Stark Effect on the Oscillator-Strength Distribution of Helium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 1452 (1982); B. E. Cole, J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Field-Induced Autoionization in Rare-Gas Absorption Spectra near the Ionization Threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 887 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

K. Ueda, W. T. Hill, M. L. Ginter, “Short-Length, Large-Bore Metal Vapor Cell,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 888 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

Appl. Opt. (1)

T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, J. R. Roberts, “Capillary Array: A New Type of Window for the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2505 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

M. L. Ginter, C. M. Brown, “A New High Resolution VUV Spectroscopic Facility at SURF II,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 469 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

M. L. Ginter, “The High Resolution (>1.5 × 105) VUV Spectroscopic Facilities in Japan and the United States,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 246, 474 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, B. E. Cole, Shardanand, “Electric Field Effects on the Absorption Spectra of H2 near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 28, 1832 (1983); J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Stark Effect on the Oscillator-Strength Distribution of Helium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 1452 (1982); B. E. Cole, J. W. Cooper, E. B. Saloman, “Field-Induced Autoionization in Rare-Gas Absorption Spectra near the Ionization Threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 887 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. Ueda, W. T. Hill, M. L. Ginter, “Short-Length, Large-Bore Metal Vapor Cell,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 888 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. L. Ederer, S. C. Ebner, “A User Guide to SURF,” U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC.

J. Cooper, E. Saloman, U.S. National Institute of Standards & Technology; private communication.

G. A. Weissler, R. W. Carlson, Eds., Methods of Experimental Physics, Vol. 14, Vacuum Physics and Technology (Academic, New York, 1975), Chap. 1.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top: schematic of the major elements of the facility at SURF II. Bottom: schematic representation (side view) of the high resolution spectroscopic facility.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the UHV beam line of the facility. Items 7, 11, and 18 are vacuum boxes containing cylindrical mirrors which match the 60 × 6 mrad of radiation from SURF II to the 20 × 20 mrad accepted by the grating in the 6.65-m spectrometer. Items 4, 8, 12, 21, 24, and 25 are various pumps. Items 5 are bellows sections which permit independent alignment of boxes 7, 11, and 13, and pipe sections 10 and 17. Items I are gate valves with Pyrex windows in their gates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated transmittance and percentage purity of S-polarized (parallel polarized) radiation transmitted from the synchrotron by the three-mirror (gold coated) fore optics system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Views of mounting and alignment frames for mirror box 2: (A) 20-cm i.d. stainless steel cross (1), which is the UHV vacuum shell of the mirror box, mounted with nylon standoffs (3) in an aluminum box (2). Steel rods (4), which press fit into side plate (2) and the identical plate opposite (2), provide a rotation axis for the mirror. The mirror is suspended to this axis from a flange mounted to the top flange on the cross. (B) Aluminum box and vacuum cross seen in (A) mounted in a horizontal and vertical positioning frame. The same rotation rod (4) is visible in (A) and (B). Also indicated in (B) are rotation locking screws and their access holes (5), bolt and slot (6) mounts which provide for horizontal travel, and a portion of one of the vertical mounting plates (7).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Main beam line supports (black frame) and beam line early in the installation period. Mirror boxes 2 and 3 (containing M2 and M3, respectively) are indicated. The orientation of the mirror box frames etc. for M2 seen mounted in the support frame in (A) and on the bench in Fig. 4(B) is nearly the same. Arrow B indicates the direction and position of view seen in Fig. 5(B). Figure 5(B) is a side view of the beam line near mirror box 2 with the following items specifically indicated: (1) alignment mounts for pipe sections; (2) screw drive for vertical positioning of M2; (3) screw drive and lock screw for rotation of M2; (4) bolt slots in main support frame to permit vertical travel for M2 [bolts through these slots attach to bars 7 in Fig. 4(B)]; (5) bellows; (6) access hole and pivot rod (2 in Fig. 4); and (7) band heater with clamp. The three holes and cap screw heads visible near (6) are clearance holes and locking screws like 5 of Fig. 4(B).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

View of beam line near pumping station B (item 2) during the mounting of the 20-cm access cross (10) and cryopump (11), ion pump (9), residual gas analyzer (8), and ionization gauge (6). Also indicated is part of an aluminum split cylinder and band heater arrangement (6) used in heating the pipe sections to speed degassing, the pivot rod and micrometer block (5) for mirror box 3, a second cryopump (4), one of the four sets of cap screws (3) which mount the bars supporting pumping station A to the main support frame, and a 10-cm gate valve (1) with Pyrex window.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(A) Seven-channel conductance reducing array used between mirror boxes 1 and 2 as seen before mounting in its pipe section. (B) End of the pipe section and mounted conductance reducing array used between mirror boxes 2 and 3, as seen from the direction of mirror box 3. (C) Pipe section and array in (B) as seen from the direction of mirror box 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic side view of main spectrometer tank (33–38) and base block (39). Numbers continue from Fig. 2 with the line from 26 and 27 indicating the entrance slit (behind 28) and optical exit port, respectively; 28 is the focal curve scanner attachment, 30 and 35 are spectrometer positioning mounts, 31 and 42 are pumps, and 40 is a vibration reduction structure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Focal curve scanner attachment from the grating: (1) slit and platform; (2) rotatable vacuum tank; (3) fixed mounting flange; (4) drive rod; (5) drive transfer arm; (6) drive motor; (7) Unislide screw driven carriage; and (8) spacer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic of focal curve scanner attachment without exit slit holder and with the area around the main vacuum chamber in cross section: 1–8 are the same as in Fig. 9. Other items:

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Focal curve scanner near the exit slit viewed from behind the slit looking toward the grating: (1) horizontal exit slit; (2) slit width adjustment micrometer; (3) exit slit experiment positioning mount; (5) rotary stage; (6) scanner carriage; (7) guide plate; (8) radius face on guide plate; and (9) typical precision rollers on carriage.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Absorption cell mounted on the scanner attachment: (1) scanner carriage; (2) slit tilt micrometer; (3) exit slit width micrometer (modified from Figs. 9 and 11, see text); (4) absorption cell; (5) photon counter; (6) gas inlet to absorption cell; (7) horizontal positioning mount; (8) guide plate; and (9) radius guide surface.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Gas handling and pressure measuring systems for the absorption cell system shown in Fig. 12: (1) drive transfer arm; (2) gas inlet elbow to inlet line (6) in Fig. 12; (3) gas supply and flow metering system; (4) bypass valve connecting spectrometer vacuum to gas cell inlet line; (5) insulation for Pulscale and Unislide units; (6) electrical feedthrough for photon counters; (7) 15-cm diam access port; (8) inlet elbow to second gas line (see text); and (9) capacitance manometers.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Schematic of the gas inlet and pressure measuring arrangements for the absorption cell mounted behind the slit of the scanner attachment. Gas flows past one capacitance manometer M through large diameter bellows and tubes to the gas cell and out the exit slit into the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer. The gas pressure also is measured just before entering the cell through a large diameter closed end sidearm which leads to a second capacitance manometer.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Absorption measurements near the 789.813-and 789.803-Å lines of Ar I obtained using the gas cell in Fig. 12 and an argon pressure of 0.2 Torr. Experimental data (plotted points) are from a single scan with the solid line overlays outlining symmetric (unblended) single line profiles. The ordinate and abscissa are values for the background IB minus absorption cell IC photon counter signals and for the scanner carriage position (Pulscale readings), respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table I Summary of Pumps Attached to the HRSF, Spring 1988

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