Abstract

Repetitively Q-switching a Nd:YAG laser during a single flashlamp pulse has been used successfully to generate a train of acoustic pulses with a repetition rate as high as 53 kHz. The spectral content of this multiple-pulse ultrasonic signal is significantly narrower in bandwidth than that of a single pulse. A corresponding reduction in the detection system bandwidth results in a marked improvement in detection sensitivity.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. B. Scruby, R. J. Dewhurst, D. A. Hutchins, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Ultrasound in Metals,” in Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 5, R. S. Sharpe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1982).
  2. A. M. Aindow, R. J. Dewhurst, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Directional Surface Acoustic Wave Pulses in Metals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 116 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Cielo, F. Nadeau, M. Lamontagne, “Laser Generation of Convergent Acoustic Waves for Materials Inspection,” Ultrasonics 23, 55 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Whitman, A. Korpel, “Probing of Acoustic Surface Perturbations by Coherent Light,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1567 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. P. Monchalin, “Optical Detection of Ultrasound,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control UFCC-33, 485 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. H. Palmer, R. E. Green, “Optical Probing of Acoustic Emission Waves,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials, J. J. Burke, V. Weiss, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. DeLaRue, R. F. Humphryes, I. M. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic Surface Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements Using Laser Probes,” IEEE Proc. 119, 117 (1972).
  8. J. W. Wagner, J. B. Spicer, “Theoretical Noise Limited Sensitivity of Classical Interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1316 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Geusic, M. L. Hensel, R. G. Smith, “A Repetitively Q-Switched, Continuously Pumped YAG:Nd Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 175 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin, “Operation of a Continuously Pumped Repetitively Q-Switched YAlG:Nd Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 406 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. J. Woodbury, “Five Kilohertz Repetition Rate Pulsed YAG:Nd Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 509 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. W. Mackintosh, “Double Etalon Q-Switching of a Continuously Pumped Nd-YAG Laser,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1991 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “Repetitively Q-Switched Nd:YAlG-LiO3 0.53-μ Harmonic Source,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4125 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “An Experimental and Theoretical Study of High Repetition Rate Q-Switched Nd:YAIG Laser,” IEEE Proc. 58, 1899 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986).
  16. Quantel International, Manual for Model 580C Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser.

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

J. P. Monchalin, “Optical Detection of Ultrasound,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control UFCC-33, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P. Cielo, F. Nadeau, M. Lamontagne, “Laser Generation of Convergent Acoustic Waves for Materials Inspection,” Ultrasonics 23, 55 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

A. M. Aindow, R. J. Dewhurst, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Directional Surface Acoustic Wave Pulses in Metals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 116 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. M. DeLaRue, R. F. Humphryes, I. M. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic Surface Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements Using Laser Probes,” IEEE Proc. 119, 117 (1972).

1970 (2)

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “Repetitively Q-Switched Nd:YAlG-LiO3 0.53-μ Harmonic Source,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4125 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “An Experimental and Theoretical Study of High Repetition Rate Q-Switched Nd:YAIG Laser,” IEEE Proc. 58, 1899 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

1967 (2)

R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin, “Operation of a Continuously Pumped Repetitively Q-Switched YAlG:Nd Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 406 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Woodbury, “Five Kilohertz Repetition Rate Pulsed YAG:Nd Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 509 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. E. Geusic, M. L. Hensel, R. G. Smith, “A Repetitively Q-Switched, Continuously Pumped YAG:Nd Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 175 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aindow, A. M.

A. M. Aindow, R. J. Dewhurst, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Directional Surface Acoustic Wave Pulses in Metals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 116 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ash, E. A.

R. M. DeLaRue, R. F. Humphryes, I. M. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic Surface Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements Using Laser Probes,” IEEE Proc. 119, 117 (1972).

Chesler, R. B.

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “Repetitively Q-Switched Nd:YAlG-LiO3 0.53-μ Harmonic Source,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4125 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “An Experimental and Theoretical Study of High Repetition Rate Q-Switched Nd:YAIG Laser,” IEEE Proc. 58, 1899 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cielo, P.

P. Cielo, F. Nadeau, M. Lamontagne, “Laser Generation of Convergent Acoustic Waves for Materials Inspection,” Ultrasonics 23, 55 (1985).
[CrossRef]

DeLaRue, R. M.

R. M. DeLaRue, R. F. Humphryes, I. M. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic Surface Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements Using Laser Probes,” IEEE Proc. 119, 117 (1972).

Dewhurst, R. J.

A. M. Aindow, R. J. Dewhurst, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Directional Surface Acoustic Wave Pulses in Metals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 116 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Scruby, R. J. Dewhurst, D. A. Hutchins, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Ultrasound in Metals,” in Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 5, R. S. Sharpe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1982).

Galvin, M. F.

R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin, “Operation of a Continuously Pumped Repetitively Q-Switched YAlG:Nd Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 406 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Geusic, J. E.

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “Repetitively Q-Switched Nd:YAlG-LiO3 0.53-μ Harmonic Source,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4125 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “An Experimental and Theoretical Study of High Repetition Rate Q-Switched Nd:YAIG Laser,” IEEE Proc. 58, 1899 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, M. L. Hensel, R. G. Smith, “A Repetitively Q-Switched, Continuously Pumped YAG:Nd Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 175 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. E.

C. H. Palmer, R. E. Green, “Optical Probing of Acoustic Emission Waves,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials, J. J. Burke, V. Weiss, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

Hensel, M. L.

J. E. Geusic, M. L. Hensel, R. G. Smith, “A Repetitively Q-Switched, Continuously Pumped YAG:Nd Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 175 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Humphryes, R. F.

R. M. DeLaRue, R. F. Humphryes, I. M. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic Surface Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements Using Laser Probes,” IEEE Proc. 119, 117 (1972).

Hutchins, D. A.

C. B. Scruby, R. J. Dewhurst, D. A. Hutchins, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Ultrasound in Metals,” in Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 5, R. S. Sharpe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1982).

Karr, M. A.

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “Repetitively Q-Switched Nd:YAlG-LiO3 0.53-μ Harmonic Source,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4125 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “An Experimental and Theoretical Study of High Repetition Rate Q-Switched Nd:YAIG Laser,” IEEE Proc. 58, 1899 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Korpel, A.

Lamontagne, M.

P. Cielo, F. Nadeau, M. Lamontagne, “Laser Generation of Convergent Acoustic Waves for Materials Inspection,” Ultrasonics 23, 55 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mackintosh, I. W.

Mason, I. M.

R. M. DeLaRue, R. F. Humphryes, I. M. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic Surface Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements Using Laser Probes,” IEEE Proc. 119, 117 (1972).

Monchalin, J. P.

J. P. Monchalin, “Optical Detection of Ultrasound,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control UFCC-33, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, F.

P. Cielo, F. Nadeau, M. Lamontagne, “Laser Generation of Convergent Acoustic Waves for Materials Inspection,” Ultrasonics 23, 55 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, C. H.

C. H. Palmer, R. E. Green, “Optical Probing of Acoustic Emission Waves,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials, J. J. Burke, V. Weiss, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, S. B.

A. M. Aindow, R. J. Dewhurst, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Directional Surface Acoustic Wave Pulses in Metals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 116 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Scruby, R. J. Dewhurst, D. A. Hutchins, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Ultrasound in Metals,” in Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 5, R. S. Sharpe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1982).

Scruby, C. B.

C. B. Scruby, R. J. Dewhurst, D. A. Hutchins, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Ultrasound in Metals,” in Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 5, R. S. Sharpe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1982).

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986).

Smith, R. G.

R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin, “Operation of a Continuously Pumped Repetitively Q-Switched YAlG:Nd Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 406 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, M. L. Hensel, R. G. Smith, “A Repetitively Q-Switched, Continuously Pumped YAG:Nd Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 175 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, J. B.

Wagner, J. W.

Whitman, R. L.

Woodbury, E. J.

E. J. Woodbury, “Five Kilohertz Repetition Rate Pulsed YAG:Nd Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 509 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. E. Geusic, M. L. Hensel, R. G. Smith, “A Repetitively Q-Switched, Continuously Pumped YAG:Nd Laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 175 (1965).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. G. Smith, M. F. Galvin, “Operation of a Continuously Pumped Repetitively Q-Switched YAlG:Nd Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 406 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Woodbury, “Five Kilohertz Repetition Rate Pulsed YAG:Nd Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 509 (1967).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Proc (1)

R. M. DeLaRue, R. F. Humphryes, I. M. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic Surface Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements Using Laser Probes,” IEEE Proc. 119, 117 (1972).

IEEE Proc. (1)

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “An Experimental and Theoretical Study of High Repetition Rate Q-Switched Nd:YAIG Laser,” IEEE Proc. 58, 1899 (1970).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

J. P. Monchalin, “Optical Detection of Ultrasound,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control UFCC-33, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. B. Chesler, M. A. Karr, J. E. Geusic, “Repetitively Q-Switched Nd:YAlG-LiO3 0.53-μ Harmonic Source,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4125 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. M. Aindow, R. J. Dewhurst, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Directional Surface Acoustic Wave Pulses in Metals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 116 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasonics (1)

P. Cielo, F. Nadeau, M. Lamontagne, “Laser Generation of Convergent Acoustic Waves for Materials Inspection,” Ultrasonics 23, 55 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. H. Palmer, R. E. Green, “Optical Probing of Acoustic Emission Waves,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials, J. J. Burke, V. Weiss, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1979).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1986).

Quantel International, Manual for Model 580C Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser.

C. B. Scruby, R. J. Dewhurst, D. A. Hutchins, S. B. Palmer, “Laser Generation of Ultrasound in Metals,” in Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 5, R. S. Sharpe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1982).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus for repetitively Q-switched laser generation and piezoelectric detection of ultrasound in a long thin rod.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raw acoustic signal generated by ten Q-switched laser pulses fired during a single flashlamp cycle. The individual acoustic pulses are numbered for reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power spectrum generated by an FFT algorithm for the multiple acoustic pulse signal of Fig. 2, compared with that of a single acoustic pulse (pulse 2 in Fig. 2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Filtered reproduction of the multiple pulse trace in Fig. 2. Rudimentary digital comb filtering eliminated frequency components of relative power of <5000 in Fig. 3, and an inverse FFT then produced this trace.

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