Abstract

The increasing attention paid in recent years to control of surface quality has exposed the lack of objectivity of existing standards relating to flaws such as digs and scratches. The present requirements of the customer and supplier of optical components for improved standards are discussed, and recent attempts to satisfy these requirements are reviewed. It is concluded that a technique, described as comparator microscopy, in which a width of line or slit is identified which removes from a transmitted or reflected beam the same amount of light as the flaw under examination, has much in its favor in terms of user needs. The method, which is under consideration as the basis of an ISO standard, is described, and results are presented indicating how this concept of line-equivalent width can be used to compare different national standard flaws. Extending this technique to measure flaws and polish on-machine is suggested as a future possibility.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Martin, “Influence of Surface Defects on the Glare Characteristics of a Night Vision System with Refractive Optics,” Opt. Acta 25, 1113 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wiener, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt 23, 3820 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Nyyssonen, “Theory of Optical Edge Detection and Imaging of Thick Layers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1425 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Young, “Objective Measurement and Characterisation of Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 86 (1982).
  5. E. G. Johnson, “Simulating the Scratch Standards for Optical Surfaces: Theory,” Appl. Opt. 22, 4056 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, “Standards for Optical Surface Quality Using Total Integrated Scattering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).
  7. MIL-O-13830A (1975). Optical components for fire control instruments: general specifications covering their manufacture, assembly, and inspection.
  8. BS 4301 (1982). Recommendations for the preparation of drawings for optical elements and systems.
  9. DIN 3140/7. Surface defects.
  10. M. Young, E. G. Johnson, “Tunable Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 70 (1985).
  11. M. Young, “Scratch-and-Dig Standard Revisited,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1922 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. A. Slater, D. A. Cox, “Scratches: at What Price Quality?,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 654, 68 (1986).
  13. A. J. Cormier, “Assessment of Current Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 152 (1987).
  14. R. E. Parks, “Progress on International Optics Standards,” Opt. News 13(9), 31 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Huard, “Visibility Method to Classify Macroscopic Surface Defects for Both Reflection and Transmission Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 36 (1985).
  16. L. R. Baker, “Microscope Image Comparator,” Opt. Acta 31, 611 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. R. Baker, “Surface Texture and Imaging Quality of Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, 23 (1987).
  18. L. R. Baker, J. Singh, “Comparison of Visibility of Standard Scratches,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 64 (1985).

1987

A. J. Cormier, “Assessment of Current Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 152 (1987).

R. E. Parks, “Progress on International Optics Standards,” Opt. News 13(9), 31 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Baker, “Surface Texture and Imaging Quality of Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, 23 (1987).

1986

M. Young, “Scratch-and-Dig Standard Revisited,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1922 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Slater, D. A. Cox, “Scratches: at What Price Quality?,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 654, 68 (1986).

1985

M. Young, E. G. Johnson, “Tunable Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 70 (1985).

L. R. Baker, J. Singh, “Comparison of Visibility of Standard Scratches,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 64 (1985).

A. Huard, “Visibility Method to Classify Macroscopic Surface Defects for Both Reflection and Transmission Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 36 (1985).

1984

L. R. Baker, “Microscope Image Comparator,” Opt. Acta 31, 611 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wiener, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt 23, 3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

1982

D. Nyyssonen, “Theory of Optical Edge Detection and Imaging of Thick Layers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1425 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Young, “Objective Measurement and Characterisation of Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 86 (1982).

1979

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, “Standards for Optical Surface Quality Using Total Integrated Scattering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

1978

S. Martin, “Influence of Surface Defects on the Glare Characteristics of a Night Vision System with Refractive Optics,” Opt. Acta 25, 1113 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baker, L. R.

L. R. Baker, “Surface Texture and Imaging Quality of Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, 23 (1987).

L. R. Baker, J. Singh, “Comparison of Visibility of Standard Scratches,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 64 (1985).

L. R. Baker, “Microscope Image Comparator,” Opt. Acta 31, 611 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, H. E.

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, “Standards for Optical Surface Quality Using Total Integrated Scattering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

Bennett, J. M.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wiener, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt 23, 3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, “Standards for Optical Surface Quality Using Total Integrated Scattering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

Burge, D. K.

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, “Standards for Optical Surface Quality Using Total Integrated Scattering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

Cormier, A. J.

A. J. Cormier, “Assessment of Current Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 152 (1987).

Cox, D. A.

J. A. Slater, D. A. Cox, “Scratches: at What Price Quality?,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 654, 68 (1986).

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wiener, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt 23, 3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huard, A.

A. Huard, “Visibility Method to Classify Macroscopic Surface Defects for Both Reflection and Transmission Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 36 (1985).

Johnson, E. G.

M. Young, E. G. Johnson, “Tunable Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 70 (1985).

E. G. Johnson, “Simulating the Scratch Standards for Optical Surfaces: Theory,” Appl. Opt. 22, 4056 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, S.

S. Martin, “Influence of Surface Defects on the Glare Characteristics of a Night Vision System with Refractive Optics,” Opt. Acta 25, 1113 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nyyssonen, D.

Parks, R. E.

R. E. Parks, “Progress on International Optics Standards,” Opt. News 13(9), 31 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, J. P.

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, “Standards for Optical Surface Quality Using Total Integrated Scattering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

Singh, J.

L. R. Baker, J. Singh, “Comparison of Visibility of Standard Scratches,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 64 (1985).

Slater, J. A.

J. A. Slater, D. A. Cox, “Scratches: at What Price Quality?,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 654, 68 (1986).

Wiener, P. G.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wiener, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt 23, 3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, M.

M. Young, “Scratch-and-Dig Standard Revisited,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1922 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Young, E. G. Johnson, “Tunable Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 70 (1985).

M. Young, “Objective Measurement and Characterisation of Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 86 (1982).

Appl. Opt

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wiener, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt 23, 3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Acta

S. Martin, “Influence of Surface Defects on the Glare Characteristics of a Night Vision System with Refractive Optics,” Opt. Acta 25, 1113 (1978).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Baker, “Microscope Image Comparator,” Opt. Acta 31, 611 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. News

R. E. Parks, “Progress on International Optics Standards,” Opt. News 13(9), 31 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

A. Huard, “Visibility Method to Classify Macroscopic Surface Defects for Both Reflection and Transmission Systems,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 36 (1985).

J. A. Slater, D. A. Cox, “Scratches: at What Price Quality?,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 654, 68 (1986).

A. J. Cormier, “Assessment of Current Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 805, 152 (1987).

L. R. Baker, “Surface Texture and Imaging Quality of Mirrors,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 830, 23 (1987).

L. R. Baker, J. Singh, “Comparison of Visibility of Standard Scratches,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 64 (1985).

M. Young, E. G. Johnson, “Tunable Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 525, 70 (1985).

M. Young, “Objective Measurement and Characterisation of Scratch Standards,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 362, 86 (1982).

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, “Standards for Optical Surface Quality Using Total Integrated Scattering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

Other

MIL-O-13830A (1975). Optical components for fire control instruments: general specifications covering their manufacture, assembly, and inspection.

BS 4301 (1982). Recommendations for the preparation of drawings for optical elements and systems.

DIN 3140/7. Surface defects.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flaw is quantified by comparing low angle scatter with that produced by a standard when both are viewed under dark field illumination.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical microscope image comparator configuration for quantifying flaws in terms of line-equivalent widths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope image comparator for quantifying flaws on blocked optical components.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flaws can be quantified as a line-equivalent width measured here in microns.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A ( 1 - t ) cos 2 θ + B sin 2 θ at the test flaw ,
A cos 2 θ + B ( 1 - r ) sin 2 θ at the reference flaw ,
A ( 1 - t ) cos 2 θ + B sin 2 θ = A cos 2 θ + B ( 1 - r ) sin 2 θ
A t = B r tan 2 θ .
t / r = tan 2 θ .
t 1 / t 2 = tan 2 θ 1 / tan 2 θ 2 .

Metrics