Abstract

The quantum efficiencies of semiconductor photodiodes have been measured at photon energies from 5 to 3500 eV. For silicon photodiodes strong radiation-induced effects were found. GaAsP and GaP Schottky diodes show remarkable stability and high quantum efficiency. Use of Schottky diodes for spectroscopic and radiometric measurements is discussed.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. M. Corallo, D. M. Creek, G. M. Murray, “The X-Ray Calibration of Silicon PIN Diodes Between 1.5 and 17.5 keV,” J. Phys. E 13, 623 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Barth, E. Tegeler, M. Krisch, R. Wolf, “Characteristics and Applications of Semiconductor Photodiodes from the Visible to the X-Ray Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 481 (1986).
  3. R. C. Alig, S. Bloom, C. W. Struck, “Scattering by Ionization and Photon Emission in Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 22, 5565 (1980).
  4. E. Sakai, “Present Status of Room Temperature Semiconductor Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 196, 121 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kobayashi, “Average Energy to Form Electron-Hole Pairs in, GaP Diodes with Alpha Particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 150 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Geist, “Photodiode Operating Mode Nomenclature,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2033 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Dietz, J. Würtemberg, W. Peatman, “2 m Seya Namioka Monochromator,” BESSY Annual Report (1985), p. 238.
  8. J. Fischer, M. Kühne, B. Wende, “Spectral Radiant Power Measurements of VUV and Soft X-Ray Sources Using the Electron Storage Ring BESSY as a Radiometric Standard Source,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4252 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Jark, C. Kunz, “Output Diagnostics of the Grazing Incidence Plane Grating Monochromator Bumble Bee (15–1500 eV),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 320 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “Crystal Monochromator at BESSY,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 242 (1986).
  11. B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Lenth, “Messung des Photonenflusses monochromatisierter Synchrotronstrahlung im Spektralbereich 20 eV bis 160 eV und Bestimmung der absoluten photoelektrischen Ausbeute von Edelgasatomen, Au, A12O3, LiF und CsJ Aufdampfschichten,” Thesis, U. Hamburg (1975); see also W. Gudat, C. Kunz in Instrumentation for Spectroscopy and Other Applications, C. Kunz, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979).
  13. W. M. Veigele, “Photon Cross Sections from 0.1 keV to 1 MeV for Elements Z = 1 to Z = 94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 5, 51 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. M. Dozier, D. B. Brown, J. L. Throckmorton, D. I. Ma, “Defect Production in SiO2 by X-Ray and Co-60 Radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 4363 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Korde, J. Geist, “Quantum Efficiency Stability of Silicon Photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5284 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Kühne, E. Tegeler, “On the Suitability of Semiconductor Photodiodes as Standard Detectors in the VUV,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium of the IMEKO Technical Committee TC2, Braunschweig (1987).
  17. M. Kühne, E. Tegeler, “Quantum Efficiency and Radiation Damage of Silicon Photodiodes in the Vicinity of the Si L-Absorption Edge,” in Abstracts, Eighth International Conference on VUV Radiaiton Physics, P. O. Nilsson, Ed. Lund (1986), p. 281.
  18. A. D. Wilson, H. Lyall, “Design of an Ultraviolet Radiometer. 1: Detector Electrical Characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4530 (1986); “Design of an Ultraviolet Radiometer. 2: Detector Optical Characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4540 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Bertolini, A. Coche, Semiconductors Detectors (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1968), p. 133.
  21. F. Riehle, B. Wende, “Electron Storage Ring BESSY as a Radiometric Source of Calculable Spectral Radiant Power Between 0.5 and 1000 nm,” Opt. Lett. 10, 365 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Jach, P. L. Cowan, “PIN Diodes as Detectors in the Energy Region 500 eV–10 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 423 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. E. Boulding, R. A. Forman, M. I. Bell, “Silicon Photodiode Detector for Fluorescence EXAFS,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1891 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. V. Marr, J. B. West, “Absolute Photoionization Cross-Section Tables for Helium, Neon, Argon, and Krypton in the VUV Spectral Regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18, 497 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. B. West, J. Morton, “Absolute Photoionization Cross-Section Tables for Xenon in the VUV and the Soft X-Ray Regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 103 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. T. Myers, “Ionization,” in Radiation Dosimetry, Vol. 1, F. H. Attix, W. C. Roesch, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1968).
  27. J. A. R. Samson, G. N. Haddad, “Average Energy Loss per Ion Pair Formation by Photon and Electron Impact on Xenon Between Threshold and 90 eV,” Radiat. Res. 66, 1 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. H. Day, P. Lee, E. B. Saloman, D. J. Nagel, “X-Ray Diodes for Laser Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Los Alamos Report LA-012-79-1360 (1981).

1987 (2)

C. E. Boulding, R. A. Forman, M. I. Bell, “Silicon Photodiode Detector for Fluorescence EXAFS,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1891 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Korde, J. Geist, “Quantum Efficiency Stability of Silicon Photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 26, 5284 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (5)

J. Geist, “Photodiode Operating Mode Nomenclature,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2033 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Wilson, H. Lyall, “Design of an Ultraviolet Radiometer. 1: Detector Electrical Characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4530 (1986); “Design of an Ultraviolet Radiometer. 2: Detector Optical Characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4540 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Barth, E. Tegeler, M. Krisch, R. Wolf, “Characteristics and Applications of Semiconductor Photodiodes from the Visible to the X-Ray Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 481 (1986).

W. Jark, C. Kunz, “Output Diagnostics of the Grazing Incidence Plane Grating Monochromator Bumble Bee (15–1500 eV),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 320 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “Crystal Monochromator at BESSY,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 242 (1986).

1985 (2)

C. M. Dozier, D. B. Brown, J. L. Throckmorton, D. I. Ma, “Defect Production in SiO2 by X-Ray and Co-60 Radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 4363 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. Riehle, B. Wende, “Electron Storage Ring BESSY as a Radiometric Source of Calculable Spectral Radiant Power Between 0.5 and 1000 nm,” Opt. Lett. 10, 365 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

T. Jach, P. L. Cowan, “PIN Diodes as Detectors in the Energy Region 500 eV–10 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 423 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Sakai, “Present Status of Room Temperature Semiconductor Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 196, 121 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

R. C. Alig, S. Bloom, C. W. Struck, “Scattering by Ionization and Photon Emission in Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 22, 5565 (1980).

D. M. Corallo, D. M. Creek, G. M. Murray, “The X-Ray Calibration of Silicon PIN Diodes Between 1.5 and 17.5 keV,” J. Phys. E 13, 623 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. B. West, J. Morton, “Absolute Photoionization Cross-Section Tables for Xenon in the VUV and the Soft X-Ray Regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 103 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

J. A. R. Samson, G. N. Haddad, “Average Energy Loss per Ion Pair Formation by Photon and Electron Impact on Xenon Between Threshold and 90 eV,” Radiat. Res. 66, 1 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Marr, J. B. West, “Absolute Photoionization Cross-Section Tables for Helium, Neon, Argon, and Krypton in the VUV Spectral Regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18, 497 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

W. M. Veigele, “Photon Cross Sections from 0.1 keV to 1 MeV for Elements Z = 1 to Z = 94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 5, 51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

T. Kobayashi, “Average Energy to Form Electron-Hole Pairs in, GaP Diodes with Alpha Particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 150 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Alig, R. C.

R. C. Alig, S. Bloom, C. W. Struck, “Scattering by Ionization and Photon Emission in Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 22, 5565 (1980).

Barth, J.

J. Barth, E. Tegeler, M. Krisch, R. Wolf, “Characteristics and Applications of Semiconductor Photodiodes from the Visible to the X-Ray Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 481 (1986).

Bell, M. I.

C. E. Boulding, R. A. Forman, M. I. Bell, “Silicon Photodiode Detector for Fluorescence EXAFS,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1891 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bertolini, G.

G. Bertolini, A. Coche, Semiconductors Detectors (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1968), p. 133.

Bloom, S.

R. C. Alig, S. Bloom, C. W. Struck, “Scattering by Ionization and Photon Emission in Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 22, 5565 (1980).

Boulding, C. E.

C. E. Boulding, R. A. Forman, M. I. Bell, “Silicon Photodiode Detector for Fluorescence EXAFS,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1891 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. B.

C. M. Dozier, D. B. Brown, J. L. Throckmorton, D. I. Ma, “Defect Production in SiO2 by X-Ray and Co-60 Radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 4363 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Coche, A.

G. Bertolini, A. Coche, Semiconductors Detectors (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1968), p. 133.

Corallo, D. M.

D. M. Corallo, D. M. Creek, G. M. Murray, “The X-Ray Calibration of Silicon PIN Diodes Between 1.5 and 17.5 keV,” J. Phys. E 13, 623 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, P. L.

T. Jach, P. L. Cowan, “PIN Diodes as Detectors in the Energy Region 500 eV–10 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 423 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Creek, D. M.

D. M. Corallo, D. M. Creek, G. M. Murray, “The X-Ray Calibration of Silicon PIN Diodes Between 1.5 and 17.5 keV,” J. Phys. E 13, 623 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Day, R. H.

R. H. Day, P. Lee, E. B. Saloman, D. J. Nagel, “X-Ray Diodes for Laser Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Los Alamos Report LA-012-79-1360 (1981).

Dietz, E.

E. Dietz, J. Würtemberg, W. Peatman, “2 m Seya Namioka Monochromator,” BESSY Annual Report (1985), p. 238.

Dozier, C. M.

C. M. Dozier, D. B. Brown, J. L. Throckmorton, D. I. Ma, “Defect Production in SiO2 by X-Ray and Co-60 Radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 4363 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Feldhaus, J.

J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “Crystal Monochromator at BESSY,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 242 (1986).

Fischer, J.

Forman, R. A.

C. E. Boulding, R. A. Forman, M. I. Bell, “Silicon Photodiode Detector for Fluorescence EXAFS,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1891 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fujikawa, B. K.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Geist, J.

Haddad, G. N.

J. A. R. Samson, G. N. Haddad, “Average Energy Loss per Ion Pair Formation by Photon and Electron Impact on Xenon Between Threshold and 90 eV,” Radiat. Res. 66, 1 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jach, T.

T. Jach, P. L. Cowan, “PIN Diodes as Detectors in the Energy Region 500 eV–10 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 423 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

W. Jark, C. Kunz, “Output Diagnostics of the Grazing Incidence Plane Grating Monochromator Bumble Bee (15–1500 eV),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 320 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, J. P.

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, “Average Energy to Form Electron-Hole Pairs in, GaP Diodes with Alpha Particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 150 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Korde, R.

Krisch, M.

J. Barth, E. Tegeler, M. Krisch, R. Wolf, “Characteristics and Applications of Semiconductor Photodiodes from the Visible to the X-Ray Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 481 (1986).

Kühne, M.

J. Fischer, M. Kühne, B. Wende, “Spectral Radiant Power Measurements of VUV and Soft X-Ray Sources Using the Electron Storage Ring BESSY as a Radiometric Standard Source,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4252 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kühne, E. Tegeler, “Quantum Efficiency and Radiation Damage of Silicon Photodiodes in the Vicinity of the Si L-Absorption Edge,” in Abstracts, Eighth International Conference on VUV Radiaiton Physics, P. O. Nilsson, Ed. Lund (1986), p. 281.

M. Kühne, E. Tegeler, “On the Suitability of Semiconductor Photodiodes as Standard Detectors in the VUV,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium of the IMEKO Technical Committee TC2, Braunschweig (1987).

Kunz, C.

W. Jark, C. Kunz, “Output Diagnostics of the Grazing Incidence Plane Grating Monochromator Bumble Bee (15–1500 eV),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 320 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Day, P. Lee, E. B. Saloman, D. J. Nagel, “X-Ray Diodes for Laser Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Los Alamos Report LA-012-79-1360 (1981).

Lenth, W.

W. Lenth, “Messung des Photonenflusses monochromatisierter Synchrotronstrahlung im Spektralbereich 20 eV bis 160 eV und Bestimmung der absoluten photoelektrischen Ausbeute von Edelgasatomen, Au, A12O3, LiF und CsJ Aufdampfschichten,” Thesis, U. Hamburg (1975); see also W. Gudat, C. Kunz in Instrumentation for Spectroscopy and Other Applications, C. Kunz, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979).

Lyall, H.

Ma, D. I.

C. M. Dozier, D. B. Brown, J. L. Throckmorton, D. I. Ma, “Defect Production in SiO2 by X-Ray and Co-60 Radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 4363 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Marr, G. V.

G. V. Marr, J. B. West, “Absolute Photoionization Cross-Section Tables for Helium, Neon, Argon, and Krypton in the VUV Spectral Regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18, 497 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Morton, J.

J. B. West, J. Morton, “Absolute Photoionization Cross-Section Tables for Xenon in the VUV and the Soft X-Ray Regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 103 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Murray, G. M.

D. M. Corallo, D. M. Creek, G. M. Murray, “The X-Ray Calibration of Silicon PIN Diodes Between 1.5 and 17.5 keV,” J. Phys. E 13, 623 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Myers, I. T.

I. T. Myers, “Ionization,” in Radiation Dosimetry, Vol. 1, F. H. Attix, W. C. Roesch, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1968).

Nagel, D. J.

R. H. Day, P. Lee, E. B. Saloman, D. J. Nagel, “X-Ray Diodes for Laser Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Los Alamos Report LA-012-79-1360 (1981).

Peatman, W.

J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “Crystal Monochromator at BESSY,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 242 (1986).

E. Dietz, J. Würtemberg, W. Peatman, “2 m Seya Namioka Monochromator,” BESSY Annual Report (1985), p. 238.

Premaratne, K.

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

Sakai, E.

E. Sakai, “Present Status of Room Temperature Semiconductor Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 196, 121 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Saloman, E. B.

R. H. Day, P. Lee, E. B. Saloman, D. J. Nagel, “X-Ray Diodes for Laser Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Los Alamos Report LA-012-79-1360 (1981).

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, G. N. Haddad, “Average Energy Loss per Ion Pair Formation by Photon and Electron Impact on Xenon Between Threshold and 90 eV,” Radiat. Res. 66, 1 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schäfers, F.

J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “Crystal Monochromator at BESSY,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 242 (1986).

Shimabukuro, R. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Struck, C. W.

R. C. Alig, S. Bloom, C. W. Struck, “Scattering by Ionization and Photon Emission in Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 22, 5565 (1980).

Tanaka, T. J.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tegeler, E.

J. Barth, E. Tegeler, M. Krisch, R. Wolf, “Characteristics and Applications of Semiconductor Photodiodes from the Visible to the X-Ray Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 481 (1986).

M. Kühne, E. Tegeler, “Quantum Efficiency and Radiation Damage of Silicon Photodiodes in the Vicinity of the Si L-Absorption Edge,” in Abstracts, Eighth International Conference on VUV Radiaiton Physics, P. O. Nilsson, Ed. Lund (1986), p. 281.

M. Kühne, E. Tegeler, “On the Suitability of Semiconductor Photodiodes as Standard Detectors in the VUV,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium of the IMEKO Technical Committee TC2, Braunschweig (1987).

Throckmorton, J. L.

C. M. Dozier, D. B. Brown, J. L. Throckmorton, D. I. Ma, “Defect Production in SiO2 by X-Ray and Co-60 Radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 4363 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Veigele, W. M.

W. M. Veigele, “Photon Cross Sections from 0.1 keV to 1 MeV for Elements Z = 1 to Z = 94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 5, 51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wende, B.

West, J. B.

J. B. West, J. Morton, “Absolute Photoionization Cross-Section Tables for Xenon in the VUV and the Soft X-Ray Regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 103 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Marr, J. B. West, “Absolute Photoionization Cross-Section Tables for Helium, Neon, Argon, and Krypton in the VUV Spectral Regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18, 497 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, A. D.

Wolf, R.

J. Barth, E. Tegeler, M. Krisch, R. Wolf, “Characteristics and Applications of Semiconductor Photodiodes from the Visible to the X-Ray Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 481 (1986).

Würtemberg, J.

E. Dietz, J. Würtemberg, W. Peatman, “2 m Seya Namioka Monochromator,” BESSY Annual Report (1985), p. 238.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Kobayashi, “Average Energy to Form Electron-Hole Pairs in, GaP Diodes with Alpha Particles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 150 (1972).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (4)

W. M. Veigele, “Photon Cross Sections from 0.1 keV to 1 MeV for Elements Z = 1 to Z = 94,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 5, 51 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Marr, J. B. West, “Absolute Photoionization Cross-Section Tables for Helium, Neon, Argon, and Krypton in the VUV Spectral Regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18, 497 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. B. West, J. Morton, “Absolute Photoionization Cross-Section Tables for Xenon in the VUV and the Soft X-Ray Regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 103 (1978).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

C. M. Dozier, D. B. Brown, J. L. Throckmorton, D. I. Ma, “Defect Production in SiO2 by X-Ray and Co-60 Radiations,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 4363 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. L. Henke, J. P. Knauer, K. Premaratne, “The Characterization of X-Ray Photocathodes in the 0.1–10 keV Photon Energy Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

D. M. Corallo, D. M. Creek, G. M. Murray, “The X-Ray Calibration of Silicon PIN Diodes Between 1.5 and 17.5 keV,” J. Phys. E 13, 623 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (2)

E. Sakai, “Present Status of Room Temperature Semiconductor Detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 196, 121 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Jach, P. L. Cowan, “PIN Diodes as Detectors in the Energy Region 500 eV–10 keV,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 208, 423 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

W. Jark, C. Kunz, “Output Diagnostics of the Grazing Incidence Plane Grating Monochromator Bumble Bee (15–1500 eV),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 246, 320 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. C. Alig, S. Bloom, C. W. Struck, “Scattering by Ionization and Photon Emission in Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 22, 5565 (1980).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

J. Barth, E. Tegeler, M. Krisch, R. Wolf, “Characteristics and Applications of Semiconductor Photodiodes from the Visible to the X-Ray Region,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 481 (1986).

J. Feldhaus, F. Schäfers, W. Peatman, “Crystal Monochromator at BESSY,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 733, 242 (1986).

Radiat. Res. (1)

J. A. R. Samson, G. N. Haddad, “Average Energy Loss per Ion Pair Formation by Photon and Electron Impact on Xenon Between Threshold and 90 eV,” Radiat. Res. 66, 1 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. E. Boulding, R. A. Forman, M. I. Bell, “Silicon Photodiode Detector for Fluorescence EXAFS,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1891 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

I. T. Myers, “Ionization,” in Radiation Dosimetry, Vol. 1, F. H. Attix, W. C. Roesch, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1968).

E. Dietz, J. Würtemberg, W. Peatman, “2 m Seya Namioka Monochromator,” BESSY Annual Report (1985), p. 238.

M. Kühne, E. Tegeler, “On the Suitability of Semiconductor Photodiodes as Standard Detectors in the VUV,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium of the IMEKO Technical Committee TC2, Braunschweig (1987).

M. Kühne, E. Tegeler, “Quantum Efficiency and Radiation Damage of Silicon Photodiodes in the Vicinity of the Si L-Absorption Edge,” in Abstracts, Eighth International Conference on VUV Radiaiton Physics, P. O. Nilsson, Ed. Lund (1986), p. 281.

W. Lenth, “Messung des Photonenflusses monochromatisierter Synchrotronstrahlung im Spektralbereich 20 eV bis 160 eV und Bestimmung der absoluten photoelektrischen Ausbeute von Edelgasatomen, Au, A12O3, LiF und CsJ Aufdampfschichten,” Thesis, U. Hamburg (1975); see also W. Gudat, C. Kunz in Instrumentation for Spectroscopy and Other Applications, C. Kunz, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979).

R. H. Day, P. Lee, E. B. Saloman, D. J. Nagel, “X-Ray Diodes for Laser Fusion Plasma Diagnostics,” Los Alamos Report LA-012-79-1360 (1981).

G. Bertolini, A. Coche, Semiconductors Detectors (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1968), p. 133.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Construction of a diffusion type Si diode and a Schottky diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stability of three different semiconductor diodes when irradiated with 1010 photons/(s mm2) at 124 eV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantum efficiency of a GaAsP Schottky diode, determined on different monochromators by comparison with photoemissive detectors (see Table I). The quantum efficiencies of the photoemissive reference diodes are also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Responsivity of a GaP and a GaAsP Schottky diode without bias (—) and with a bias of 4.5 V(------).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum efficiency of our gold reference cathode and literature data for the quantum efficiency of gold: —, Refs. 11 and 12; ------, Ref. 28.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Monochromators and Reference Detectors Used for Calibration of Schottky Diodes

Equations (4)

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s ( E ) = η ( E ) · e E ,
x s = 2 · · 0 · ( V 0 + V ) e · N d ,
N phot , a N ion = W E .
N phot , i = N ion · W E · exp ( - σ n l ) · [ 1 - exp ( - σ n L ) ] ,

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