Abstract

An experimental study to ascertain the role of external electron donor in methylene blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG) holograms has been carried out. The required volume holographic transmission gratings in MBDCG have been recorded using 633-nm light from a He–Ne laser. Three well-known electron donors, namely, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF); ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); triethanolamine (TEA), were used in this study. The variation of diffraction efficiency (η) as a function of light exposure (E) and concentration (C) of the electron donor under consideration was chosen as the figure of merit for judging the role of external electron donor in MBDCG holograms. A self-consistent analysis of the experimental results was carried out by recalling the various known facts about the photochemistry and the hologram formation in DSDCG and also DCG. The important findings and conclusions are as follows: (i) Each η vs E graph is a bell-shaped curve and its peak height is influenced in a characteristic manner by the external electron donor used. (ii) High diffraction efficiency/recording speed can be achieved in pure MBDCG holograms. (iii) The diffraction efficiency/recording speed achieved in electron donor sensitized MBDCG holograms did not show any significant improvement at all over that observed in pure MBDCG holograms. (iv) In electron donor sensitized MBDCG holograms, the electron donor used, depending on its type and concentration, appears to promote the process of cross-linking of gelatin molecules in a manner to either retain or deteriorate the refractive-index modulation achieved using pure MBDCG.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. M. Smith, Ed., Holographic Recording Materials (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 75–99.
  2. B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Changkakoti, S. V. Pappu, “Study on the pH Dependence of Diffraction Efficiency of Phase Holograms in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 25, 798 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Graube, “Dye-Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin for Holographic Optical Element Fabrication,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 37 (1978).
  5. A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Akagi, “Spectral Sensitization of Dichromated Gelatin,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 18, 248 (1974).
  7. T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Kubota, T. Ose, “Methods of Increasing the Sensitivity of Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2538 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. G. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Holograms,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  10. N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).
  11. C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Red Sensitivity of Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1189 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. It is interesting to note from the literature that the concentration of EDTA added to the sensitizer solution of MBDCG has always been <10 g/liter.
  13. G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photochemical Modifications of High Polymers by Visible Light,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 321 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Oster, N Wootherspoon, “Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4836 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photoreduction of Metal Ions by Visible Light,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 5543 (1959).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1980 (2)

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

A. Graube, “Dye-Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin for Holographic Optical Element Fabrication,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 37 (1978).

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

M. Akagi, “Spectral Sensitization of Dichromated Gelatin,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 18, 248 (1974).

1973 (1)

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. G. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Holograms,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

1960 (1)

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photochemical Modifications of High Polymers by Visible Light,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 321 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photoreduction of Metal Ions by Visible Light,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 5543 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

G. Oster, N Wootherspoon, “Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4836 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Akagi, M.

M. Akagi, “Spectral Sensitization of Dichromated Gelatin,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 18, 248 (1974).

Chang, B. J.

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Changkakoti, R.

Cullen, R.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

Graube, A.

A. Graube, “Dye-Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin for Holographic Optical Element Fabrication,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 37 (1978).

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Honda, K.

Kogelnik, H. G.

H. G. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Holograms,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Kubota, T.

Lessard, R. A.

Ose, T.

Oster, G.

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photochemical Modifications of High Polymers by Visible Light,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 321 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photoreduction of Metal Ions by Visible Light,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 5543 (1959).
[CrossRef]

G. Oster, N Wootherspoon, “Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4836 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Oster, G. K.

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photochemical Modifications of High Polymers by Visible Light,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 321 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photoreduction of Metal Ions by Visible Light,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 5543 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Pappu, S. V.

Phillips, N. J.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

Porter, D.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

Roberge, P. C.

Sasaki, M.

Solano, C.

Ward, A. A.

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

Wootherspoon, N

G. Oster, N Wootherspoon, “Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4836 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. G. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Holograms,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

G. Oster, N Wootherspoon, “Photoreduction of Methylene Blue by Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 4836 (1957).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photoreduction of Metal Ions by Visible Light,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 5543 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Polymer Sci. (1)

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Photochemical Modifications of High Polymers by Visible Light,” J. Polymer Sci. 48, 321 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. J. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Photogr. Sci. Eng. (3)

A. Graube, “Dye-Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin for Holographic Optical Element Fabrication,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 22, 37 (1978).

M. Akagi, “Spectral Sensitization of Dichromated Gelatin,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 18, 248 (1974).

N. J. Phillips, A. A. Ward, R. Cullen, D. Porter, “Advances in Holographic Bleaches,” Photogr. Sci. Eng. 24, 120 (1980).

Other (2)

It is interesting to note from the literature that the concentration of EDTA added to the sensitizer solution of MBDCG has always been <10 g/liter.

H. M. Smith, Ed., Holographic Recording Materials (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 75–99.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of η with E in MBDCG holographic transmission gratings for different concentrations of DMF. The solid lines represent the data generated by least-squares analysis of the experimental data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of η with E in MBDCG holographic transmission gratings for different concentrations of EDTA. The solid lines represent the data generated by least-squares analysis of the experimental data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of η with E in MBDCG holographic transmission gratings for different concentrations of TEA. The solid lines represent the data generated by least-squares analysis of the experimental data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of η with E data on DSDCG and DCG holographic transmission gratings obtained from three different sources including our present work. Note that, for reading the E values in the case of the data of Solano et al. (i.e., curve 3), a scale factor of 1000 should be used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of η p with C in MBDCG holographic transmission gratings for the three types of electron donor used. Note that, for reading the C values in the case of DMF (i.e., curve 1), a scale factor of 5 should be used.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Specifications and End Use of the Important Chemicals Used in the Study

Tables Icon

Table II Specifications and End Use of Measuring Instruments Used in the Study

Tables Icon

Table III Procedures for Making MBDCG Holograms

Tables Icon

Table IV Data on the Variation of Diffraction Efficiency with Exposure at Different Concentrations of Electron Donor

Tables Icon

Table V Data on the Variation of Peak Diffraction Efficiency with Concentration of Electron Donor

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = 2 π λ d n 0 Λ 2 ,
η = I 1 I T ,

Metrics