Abstract

A new multiangle light scattering instrument is described for the classification of single aerosol particles in a flowing gas stream. Simultaneous measurement at sixteen scattering angles over the surface of a spherical chamber permits determination of a variety of optical observables useful for the subsequent characterization of each measured particle. Particles of 0.2–4.0-μm diameter have been measured and data collected at rates exceeding 200 particles/s. Data from polystyrene latex particles, liquid droplets, and irregular particles are shown. Spherical particle data are compared to theoretical calculations and used to confirm the validity of the measurement as well as a powerful calibration procedure.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. J. Wyatt, “Differential Light Scattering: A Physical Method for Identifying Living Bacterial Cells,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1879 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. M. Quist, P. J. Wyatt, “Empirical Solution to the Inverse Scattering Problem,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1979 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. D. Cooke, M. Kerker, “Response Calculations for Light Scattering Aerosol Particle Counters,” Appl. Opt. 14, 734 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, R. M. Berkman, “Measurement of the Lorenz-Mie Scattering of a Single Particle: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 159 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. M. Blau, D. J. McCleese, D. Watson, “Scattering by Individual Transparent Spheres,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2522 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, “Single Particle Light Scattering Measurements: Photochemical Aerosols and Atmospheric Particulates,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2082 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “The Observation of Resonances in the Radiation Pressure on Dielectric Spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. J. Wyatt, D. T. Phillips, “Structure of Single Bacteria from Light Scattering,” J. Theoret. Biol. 37, 493 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Wyatt, “Light Scattering in the Microbial World,” J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 39, 479 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. J. Wyatt, “Observations on the Structure of Spores,” J. Appl. Bacteriol. 38, 47 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. D. Cooke, M. Kerker, “Particle Size Distribution of Colloidal Suspensions by Light Scattering Based upon Single Particle Counts: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 42, 1 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. R. Stull, “Size Distribution of Bacterial Cells,” J. Bacteriol. 109, 1301 (1972).
    [PubMed]
  13. E. J. Davis, E. Chorbajian, “The Measurement of Evaporation Rates of Submicron Aerosol Droplets,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 13, 272 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. J. Davis, A. K. Ray, “Submicron Droplet Evaporation in the Continuum and Non-continuum Regimes,” J. Aerosol Sci. 9, 411 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. J. Davis, P. Ravindran, A. K. Ray, “A Review of Theory and Experiments on Diffusion from Submicron Particles,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 5, 251 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. One unit is at WTC in Santa Barbara, CA and the other unit at the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development & Engineering Laboratory, Aberdeen, MD.
  17. P. J. Wyatt, “Some Chemical, Physical, and Optical Properties of Fly Ash Particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 975 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).
  19. P. J. Wyatt, “Scattering of Electromagnetic Plane Waves from Inhomogeneous Spherically Symmetric Objects,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1837 (1962); ErratumPhys. Rev. 134, ABI (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

1985 (1)

1980 (2)

P. J. Wyatt, “Some Chemical, Physical, and Optical Properties of Fly Ash Particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 975 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Davis, P. Ravindran, A. K. Ray, “A Review of Theory and Experiments on Diffusion from Submicron Particles,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 5, 251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

E. J. Davis, A. K. Ray, “Submicron Droplet Evaporation in the Continuum and Non-continuum Regimes,” J. Aerosol Sci. 9, 411 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “The Observation of Resonances in the Radiation Pressure on Dielectric Spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

1974 (1)

E. J. Davis, E. Chorbajian, “The Measurement of Evaporation Rates of Submicron Aerosol Droplets,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 13, 272 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

D. D. Cooke, M. Kerker, “Particle Size Distribution of Colloidal Suspensions by Light Scattering Based upon Single Particle Counts: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 42, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (4)

V. R. Stull, “Size Distribution of Bacterial Cells,” J. Bacteriol. 109, 1301 (1972).
[PubMed]

P. J. Wyatt, D. T. Phillips, “Structure of Single Bacteria from Light Scattering,” J. Theoret. Biol. 37, 493 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Wyatt, “Light Scattering in the Microbial World,” J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 39, 479 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, “Single Particle Light Scattering Measurements: Photochemical Aerosols and Atmospheric Particulates,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2082 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (2)

H. M. Blau, D. J. McCleese, D. Watson, “Scattering by Individual Transparent Spheres,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2522 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, R. M. Berkman, “Measurement of the Lorenz-Mie Scattering of a Single Particle: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1962 (1)

P. J. Wyatt, “Scattering of Electromagnetic Plane Waves from Inhomogeneous Spherically Symmetric Objects,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1837 (1962); ErratumPhys. Rev. 134, ABI (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “The Observation of Resonances in the Radiation Pressure on Dielectric Spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Berkman, R. M.

D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, R. M. Berkman, “Measurement of the Lorenz-Mie Scattering of a Single Particle: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Blau, H. M.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).

Chorbajian, E.

E. J. Davis, E. Chorbajian, “The Measurement of Evaporation Rates of Submicron Aerosol Droplets,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 13, 272 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. D.

D. D. Cooke, M. Kerker, “Response Calculations for Light Scattering Aerosol Particle Counters,” Appl. Opt. 14, 734 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Cooke, M. Kerker, “Particle Size Distribution of Colloidal Suspensions by Light Scattering Based upon Single Particle Counts: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 42, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Davis, E. J.

E. J. Davis, P. Ravindran, A. K. Ray, “A Review of Theory and Experiments on Diffusion from Submicron Particles,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 5, 251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Davis, A. K. Ray, “Submicron Droplet Evaporation in the Continuum and Non-continuum Regimes,” J. Aerosol Sci. 9, 411 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Davis, E. Chorbajian, “The Measurement of Evaporation Rates of Submicron Aerosol Droplets,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 13, 272 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “The Observation of Resonances in the Radiation Pressure on Dielectric Spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

D. D. Cooke, M. Kerker, “Response Calculations for Light Scattering Aerosol Particle Counters,” Appl. Opt. 14, 734 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Cooke, M. Kerker, “Particle Size Distribution of Colloidal Suspensions by Light Scattering Based upon Single Particle Counts: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 42, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

McCleese, D. J.

Phillips, D. T.

D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, “Single Particle Light Scattering Measurements: Photochemical Aerosols and Atmospheric Particulates,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2082 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Wyatt, D. T. Phillips, “Structure of Single Bacteria from Light Scattering,” J. Theoret. Biol. 37, 493 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, R. M. Berkman, “Measurement of the Lorenz-Mie Scattering of a Single Particle: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Quist, G. M.

Ravindran, P.

E. J. Davis, P. Ravindran, A. K. Ray, “A Review of Theory and Experiments on Diffusion from Submicron Particles,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 5, 251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ray, A. K.

E. J. Davis, P. Ravindran, A. K. Ray, “A Review of Theory and Experiments on Diffusion from Submicron Particles,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 5, 251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Davis, A. K. Ray, “Submicron Droplet Evaporation in the Continuum and Non-continuum Regimes,” J. Aerosol Sci. 9, 411 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Stull, V. R.

V. R. Stull, “Size Distribution of Bacterial Cells,” J. Bacteriol. 109, 1301 (1972).
[PubMed]

Watson, D.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).

Wyatt, P. J.

G. M. Quist, P. J. Wyatt, “Empirical Solution to the Inverse Scattering Problem,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1979 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Wyatt, “Some Chemical, Physical, and Optical Properties of Fly Ash Particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 975 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Wyatt, “Observations on the Structure of Spores,” J. Appl. Bacteriol. 38, 47 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Wyatt, “Light Scattering in the Microbial World,” J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 39, 479 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Wyatt, D. T. Phillips, “Structure of Single Bacteria from Light Scattering,” J. Theoret. Biol. 37, 493 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, “Single Particle Light Scattering Measurements: Photochemical Aerosols and Atmospheric Particulates,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2082 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, R. M. Berkman, “Measurement of the Lorenz-Mie Scattering of a Single Particle: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Wyatt, “Differential Light Scattering: A Physical Method for Identifying Living Bacterial Cells,” Appl. Opt. 7, 1879 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Wyatt, “Scattering of Electromagnetic Plane Waves from Inhomogeneous Spherically Symmetric Objects,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1837 (1962); ErratumPhys. Rev. 134, ABI (1964).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Chem. Eng. Commun. (1)

E. J. Davis, P. Ravindran, A. K. Ray, “A Review of Theory and Experiments on Diffusion from Submicron Particles,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 5, 251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. (1)

E. J. Davis, E. Chorbajian, “The Measurement of Evaporation Rates of Submicron Aerosol Droplets,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 13, 272 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

E. J. Davis, A. K. Ray, “Submicron Droplet Evaporation in the Continuum and Non-continuum Regimes,” J. Aerosol Sci. 9, 411 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Bacteriol. (1)

P. J. Wyatt, “Observations on the Structure of Spores,” J. Appl. Bacteriol. 38, 47 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bacteriol. (1)

V. R. Stull, “Size Distribution of Bacterial Cells,” J. Bacteriol. 109, 1301 (1972).
[PubMed]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (2)

D. D. Cooke, M. Kerker, “Particle Size Distribution of Colloidal Suspensions by Light Scattering Based upon Single Particle Counts: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 42, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, R. M. Berkman, “Measurement of the Lorenz-Mie Scattering of a Single Particle: Polystyrene Latex,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 34, 159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid. Interface Sci. (1)

P. J. Wyatt, “Light Scattering in the Microbial World,” J. Colloid. Interface Sci. 39, 479 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Theoret. Biol. (1)

P. J. Wyatt, D. T. Phillips, “Structure of Single Bacteria from Light Scattering,” J. Theoret. Biol. 37, 493 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. J. Wyatt, “Scattering of Electromagnetic Plane Waves from Inhomogeneous Spherically Symmetric Objects,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1837 (1962); ErratumPhys. Rev. 134, ABI (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “The Observation of Resonances in the Radiation Pressure on Dielectric Spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

One unit is at WTC in Santa Barbara, CA and the other unit at the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development & Engineering Laboratory, Aberdeen, MD.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interrelation of key elements of the aerosol particle analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering chamber comprised of two aluminum hemispheres (subsequently anodized). Clearly visible are the optical collimator ports (small openings), forward optical fiber bundle ports, aerosol injector port (top), and laser entrance port.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of relative scattered intensity in the V-plane (normalized to 75°) from a nominal 500-nm polystyrene latex sphere at various scattering angles in the V-plane: ×, theory; ⋄, left angles (0–180°); □, right angles (0 to −180°).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scattering from five different B. subtilis cells in the V-plane normalized to 30°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Depolarization ratio at 55° (VH55/VV55) from over 200 polystyrene latex spheres (500-nm diameter).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative azimuthal scattering of three nominal 200-nm polystyrene latex spheres at 40°. Incident light circularly polarized.

Metrics