Abstract

A Monte Carlo simulation (the NORDA optical model) and the Three-Parameter Model of the submarine light field are used to analyze the effect of water Raman emission at 520 nm in clear ocean waters. Reported optical anomalies for clear ocean waters at longer wavelengths(520 nm +) are explained by the effects of water Raman emission, and the simulation results are confirmed by Biowatt–NORDA observations made in the Sargasso Sea. A new optical parametrization for clear ocean water is proposed.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An Optical Classification of Coastal and Oceanic Waters Based on the Specific Spectral Absorption Curves of Phytoplankton Pigments, Dissolved Organic Matter, and Other Particulate Materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In Situ Measurements of Absorption Spectra in the Sea,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 165 (1981).
  3. I. P. DePalma, D. F. Reid, “Optical Measurements with Related Chemical, Biological, and Physical Parameters from the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean,” NORDA Tech. Note 337 (1986).
  4. H. Pak, D. W. Menzies, J. C. Kitchen, “Optical Dynamics Experiment (ODEX) Data Report RNT Acania Expedition of 10 Oct. thru 17 Nov. 1982. Vol. 6: Scalar Spectral-Radiometer Data,” College of Oceanography, Oregon State U., Corvallis, Or, ONR Data Report 124, Ref 86-10 (Sept.1986).
  5. D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Observations of the Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Spectrum,” Deep Sea Res. 34, 547 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. Topliss, “Optical Measurements in the Sargasso Sea: Solar Stimulated Chlorophyll Fluorescence,” Oceanol. Acta 8, 263 (1985).
  7. R. H. Stavn, “Lambert-Beer Law in Ocean Waters: Optical Properties of Water and of Dissolved/Suspended Material, Optical Energy Budgets,” Appl. Opt. 27, 222 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman Scattering to Upward Irradiance in the Sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse Reflectance of the Ocean: the Theory of its Augmentation by Chlorophyll a Fluorescence at 685 nm,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1161 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. A. Siegel, C. R. Booth, T. D. Dickey, “Effects of Sensor Characteristics on the Inferred Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient Spectrum,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 637, 115 (1986).
  12. R. C. Dugdale, F. P. Wilkerson, R. T. Barber, D. Blasco, T. T. Packard, “Changes in Nutrients, pH, Light Penetration and Heat Budget by Migrating Photosynthetic Organisms,” Oceanol. Acta (in press).
  13. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Simultaneous Spectroscopic Detection of Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter and Fluorescence from Chlorophyll a and Other Naturally Occurring Pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Detection of Oceanic Turbidity Cell Structure Using Depth-Resolved Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3778 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of Water Raman Emission to Correct Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Data for Effects of Water Optical Attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. J. Exton, W. M. Houghton, W. Esaias, R. C. Harriss, F. H. Farmer, H. H. White, “Laboratory Analysis of Techniques for Remote Sensing of Estuarine Parameters Using Laser Excitation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 54 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).
  18. R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U. S. Department of Commerce, NOAA-ERL, Washington, DC, 1976).
  19. L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, “Water Raman Normalization of Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Measurements: A Computer Model Study,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. H. Stavn, “The Three-Parameter Model of the Submarine Light Field: Radiant Energy Absorption and Energy Trapping in Nepheloid Layers Recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo Procedure for Simulating the Penetration of Light into Natural Waters,” CSIRO Div. Plant Ind. Techn. Pap. 36, 16p (1981).
  22. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo Calculations of Radiative Transfer in the Earth’s Atmosphere–Ocean System: I. Flux in the Atmosphere and Ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed Relationships Between the Inherent and Apparent Optical Properties of a Flat Homogeneous Ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Morel, “In-Water and Remote Measurements of Ocean Color,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 177 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Morel, “Optical Properties of Pure Water and Pure Sea Water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), p. 1.
  26. G. Kullenberg, “Observed and Computed Scattering Functions,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), p. 25.
  27. E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere. Scattering by Molecules and Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1976).
  28. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U.P., London, 1983).
  29. D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).
  30. D. Eisenberg, D. Crothers, Physical Chemistry (Cummings, Menlo Park, 1979).
  31. D. Eisenberg, W. Kauzmann, The Structure and Properties of Water (Oxford U.P., New York, 1969).
  32. E. B. Wilson, J. C. Decius, P. C. Cross, Molecular Vibrations. The Theory of Infrared and Raman Vibrational Spectra (Dover, New York, 1980).
  33. C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement from Raman Spectra,” Research Note 960, N62269-73-C-0073, sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Order 2194 (Jan.1974).
  34. R. B. Slusher, V. E. Derr, “Temperature Dependence and Cross Sections of Some Stokes and Anti-Stokes Raman Lines in Ice Ih,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2116 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. A. T. Young, “Rayleigh Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 20, 533 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. P. R. Gast, “Solar Electromagnetic Radiation. Sec. 16.1. Solar Irradiance,” in Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments, S. L. Valley, Ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, MA, 1965).
  37. G. E. Walrafen, “Raman Spectral Studies of the Effects of Temperature on Water Stucture,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical Properties of the Clearest Natural Waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. G. Schellenberger, “Die Form der Raumlichen Strahlungsverteilung in Gewassern,” Acta Hydrophys. 14, 207 (1969).
  40. G. Schellenberger, “Uber Zusammenhange Zwischen Optischen Parametern von Gewassern,” Acta Hydrophys. 10, 79 (1965).
  41. G. N. Plass, T. J. Humphreys, G. W. Kattawar, “Ocean-Atmosphere Interface: Its Influence on Radiation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 917 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. V. Peck, “Spectral Transmissometer and Radiometer (STAR): Preliminary Results,” Eos 68, 1683 (1987).

1988 (1)

1987 (3)

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Observations of the Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Spectrum,” Deep Sea Res. 34, 547 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, “The Three-Parameter Model of the Submarine Light Field: Radiant Energy Absorption and Energy Trapping in Nepheloid Layers Recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. V. Peck, “Spectral Transmissometer and Radiometer (STAR): Preliminary Results,” Eos 68, 1683 (1987).

1986 (2)

I. P. DePalma, D. F. Reid, “Optical Measurements with Related Chemical, Biological, and Physical Parameters from the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean,” NORDA Tech. Note 337 (1986).

D. A. Siegel, C. R. Booth, T. D. Dickey, “Effects of Sensor Characteristics on the Inferred Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient Spectrum,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 637, 115 (1986).

1985 (1)

B. J. Topliss, “Optical Measurements in the Sargasso Sea: Solar Stimulated Chlorophyll Fluorescence,” Oceanol. Acta 8, 263 (1985).

1984 (1)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman Scattering to Upward Irradiance in the Sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

1981 (8)

1980 (1)

A. Morel, “In-Water and Remote Measurements of Ocean Color,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

1972 (1)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo Calculations of Radiative Transfer in the Earth’s Atmosphere–Ocean System: I. Flux in the Atmosphere and Ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

G. Schellenberger, “Die Form der Raumlichen Strahlungsverteilung in Gewassern,” Acta Hydrophys. 14, 207 (1969).

1967 (1)

G. E. Walrafen, “Raman Spectral Studies of the Effects of Temperature on Water Stucture,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

G. Schellenberger, “Uber Zusammenhange Zwischen Optischen Parametern von Gewassern,” Acta Hydrophys. 10, 79 (1965).

Baker, K. S.

Barber, R. T.

R. C. Dugdale, F. P. Wilkerson, R. T. Barber, D. Blasco, T. T. Packard, “Changes in Nutrients, pH, Light Penetration and Heat Budget by Migrating Photosynthetic Organisms,” Oceanol. Acta (in press).

Blasco, D.

R. C. Dugdale, F. P. Wilkerson, R. T. Barber, D. Blasco, T. T. Packard, “Changes in Nutrients, pH, Light Penetration and Heat Budget by Migrating Photosynthetic Organisms,” Oceanol. Acta (in press).

Booth, C. R.

D. A. Siegel, C. R. Booth, T. D. Dickey, “Effects of Sensor Characteristics on the Inferred Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient Spectrum,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 637, 115 (1986).

Bristow, M.

Brown, O. B.

Bundy, D.

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. V. Peck, “Spectral Transmissometer and Radiometer (STAR): Preliminary Results,” Eos 68, 1683 (1987).

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement from Raman Spectra,” Research Note 960, N62269-73-C-0073, sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Order 2194 (Jan.1974).

Cross, P. C.

E. B. Wilson, J. C. Decius, P. C. Cross, Molecular Vibrations. The Theory of Infrared and Raman Vibrational Spectra (Dover, New York, 1980).

Crothers, D.

D. Eisenberg, D. Crothers, Physical Chemistry (Cummings, Menlo Park, 1979).

Decius, J. C.

E. B. Wilson, J. C. Decius, P. C. Cross, Molecular Vibrations. The Theory of Infrared and Raman Vibrational Spectra (Dover, New York, 1980).

DePalma, I. P.

I. P. DePalma, D. F. Reid, “Optical Measurements with Related Chemical, Biological, and Physical Parameters from the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean,” NORDA Tech. Note 337 (1986).

Derr, V. E.

Dickey, T. D.

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Observations of the Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Spectrum,” Deep Sea Res. 34, 547 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, C. R. Booth, T. D. Dickey, “Effects of Sensor Characteristics on the Inferred Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient Spectrum,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 637, 115 (1986).

Dugdale, R. C.

R. C. Dugdale, F. P. Wilkerson, R. T. Barber, D. Blasco, T. T. Packard, “Changes in Nutrients, pH, Light Penetration and Heat Budget by Migrating Photosynthetic Organisms,” Oceanol. Acta (in press).

Eisenberg, D.

D. Eisenberg, D. Crothers, Physical Chemistry (Cummings, Menlo Park, 1979).

D. Eisenberg, W. Kauzmann, The Structure and Properties of Water (Oxford U.P., New York, 1969).

Esaias, W.

Esaias, W. E.

Exton, R. J.

Farmer, F. H.

Furtek, R.

Gast, P. R.

P. R. Gast, “Solar Electromagnetic Radiation. Sec. 16.1. Solar Irradiance,” in Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments, S. L. Valley, Ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, MA, 1965).

Gordon, H. R.

Harriss, R. C.

Hoge, F. E.

Houghton, W. M.

Humphreys, T. J.

Jacobs, M. M.

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

Kattawar, G. W.

G. N. Plass, T. J. Humphreys, G. W. Kattawar, “Ocean-Atmosphere Interface: Its Influence on Radiation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 917 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo Calculations of Radiative Transfer in the Earth’s Atmosphere–Ocean System: I. Flux in the Atmosphere and Ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kauzmann, W.

D. Eisenberg, W. Kauzmann, The Structure and Properties of Water (Oxford U.P., New York, 1969).

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo Procedure for Simulating the Penetration of Light into Natural Waters,” CSIRO Div. Plant Ind. Techn. Pap. 36, 16p (1981).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U.P., London, 1983).

Kishino, M.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman Scattering to Upward Irradiance in the Sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

H. Pak, D. W. Menzies, J. C. Kitchen, “Optical Dynamics Experiment (ODEX) Data Report RNT Acania Expedition of 10 Oct. thru 17 Nov. 1982. Vol. 6: Scalar Spectral-Radiometer Data,” College of Oceanography, Oregon State U., Corvallis, Or, ONR Data Report 124, Ref 86-10 (Sept.1986).

Kullenberg, G.

G. Kullenberg, “Observed and Computed Scattering Functions,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), p. 25.

Long, D. A.

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

McCartney, E. J.

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere. Scattering by Molecules and Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1976).

Menzies, D. W.

H. Pak, D. W. Menzies, J. C. Kitchen, “Optical Dynamics Experiment (ODEX) Data Report RNT Acania Expedition of 10 Oct. thru 17 Nov. 1982. Vol. 6: Scalar Spectral-Radiometer Data,” College of Oceanography, Oregon State U., Corvallis, Or, ONR Data Report 124, Ref 86-10 (Sept.1986).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “In-Water and Remote Measurements of Ocean Color,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical Properties of Pure Water and Pure Sea Water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), p. 1.

Nielsen, D.

Okami, M.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman Scattering to Upward Irradiance in the Sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Packard, T. T.

R. C. Dugdale, F. P. Wilkerson, R. T. Barber, D. Blasco, T. T. Packard, “Changes in Nutrients, pH, Light Penetration and Heat Budget by Migrating Photosynthetic Organisms,” Oceanol. Acta (in press).

Pak, H.

H. Pak, D. W. Menzies, J. C. Kitchen, “Optical Dynamics Experiment (ODEX) Data Report RNT Acania Expedition of 10 Oct. thru 17 Nov. 1982. Vol. 6: Scalar Spectral-Radiometer Data,” College of Oceanography, Oregon State U., Corvallis, Or, ONR Data Report 124, Ref 86-10 (Sept.1986).

Payne, P. R.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. V. Peck, “Spectral Transmissometer and Radiometer (STAR): Preliminary Results,” Eos 68, 1683 (1987).

Peacock, T. G.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. V. Peck, “Spectral Transmissometer and Radiometer (STAR): Preliminary Results,” Eos 68, 1683 (1987).

Peck, W. V.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. V. Peck, “Spectral Transmissometer and Radiometer (STAR): Preliminary Results,” Eos 68, 1683 (1987).

Plass, G. N.

G. N. Plass, T. J. Humphreys, G. W. Kattawar, “Ocean-Atmosphere Interface: Its Influence on Radiation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 917 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo Calculations of Radiative Transfer in the Earth’s Atmosphere–Ocean System: I. Flux in the Atmosphere and Ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U. S. Department of Commerce, NOAA-ERL, Washington, DC, 1976).

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An Optical Classification of Coastal and Oceanic Waters Based on the Specific Spectral Absorption Curves of Phytoplankton Pigments, Dissolved Organic Matter, and Other Particulate Materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. F.

I. P. DePalma, D. F. Reid, “Optical Measurements with Related Chemical, Biological, and Physical Parameters from the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean,” NORDA Tech. Note 337 (1986).

Sathyendranath, S.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An Optical Classification of Coastal and Oceanic Waters Based on the Specific Spectral Absorption Curves of Phytoplankton Pigments, Dissolved Organic Matter, and Other Particulate Materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schellenberger, G.

G. Schellenberger, “Die Form der Raumlichen Strahlungsverteilung in Gewassern,” Acta Hydrophys. 14, 207 (1969).

G. Schellenberger, “Uber Zusammenhange Zwischen Optischen Parametern von Gewassern,” Acta Hydrophys. 10, 79 (1965).

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Observations of the Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Spectrum,” Deep Sea Res. 34, 547 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, C. R. Booth, T. D. Dickey, “Effects of Sensor Characteristics on the Inferred Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient Spectrum,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 637, 115 (1986).

Slusher, R. B.

Smith, R. C.

Spitzer, D.

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In Situ Measurements of Absorption Spectra in the Sea,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 165 (1981).

Stavn, R. H.

R. H. Stavn, “Lambert-Beer Law in Ocean Waters: Optical Properties of Water and of Dissolved/Suspended Material, Optical Energy Budgets,” Appl. Opt. 27, 222 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stavn, “The Three-Parameter Model of the Submarine Light Field: Radiant Energy Absorption and Energy Trapping in Nepheloid Layers Recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. V. Peck, “Spectral Transmissometer and Radiometer (STAR): Preliminary Results,” Eos 68, 1683 (1987).

Sugihara, S.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman Scattering to Upward Irradiance in the Sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

Topliss, B. J.

B. J. Topliss, “Optical Measurements in the Sargasso Sea: Solar Stimulated Chlorophyll Fluorescence,” Oceanol. Acta 8, 263 (1985).

Walrafen, G. E.

G. E. Walrafen, “Raman Spectral Studies of the Effects of Temperature on Water Stucture,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wernand, M. R.

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In Situ Measurements of Absorption Spectra in the Sea,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 165 (1981).

White, H. H.

Wilkerson, F. P.

R. C. Dugdale, F. P. Wilkerson, R. T. Barber, D. Blasco, T. T. Packard, “Changes in Nutrients, pH, Light Penetration and Heat Budget by Migrating Photosynthetic Organisms,” Oceanol. Acta (in press).

Wilson, E. B.

E. B. Wilson, J. C. Decius, P. C. Cross, Molecular Vibrations. The Theory of Infrared and Raman Vibrational Spectra (Dover, New York, 1980).

Young, A. T.

Young, L. A.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement from Raman Spectra,” Research Note 960, N62269-73-C-0073, sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Order 2194 (Jan.1974).

Acta Hydrophys. (2)

G. Schellenberger, “Die Form der Raumlichen Strahlungsverteilung in Gewassern,” Acta Hydrophys. 14, 207 (1969).

G. Schellenberger, “Uber Zusammenhange Zwischen Optischen Parametern von Gewassern,” Acta Hydrophys. 10, 79 (1965).

Appl. Opt. (12)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed Relationships Between the Inherent and Apparent Optical Properties of a Flat Homogeneous Ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Slusher, V. E. Derr, “Temperature Dependence and Cross Sections of Some Stokes and Anti-Stokes Raman Lines in Ice Ih,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2116 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse Reflectance of the Ocean: the Theory of its Augmentation by Chlorophyll a Fluorescence at 685 nm,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1161 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical Properties of the Clearest Natural Waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Young, “Rayleigh Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 20, 533 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Plass, T. J. Humphreys, G. W. Kattawar, “Ocean-Atmosphere Interface: Its Influence on Radiation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 917 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of Water Raman Emission to Correct Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Data for Effects of Water Optical Attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Simultaneous Spectroscopic Detection of Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter and Fluorescence from Chlorophyll a and Other Naturally Occurring Pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, “Water Raman Normalization of Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Measurements: A Computer Model Study,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Exton, W. M. Houghton, W. Esaias, R. C. Harriss, F. H. Farmer, H. H. White, “Laboratory Analysis of Techniques for Remote Sensing of Estuarine Parameters Using Laser Excitation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 54 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Detection of Oceanic Turbidity Cell Structure Using Depth-Resolved Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3778 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stavn, “Lambert-Beer Law in Ocean Waters: Optical Properties of Water and of Dissolved/Suspended Material, Optical Energy Budgets,” Appl. Opt. 27, 222 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boundary Layer Meteorol. (1)

A. Morel, “In-Water and Remote Measurements of Ocean Color,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

CSIRO Div. Plant Ind. Techn. Pap. (1)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo Procedure for Simulating the Penetration of Light into Natural Waters,” CSIRO Div. Plant Ind. Techn. Pap. 36, 16p (1981).

Deep Sea Res. (1)

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Observations of the Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Spectrum,” Deep Sea Res. 34, 547 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. (1)

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In Situ Measurements of Absorption Spectra in the Sea,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 165 (1981).

Eos (1)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. V. Peck, “Spectral Transmissometer and Radiometer (STAR): Preliminary Results,” Eos 68, 1683 (1987).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. E. Walrafen, “Raman Spectral Studies of the Effects of Temperature on Water Stucture,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. H. Stavn, “The Three-Parameter Model of the Submarine Light Field: Radiant Energy Absorption and Energy Trapping in Nepheloid Layers Recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman Scattering to Upward Irradiance in the Sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (1)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo Calculations of Radiative Transfer in the Earth’s Atmosphere–Ocean System: I. Flux in the Atmosphere and Ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An Optical Classification of Coastal and Oceanic Waters Based on the Specific Spectral Absorption Curves of Phytoplankton Pigments, Dissolved Organic Matter, and Other Particulate Materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of Variations in Ocean Color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

NORDA Tech. Note 337 (1)

I. P. DePalma, D. F. Reid, “Optical Measurements with Related Chemical, Biological, and Physical Parameters from the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean,” NORDA Tech. Note 337 (1986).

Oceanol. Acta (1)

B. J. Topliss, “Optical Measurements in the Sargasso Sea: Solar Stimulated Chlorophyll Fluorescence,” Oceanol. Acta 8, 263 (1985).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

D. A. Siegel, C. R. Booth, T. D. Dickey, “Effects of Sensor Characteristics on the Inferred Vertical Structure of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient Spectrum,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 637, 115 (1986).

Other (14)

R. C. Dugdale, F. P. Wilkerson, R. T. Barber, D. Blasco, T. T. Packard, “Changes in Nutrients, pH, Light Penetration and Heat Budget by Migrating Photosynthetic Organisms,” Oceanol. Acta (in press).

H. Pak, D. W. Menzies, J. C. Kitchen, “Optical Dynamics Experiment (ODEX) Data Report RNT Acania Expedition of 10 Oct. thru 17 Nov. 1982. Vol. 6: Scalar Spectral-Radiometer Data,” College of Oceanography, Oregon State U., Corvallis, Or, ONR Data Report 124, Ref 86-10 (Sept.1986).

A. Morel, “Optical Properties of Pure Water and Pure Sea Water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), p. 1.

G. Kullenberg, “Observed and Computed Scattering Functions,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), p. 25.

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere. Scattering by Molecules and Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1976).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U.P., London, 1983).

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

D. Eisenberg, D. Crothers, Physical Chemistry (Cummings, Menlo Park, 1979).

D. Eisenberg, W. Kauzmann, The Structure and Properties of Water (Oxford U.P., New York, 1969).

E. B. Wilson, J. C. Decius, P. C. Cross, Molecular Vibrations. The Theory of Infrared and Raman Vibrational Spectra (Dover, New York, 1980).

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement from Raman Spectra,” Research Note 960, N62269-73-C-0073, sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Order 2194 (Jan.1974).

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U. S. Department of Commerce, NOAA-ERL, Washington, DC, 1976).

P. R. Gast, “Solar Electromagnetic Radiation. Sec. 16.1. Solar Irradiance,” in Handbook of Geophysics and Space Environments, S. L. Valley, Ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, MA, 1965).

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