Abstract

The airborne lidar detection and cross-sectional mapping of submerged oceanic scattering layers are reported. The field experiment was conducted in the Atlantic Ocean southeast of Assateague Island, VA. NASA’s Airborne Oceanographic Lidar was operated in the bathymetric mode to acquire on-wavelength 532-nm depth-resolved backscatter signals from shelf/slope waters. Unwanted laser pulse reflection from the air–water interface was minimized by spatial filtering and off-nadir operation. The presence of thermal stratification over the shelf was verified by the deployment of airborne expendable bathythermographs. Optical beam transmission measurements acquired from a surface truthing vessel indicated the presence of a layer of turbid water near the sea floor over the inner portion of the shelf.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  15. J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, H. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, “A Study of Oceanic Internal Waves Using Satellite Imagery and Ship Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
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  16. J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Burne, R. L. Sellers, “Near-Simultaneous Observations of Intermittent Internal Waves of the Continental Shelf from Ship and Spacecraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
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  19. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Detection of Oceanic Turbidity Cell Structure Using Depth-Resolved Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3778 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Simultaneous Spectroscopic Detection of Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter and Fluorescence from Chlorophyll a and Other Naturally Occurring Pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Dual Laser Excitation and Mapping of Phytoplankton Photopigments in a Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Mapping of Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Chlorophyll a and Phycoerythrin in a GulfStream Warm Core Ring,” Paper 18 in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, Ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1985), pp. 353–372.
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Experimental Feasibility of the Airborne Measurement of Absolute Oil Fluorescence Spectral Conversion Efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 22, 37 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Oil Film Thickness Measurement Using Airborne Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Absolute Tracer Dye Concentration Using Airborne Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1191 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The Reflection of UV Laser Pulses from the Ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Measurements of Laser Backscatter from the Ocean Surface,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2603 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, L. E. Link, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 50, 685 (1984).
  30. R. Nelson, W. B. Krabill, G. Maclean, “Determining Forest Canopy Characteristics Using Airborne Laser Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 15, 201 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Feasibility of Airborne Detection of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Emissions from Green Terrestrial Plants,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2991 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–Passive Airborne Ocean Color Measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–Passive Airborne Ocean Color Measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. G. B. Crawford, D. M. Farmer, “On the Spatial Distribution of Ocean Bubbles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8231 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1987

G. B. Crawford, D. M. Farmer, “On the Spatial Distribution of Ocean Bubbles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Herman, “Estimating Ocean Primary Production from Satellite Chlorophyll: Introduction to Regional Differences and Statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The Reflection of UV Laser Pulses from the Ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, L. E. Link, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 50, 685 (1984).

R. Nelson, W. B. Krabill, G. Maclean, “Determining Forest Canopy Characteristics Using Airborne Laser Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 15, 201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

1981

1980

1978

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The Bio-Optical State of Ocean Waters and Remote Sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, “Vertical Particulate Spires or Walls within the Florida Current and near the Antilles Current,” Nature, London 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, H. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, “A Study of Oceanic Internal Waves Using Satellite Imagery and Ship Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Burne, R. L. Sellers, “Near-Simultaneous Observations of Intermittent Internal Waves of the Continental Shelf from Ship and Spacecraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abbot, T. H.

Abbott, M. R.

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Herman, “Estimating Ocean Primary Production from Satellite Chlorophyll: Introduction to Regional Differences and Statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Apel, J. R.

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, H. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, “A Study of Oceanic Internal Waves Using Satellite Imagery and Ship Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Burne, R. L. Sellers, “Near-Simultaneous Observations of Intermittent Internal Waves of the Continental Shelf from Ship and Spacecraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The Bio-Optical State of Ocean Waters and Remote Sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Berry, R. E.

Billard, B.

Bufton, J. L.

Burne, H. M.

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Burne, R. L. Sellers, “Near-Simultaneous Observations of Intermittent Internal Waves of the Continental Shelf from Ship and Spacecraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Butler, M. L.

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, L. E. Link, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 50, 685 (1984).

Byrne, H. M.

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, H. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, “A Study of Oceanic Internal Waves Using Satellite Imagery and Ship Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Calienes, R.

W. G. Harrison, T. Platt, R. Calienes, N. Ochoa, “Photosynthetic Parameters and Primary Production of Phytoplankton Populations off the Northern Coast of Peru,” in Coastal Upwelling, F. A. Richards, Ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. 303–311.
[CrossRef]

Collins, J. G.

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, L. E. Link, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 50, 685 (1984).

Cracknell, A. P.

K. Muirhead, A. P. Cracknell, “Airborne Lidar Bathymetry,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 7, 497 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. B.

G. B. Crawford, D. M. Farmer, “On the Spatial Distribution of Ocean Bubbles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eppley, R. W.

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Herman, “Estimating Ocean Primary Production from Satellite Chlorophyll: Introduction to Regional Differences and Statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

Farmer, D. M.

G. B. Crawford, D. M. Farmer, “On the Spatial Distribution of Ocean Bubbles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, E. B.

Harrison, W. G.

W. G. Harrison, T. Platt, R. Calienes, N. Ochoa, “Photosynthetic Parameters and Primary Production of Phytoplankton Populations off the Northern Coast of Peru,” in Coastal Upwelling, F. A. Richards, Ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. 303–311.
[CrossRef]

Herman, A. W.

T. Platt, A. W. Herman, “Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton in the Sea: Surface-Layer Chlorophyll as an Estimate of Water-Column Chlorophyll and Primary Production,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 4, 343 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Herman, U.

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Herman, “Estimating Ocean Primary Production from Satellite Chlorophyll: Introduction to Regional Differences and Statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–Passive Correlation Spectroscopy: A New Technique for Identifying Ocean Color Algorithm Spectral Regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–Passive Airborne Ocean Color Measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–Passive Airborne Ocean Color Measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The Reflection of UV Laser Pulses from the Ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Experimental Feasibility of the Airborne Measurement of Absolute Oil Fluorescence Spectral Conversion Efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 22, 37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Measurements of Laser Backscatter from the Ocean Surface,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2603 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Detection of Oceanic Turbidity Cell Structure Using Depth-Resolved Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3778 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Dual Laser Excitation and Mapping of Phytoplankton Photopigments in a Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Feasibility of Airborne Detection of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Emissions from Green Terrestrial Plants,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2991 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Simultaneous Spectroscopic Detection of Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter and Fluorescence from Chlorophyll a and Other Naturally Occurring Pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Absolute Tracer Dye Concentration Using Airborne Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1191 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Oil Film Thickness Measurement Using Airborne Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, “Water Depth Measurement Using an Airbone Pulsed Neon Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar to the Mapping of Chlorophyll and Other Organic Pigments,” in Chesapeake Bay Plume Study Superflex 1980, NASA Conf. Publ. 2188 (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. 349–374.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Mapping of Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Chlorophyll a and Phycoerythrin in a GulfStream Warm Core Ring,” Paper 18 in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, Ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1985), pp. 353–372.
[CrossRef]

Klevebrant, H.

Krabill, W. B.

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The Reflection of UV Laser Pulses from the Ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Nelson, W. B. Krabill, G. Maclean, “Determining Forest Canopy Characteristics Using Airborne Laser Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 15, 201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, L. E. Link, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 50, 685 (1984).

Lexander, J.

Link, L. E.

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, L. E. Link, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 50, 685 (1984).

Lubard, S. C.

S. C. Lubard, L. R. Thebaud, R. F. Lutomirski, “Lidar Remote Sensing of Internal Waves and Optical Properties,” in Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) Symposium on “Propagation Factors Affecting Remote Sensing by Radio Waves,” held in Oberammergau, Federal Republic of Germany, May 24–28, 1983, sponsored by the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel of AGARD, pp. 39-1–39-13.

Lutomirski, R. F.

S. C. Lubard, L. R. Thebaud, R. F. Lutomirski, “Lidar Remote Sensing of Internal Waves and Optical Properties,” in Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) Symposium on “Propagation Factors Affecting Remote Sensing by Radio Waves,” held in Oberammergau, Federal Republic of Germany, May 24–28, 1983, sponsored by the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel of AGARD, pp. 39-1–39-13.

Maclean, G.

R. Nelson, W. B. Krabill, G. Maclean, “Determining Forest Canopy Characteristics Using Airborne Laser Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 15, 201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Muirhead, K.

K. Muirhead, A. P. Cracknell, “Airborne Lidar Bathymetry,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 7, 497 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R.

R. Nelson, W. B. Krabill, G. Maclean, “Determining Forest Canopy Characteristics Using Airborne Laser Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 15, 201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Newman, F. C.

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, “Vertical Particulate Spires or Walls within the Florida Current and near the Antilles Current,” Nature, London 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

O’Neil, R. A.

R. A. O’Neil, “Coastal Hydrography Using the CCRS Lidar Bathymeter,” in The Conference on Ocean Environment and Its Interactions with Offshore Structures, Goteborg ’83, 1–4 Mar. 1983 (The Swedish Trade Fair Foundation, 1983), p. 10.

Ochoa, N.

W. G. Harrison, T. Platt, R. Calienes, N. Ochoa, “Photosynthetic Parameters and Primary Production of Phytoplankton Populations off the Northern Coast of Peru,” in Coastal Upwelling, F. A. Richards, Ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. 303–311.
[CrossRef]

Ostapoff, F.

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, “Vertical Particulate Spires or Walls within the Florida Current and near the Antilles Current,” Nature, London 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Penny, M. F.

Phillips, D. M.

D. M. Phillips, “The Effect of Water Turbidity of Laser Depth Sounding Performance,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium, 30 Sept.–3 Oct. 1980, Document AR-002-576, Report ERL-193-SD, M. F. Penny, D. M. Phillips, Eds., Adelaide, Australia, Mar.1981.

Platt, T.

T. Platt, A. W. Herman, “Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton in the Sea: Surface-Layer Chlorophyll as an Estimate of Water-Column Chlorophyll and Primary Production,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 4, 343 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Harrison, T. Platt, R. Calienes, N. Ochoa, “Photosynthetic Parameters and Primary Production of Phytoplankton Populations off the Northern Coast of Peru,” in Coastal Upwelling, F. A. Richards, Ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. 303–311.
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

Proni, H. R.

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, H. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, “A Study of Oceanic Internal Waves Using Satellite Imagery and Ship Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proni, J. R.

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, “Vertical Particulate Spires or Walls within the Florida Current and near the Antilles Current,” Nature, London 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Burne, R. L. Sellers, “Near-Simultaneous Observations of Intermittent Internal Waves of the Continental Shelf from Ship and Spacecraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sellers, R. L.

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, H. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, “A Study of Oceanic Internal Waves Using Satellite Imagery and Ship Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Burne, R. L. Sellers, “Near-Simultaneous Observations of Intermittent Internal Waves of the Continental Shelf from Ship and Spacecraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The Bio-Optical State of Ocean Waters and Remote Sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Steinvall, O.

Stewart, E.

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Herman, “Estimating Ocean Primary Production from Satellite Chlorophyll: Introduction to Regional Differences and Statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–Passive Correlation Spectroscopy: A New Technique for Identifying Ocean Color Algorithm Spectral Regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–Passive Airborne Ocean Color Measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–Passive Airborne Ocean Color Measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, L. E. Link, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 50, 685 (1984).

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The Reflection of UV Laser Pulses from the Ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Experimental Feasibility of the Airborne Measurement of Absolute Oil Fluorescence Spectral Conversion Efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 22, 37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Measurements of Laser Backscatter from the Ocean Surface,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2603 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Detection of Oceanic Turbidity Cell Structure Using Depth-Resolved Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3778 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Dual Laser Excitation and Mapping of Phytoplankton Photopigments in a Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Feasibility of Airborne Detection of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Emissions from Green Terrestrial Plants,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2991 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Simultaneous Spectroscopic Detection of Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter and Fluorescence from Chlorophyll a and Other Naturally Occurring Pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Absolute Tracer Dye Concentration Using Airborne Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1191 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Oil Film Thickness Measurement Using Airborne Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, “Water Depth Measurement Using an Airbone Pulsed Neon Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar to the Mapping of Chlorophyll and Other Organic Pigments,” in Chesapeake Bay Plume Study Superflex 1980, NASA Conf. Publ. 2188 (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. 349–374.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Mapping of Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Chlorophyll a and Phycoerythrin in a GulfStream Warm Core Ring,” Paper 18 in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, Ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1985), pp. 353–372.
[CrossRef]

Thebaud, L. R.

S. C. Lubard, L. R. Thebaud, R. F. Lutomirski, “Lidar Remote Sensing of Internal Waves and Optical Properties,” in Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) Symposium on “Propagation Factors Affecting Remote Sensing by Radio Waves,” held in Oberammergau, Federal Republic of Germany, May 24–28, 1983, sponsored by the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel of AGARD, pp. 39-1–39-13.

Walter, D. J.

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, “Vertical Particulate Spires or Walls within the Florida Current and near the Antilles Current,” Nature, London 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Widen, A.

Yungel, J. K.

Appl. Opt.

L. R. Poole, W. E. Esaias, “Water Raman Normalization of Airborne Laser Fluorosensor Measurements: A Computer Model Study,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3756 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, “Water Depth Measurement Using an Airbone Pulsed Neon Laser System,” Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Steinvall, H. Klevebrant, J. Lexander, A. Widen, “Laser Depth Sounding in the Baltic Sea,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3484 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. Billard, T. H. Abbot, M. F. Penny, “Airborne Estimation of Sea Turbidity Parameters from the WRELADS Laser Airborne Depth Sounder,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2080 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Active–Passive Correlation Spectroscopy: A New Technique for Identifying Ocean Color Algorithm Spectral Regions,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2571 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Detection of Oceanic Turbidity Cell Structure Using Depth-Resolved Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3778 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Experimental Feasibility of the Airborne Measurement of Absolute Oil Fluorescence Spectral Conversion Efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 22, 37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Oil Film Thickness Measurement Using Airborne Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Absolute Tracer Dye Concentration Using Airborne Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1191 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Simultaneous Spectroscopic Detection of Laser-Induced Water Raman Backscatter and Fluorescence from Chlorophyll a and Other Naturally Occurring Pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Dual Laser Excitation and Mapping of Phytoplankton Photopigments in a Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2272 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Measurements of Laser Backscatter from the Ocean Surface,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2603 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Feasibility of Airborne Detection of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Emissions from Green Terrestrial Plants,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2991 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. E. Berry, R. N. Swift, “Active–Passive Airborne Ocean Color Measurement: 1. Instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 39 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, J. K. Yungel, “Active–Passive Airborne Ocean Color Measurement: 2. Applications,” Appl. Opt. 25, 48 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Burne, R. L. Sellers, “Near-Simultaneous Observations of Intermittent Internal Waves of the Continental Shelf from Ship and Spacecraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sensing

K. Muirhead, A. P. Cracknell, “Airborne Lidar Bathymetry,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 7, 497 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Platt, A. W. Herman, “Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton in the Sea: Surface-Layer Chlorophyll as an Estimate of Water-Column Chlorophyll and Primary Production,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 4, 343 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

G. B. Crawford, D. M. Farmer, “On the Spatial Distribution of Ocean Bubbles,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8231 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res.

R. W. Eppley, E. Stewart, M. R. Abbott, U. Herman, “Estimating Ocean Primary Production from Satellite Chlorophyll: Introduction to Regional Differences and Statistics for the Southern California Bight,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “The Bio-Optical State of Ocean Waters and Remote Sensing,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Geod.

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The Reflection of UV Laser Pulses from the Ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nature, London

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, “Vertical Particulate Spires or Walls within the Florida Current and near the Antilles Current,” Nature, London 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing

W. B. Krabill, J. G. Collins, L. E. Link, R. N. Swift, M. L. Butler, “Airborne Laser Topographic Mapping Results,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 50, 685 (1984).

Remote Sensing Environ.

R. Nelson, W. B. Krabill, G. Maclean, “Determining Forest Canopy Characteristics Using Airborne Laser Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 15, 201 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, H. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, “A Study of Oceanic Internal Waves Using Satellite Imagery and Ship Data,” Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. C. Lubard, L. R. Thebaud, R. F. Lutomirski, “Lidar Remote Sensing of Internal Waves and Optical Properties,” in Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) Symposium on “Propagation Factors Affecting Remote Sensing by Radio Waves,” held in Oberammergau, Federal Republic of Germany, May 24–28, 1983, sponsored by the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel of AGARD, pp. 39-1–39-13.

D. M. Phillips, “The Effect of Water Turbidity of Laser Depth Sounding Performance,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium, 30 Sept.–3 Oct. 1980, Document AR-002-576, Report ERL-193-SD, M. F. Penny, D. M. Phillips, Eds., Adelaide, Australia, Mar.1981.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Application of the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar to the Mapping of Chlorophyll and Other Organic Pigments,” in Chesapeake Bay Plume Study Superflex 1980, NASA Conf. Publ. 2188 (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. 349–374.

R. A. O’Neil, “Coastal Hydrography Using the CCRS Lidar Bathymeter,” in The Conference on Ocean Environment and Its Interactions with Offshore Structures, Goteborg ’83, 1–4 Mar. 1983 (The Swedish Trade Fair Foundation, 1983), p. 10.

P. G. Falkowski, Ed., Primary Productivity in the Sea (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. v.

W. G. Harrison, T. Platt, R. Calienes, N. Ochoa, “Photosynthetic Parameters and Primary Production of Phytoplankton Populations off the Northern Coast of Peru,” in Coastal Upwelling, F. A. Richards, Ed. (American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 1981), pp. 303–311.
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne Mapping of Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Chlorophyll a and Phycoerythrin in a GulfStream Warm Core Ring,” Paper 18 in Mapping Strategies in Chemical Oceanography, A. Zirino, Ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1985), pp. 353–372.
[CrossRef]

Committee on Earth Sciences, “A Strategy for Earth Science from Space in the 1980’s and 1990’s,” in Part II: Atmosphere and Interactions with the Solid Earth, Oceans, and Biota, National Research Council (National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1985), pp. xiii and 89.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical and mechanical configuration of the AOL in the P-3A aircraft during the conduct of the scattering layer experiments. The aperture stop and spatial filter were added to the usual optical train to improve the rejection of the strong Fresnel reflection at the air–water interface. The laser is positioned diagonally on the optical table for added mechanical strength and to allow the beam to exit the aircraft after only a single mirror reflection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Location of the various experiment flight lines executed during the scattering layer experiment. The segments labeled 4a, 4b, and 4c are geographical locations of the scattering layer profile panels illustrated in grey tone in Fig. 4 and in color on the front cover.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical on-wavelength backscatter waveform obtained during transect over the shoal region identified as segment 4c in Fig. 2. The location of the waveform is also labeled W in the density profile shown in Fig. 4(c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Density plot of the backscatter profiles as developed from temporal waveforms to which environmental subtraction has been applied: (a) Sargasso Sea region; (b) slope water region; (c) inner shelf-water region. The geographical location of each of these regions is identified as 4a, 4b, 4c, respectively, in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geographic locations of the ship truth stations and the airborne expendable bathythermograph drops conducted during the scattering layer mission.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical temperature profiles obtained from AXBT drops during the scattering layer mission. AXBT-2 shows a distinct well-developed thermocline in the inner shelf region where the scattering layer plume was seen [see Fig. 4(c)].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical beam attenuation and temperature profiles obtained by the surface truth vessel. The sequential geographic locations of these data are given in Fig. 5.

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