Abstract

A phenomenon is described in which the size of the exit-slit image of the entrance slit is influenced by the angle at which an echelle grating is used. The phenomenon becomes significant only for large deviations from Littrow conditions. A mathematical treatment and experimental results are presented to show that proper exploitation of the effect results in simultaneous improvements in bandpass, range, and intensity for an echelle spectrometer.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Design and Evaluation of a Random Access Vidicon-Echelle Spectrometer and Application to Multielement Determinations by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 49, 1112 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Simultaneous Multielement Determinations by Atomic Emission with an Echelle Spectrometer Interfaced to Image Dissector and Silicon Vidicon Tubes,” Anal. Chem. 50, 602 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Evaluation of Echelle Spectrometer/Image Dissector System for Simultaneous Multielement Determinations by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy,” Clin. Chem. 24, 602 (1978).
    [PubMed]
  4. R. Masters, C. Hsiech, H. L. Pardue, “Echelle-Spectrometer/Image–Dissector System for Elemental Quantitation by Continuum-Source Atomic-Absorption Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 199, 253 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. Stephenson, “Optimum Slit Settings for Double Spectrometers at High Grating Angles,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2378 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. James, R. S. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman & Hall, London, 1969), p. 68.
  7. D. J. Schroeder, “Design Considerations for Astronomical Echelle Spectrographs,” Publ. Astron Soc. Pac. 82, 1253 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Masters, C. Hsiech, H. L. Pardue, “Echelle-Spectrometer/Image–Dissector System for Elemental Quantitation by Continuum-Source Atomic-Absorption Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 199, 253 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Simultaneous Multielement Determinations by Atomic Emission with an Echelle Spectrometer Interfaced to Image Dissector and Silicon Vidicon Tubes,” Anal. Chem. 50, 602 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Evaluation of Echelle Spectrometer/Image Dissector System for Simultaneous Multielement Determinations by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy,” Clin. Chem. 24, 602 (1978).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Design and Evaluation of a Random Access Vidicon-Echelle Spectrometer and Application to Multielement Determinations by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 49, 1112 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1970 (1)

D. J. Schroeder, “Design Considerations for Astronomical Echelle Spectrographs,” Publ. Astron Soc. Pac. 82, 1253 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Felkel, H. L.

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Simultaneous Multielement Determinations by Atomic Emission with an Echelle Spectrometer Interfaced to Image Dissector and Silicon Vidicon Tubes,” Anal. Chem. 50, 602 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Evaluation of Echelle Spectrometer/Image Dissector System for Simultaneous Multielement Determinations by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy,” Clin. Chem. 24, 602 (1978).
[PubMed]

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Design and Evaluation of a Random Access Vidicon-Echelle Spectrometer and Application to Multielement Determinations by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 49, 1112 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hsiech, C.

R. Masters, C. Hsiech, H. L. Pardue, “Echelle-Spectrometer/Image–Dissector System for Elemental Quantitation by Continuum-Source Atomic-Absorption Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 199, 253 (1987).
[CrossRef]

James, J. F.

J. F. James, R. S. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman & Hall, London, 1969), p. 68.

Masters, R.

R. Masters, C. Hsiech, H. L. Pardue, “Echelle-Spectrometer/Image–Dissector System for Elemental Quantitation by Continuum-Source Atomic-Absorption Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 199, 253 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pardue, H. L.

R. Masters, C. Hsiech, H. L. Pardue, “Echelle-Spectrometer/Image–Dissector System for Elemental Quantitation by Continuum-Source Atomic-Absorption Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 199, 253 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Evaluation of Echelle Spectrometer/Image Dissector System for Simultaneous Multielement Determinations by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy,” Clin. Chem. 24, 602 (1978).
[PubMed]

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Simultaneous Multielement Determinations by Atomic Emission with an Echelle Spectrometer Interfaced to Image Dissector and Silicon Vidicon Tubes,” Anal. Chem. 50, 602 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Design and Evaluation of a Random Access Vidicon-Echelle Spectrometer and Application to Multielement Determinations by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 49, 1112 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, D. J.

D. J. Schroeder, “Design Considerations for Astronomical Echelle Spectrographs,” Publ. Astron Soc. Pac. 82, 1253 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, D. A.

Sternberg, R. S.

J. F. James, R. S. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman & Hall, London, 1969), p. 68.

Anal. Chem. (2)

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Design and Evaluation of a Random Access Vidicon-Echelle Spectrometer and Application to Multielement Determinations by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 49, 1112 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Simultaneous Multielement Determinations by Atomic Emission with an Echelle Spectrometer Interfaced to Image Dissector and Silicon Vidicon Tubes,” Anal. Chem. 50, 602 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

R. Masters, C. Hsiech, H. L. Pardue, “Echelle-Spectrometer/Image–Dissector System for Elemental Quantitation by Continuum-Source Atomic-Absorption Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chim. Acta 199, 253 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Clin. Chem. (1)

H. L. Felkel, H. L. Pardue, “Evaluation of Echelle Spectrometer/Image Dissector System for Simultaneous Multielement Determinations by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy,” Clin. Chem. 24, 602 (1978).
[PubMed]

Publ. Astron Soc. Pac. (1)

D. J. Schroeder, “Design Considerations for Astronomical Echelle Spectrographs,” Publ. Astron Soc. Pac. 82, 1253 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. F. James, R. S. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman & Hall, London, 1969), p. 68.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effect of off-Littrow mount (α > θ > β) on interray spacing before X and after X′ diffraction from an echelle grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the magnification factor as a function of the deviation of α from θ for three different values of θ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of magnification α and dispersion b factors relative to a Littrow mounting for θ = 76°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chromium triplet profiles for α = 69° (A) and 83° (B).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pseudo-3-D plots of the spectrum produced by a chromium hollow-cathode lamp for α = 79° (A) and 83° (B). Each plot covers the wavelength range from 410 (bottom) to 550 nm (top).

Equations (4)

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M = cos α / cos β ,
d β D λ = 2 sin θ cos ( α - θ ) λ cos ( 2 θ - α ) .
D = cos θ cos ( α - θ ) cos ( 2 θ - α ) .
B = cos α cos θ cos ( α - θ ) .

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