Abstract

The split-pulse laser method is used to reinvestigate the optical attenuation of distilled water in the region from 430 to 630 nm. The studies are then extended to ionic solutions of NaCl, MgCl2, and Na2SO4, these salts forming the major constituents of seawater. The effect of the concentration of these constituents on optical attenuation is investigated. Further, optical attenuation studies are carried out for the region from 430 to 630 nm for an aqueous solution prepared with all the major constituents in the same proportions as in natural seawater. These values are then compared with values obtained for natural seawater. The relative role of dissolved salts and suspended particles on optical attenuation in seawater is discussed. The lowest attenuation is observed at ~450 nm for all solutions and is found to coincide with that for distilled water.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. A. Sullivan, “Experimental Study of the Absorption in Distilled Water, Artificial Sea Water, and Heavy Water in the Visible Region of the Spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 962 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popova, “Dispersion and Absorption of Liquid Water in Infrared and Radio-Frequency Regions,” Opt. Commun. 1, 301 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, “Optical Absorptions of Light and Heavy Water by Laser Optoacoustic Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3348 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical Properties of the Clearest Natural Waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Miura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Tohma, K. Kondo, T. Matsui, H. Nagatomo, “Undersea Transmission Characteristics of a Laser Beam in Tago Bay,” J. Radio Research Laboratories (Japan), 23, 149 (1976).
  13. D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 2–122.
  14. J. O’M. Bockris, A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electrochemistry, Vol. I (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 76–80.

1981 (1)

1979 (2)

R. W. Spinrad, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Irradiance and Beam Transmittance Measurements Off the West Coast of the Americas,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 355 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, “Optical Absorptions of Light and Heavy Water by Laser Optoacoustic Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3348 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

S. Miura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Tohma, K. Kondo, T. Matsui, H. Nagatomo, “Undersea Transmission Characteristics of a Laser Beam in Tago Bay,” J. Radio Research Laboratories (Japan), 23, 149 (1976).

1973 (2)

1970 (2)

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popova, “Dispersion and Absorption of Liquid Water in Infrared and Radio-Frequency Regions,” Opt. Commun. 1, 301 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Morrison, “Experimental Studies on the Optical Properties of Sea Water,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared Optical Properties of Water and Ice Spheres,” Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

Aperovich, L. I.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popova, “Dispersion and Absorption of Liquid Water in Infrared and Radio-Frequency Regions,” Opt. Commun. 1, 301 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

Bockris, J. O’M.

J. O’M. Bockris, A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electrochemistry, Vol. I (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 76–80.

Cary, P. G.

Davisson, J. W.

Hale, G. M.

Hass, M.

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared Optical Properties of Water and Ice Spheres,” Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

S. Miura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Tohma, K. Kondo, T. Matsui, H. Nagatomo, “Undersea Transmission Characteristics of a Laser Beam in Tago Bay,” J. Radio Research Laboratories (Japan), 23, 149 (1976).

Kondo, K.

S. Miura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Tohma, K. Kondo, T. Matsui, H. Nagatomo, “Undersea Transmission Characteristics of a Laser Beam in Tago Bay,” J. Radio Research Laboratories (Japan), 23, 149 (1976).

Matsui, T.

S. Miura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Tohma, K. Kondo, T. Matsui, H. Nagatomo, “Undersea Transmission Characteristics of a Laser Beam in Tago Bay,” J. Radio Research Laboratories (Japan), 23, 149 (1976).

Mikhailov, B. A.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popova, “Dispersion and Absorption of Liquid Water in Infrared and Radio-Frequency Regions,” Opt. Commun. 1, 301 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Miura, S.

S. Miura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Tohma, K. Kondo, T. Matsui, H. Nagatomo, “Undersea Transmission Characteristics of a Laser Beam in Tago Bay,” J. Radio Research Laboratories (Japan), 23, 149 (1976).

Morrison, R. E.

R. E. Morrison, “Experimental Studies on the Optical Properties of Sea Water,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nagatomo, H.

S. Miura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Tohma, K. Kondo, T. Matsui, H. Nagatomo, “Undersea Transmission Characteristics of a Laser Beam in Tago Bay,” J. Radio Research Laboratories (Japan), 23, 149 (1976).

Pak, H.

R. W. Spinrad, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Irradiance and Beam Transmittance Measurements Off the West Coast of the Americas,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 355 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

Pollack, J. B.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared Optical Properties of Water and Ice Spheres,” Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Popova, S. I.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popova, “Dispersion and Absorption of Liquid Water in Infrared and Radio-Frequency Regions,” Opt. Commun. 1, 301 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Reddy, A. K. N.

J. O’M. Bockris, A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electrochemistry, Vol. I (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 76–80.

Smith, R. C.

Spinrad, R. W.

R. W. Spinrad, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Irradiance and Beam Transmittance Measurements Off the West Coast of the Americas,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 355 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, S. A.

Tam, A. C.

Tohma, K.

S. Miura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Tohma, K. Kondo, T. Matsui, H. Nagatomo, “Undersea Transmission Characteristics of a Laser Beam in Tago Bay,” J. Radio Research Laboratories (Japan), 23, 149 (1976).

Waring, R. C.

Yura, H. T.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

R. W. Spinrad, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Irradiance and Beam Transmittance Measurements Off the West Coast of the Americas,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 355 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Zolotarev, V. M.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popova, “Dispersion and Absorption of Liquid Water in Infrared and Radio-Frequency Regions,” Opt. Commun. 1, 301 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Icarus (1)

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared Optical Properties of Water and Ice Spheres,” Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

R. E. Morrison, “Experimental Studies on the Optical Properties of Sea Water,” J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Spinrad, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “Irradiance and Beam Transmittance Measurements Off the West Coast of the Americas,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 355 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Radio Research Laboratories (Japan) (1)

S. Miura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Tohma, K. Kondo, T. Matsui, H. Nagatomo, “Undersea Transmission Characteristics of a Laser Beam in Tago Bay,” J. Radio Research Laboratories (Japan), 23, 149 (1976).

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhailov, L. I. Aperovich, S. I. Popova, “Dispersion and Absorption of Liquid Water in Infrared and Radio-Frequency Regions,” Opt. Commun. 1, 301 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 2–122.

J. O’M. Bockris, A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electrochemistry, Vol. I (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 76–80.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Graphic comparison of the attenuation coefficient of distilled water obtained by the present investigation and some of the other reported results.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Attenuation coefficient of NaCl solutions of three concentrations vs wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Attenuation coefficient of MgCl2 · 6H2O solutions of three concentrations vs wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Attenuation coefficient of Na2SO4 solutions of two concentrations vs wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Attenuation coefficient of 0.25-M solutions of NaCl, MgCl2 · 6H2O, and Na2SO4 vs wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Attenuation coefficient of two samples of artificial seawater and two samples of natural seawater.

Tables (6)

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Table I Percentage by Mass of the Constituents of Natural Sea Water and the Two Samples of Artificial Sea Water

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Table II Attenuation Coefficients of Distilled Water for Different Wavelengths (In Units of 10−2 m−1)

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Table III Attenuation Coefficients of NaCl Solutions for Different Wavelengths (in Units of 10−2 m−1)

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Table IV Attenuation Coefficients of Magnesium Chloride Solutions for Different Wavelengths (in Units of 10−2 m−1)

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Table V Attenuation Coefficients of Sodium Sulfate Solutions for Different Wavelengths (in Units of 10−2 m−1)

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Table VI Attenuation Coefficients of Artificial Seawater and Natural Seawater (in Units of 10−2 m−1)

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