Abstract

A new technique has been developed which allows simultaneous 2-D mapping of CH and CH4 in a turbulent methane flame. A flashlamp-pumped dye laser using two back mirrors produces output at 431.5 and 444 nm simultaneously. The 431.5-nm line is used to excite the (0,0) band of the A2Δ–X2Π system of CH, and the fluorescence of the (0,1) transition is observed at 489 nm. Coincidentally, the spontaneous Raman scattering from CH4 also occurs near 489 nm for a 431.5-nm excitation. To separate the CH4 and CH contributions, the 444-nm line is used to produce a spontaneous Raman signal from CH4 that is spectrally separated from the CH fluorescence. Subtraction of the signals generated by the 431.5- and 444-nm wavelength beams yields separate measurements of CH4 and CH. Raman-scattered light records the instantaneous distribution of the fuel, and simultaneously the CH fluorescence indicates the location of the flame zone. The resulting composite images provide important insight on the interrelationship between fuel–air mixing and subsequent combustion.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. B. Long, B. T. Chu, R. K. Chang, “Instantaneous Two-dimensional Gas Concentration Measurements by Light Scattering,” AIAA J. 19, 1151 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. R. Lysaght, R. W. Bilger, J. H. Kent, “Visualization of Mixing in Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame 46, 105 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. C. Escoda, M. B. Long, “Rayleigh Scattering Measurements of the Gas Concentration Field in Turbulent Jets,” AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. C. Fourguette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-Dimensional Rayleigh Thermometry in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Methane-Hydrogen Flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Alden, H. Edner, G. Holmsted, S. Svanberg, T. Hoegberg, “Single-Pulse Laser-Induced OH Fluorescence in an Atmospheric Flame, Spatially Resolved with a Diode Array Detector,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1236 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. J. Dyer, D. R. Crosley, “Two-dimensional Imaging of OH Laser-Induced Fluorescence in a Flame,” Opt. Lett. 7, 382 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Kychakoff, R. D. Howe, R. K. Hanson, J. C. McDaniel, “Quantitative Visualization of Combustion Species in a Plane,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3225 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. J. Cattolica, S. R. Vosen, “Two-dimensional Measurements of the [OH] in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber,” at Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1985), p. 1273.
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Seitzman, G. Kychakoff, R. K. Hanson, “Instantaneous Temperature Field Measurements Using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 10, 439 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. B. Long, D. C. Fourguette, M. C. Escoda, C. B. Layne, “Instantaneous Ramanography of a Turbulent Diffusion Flame,” Opt. Lett. 8, 244 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. F. Webber, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Two-Dimensional Average Concentration Measurements in a Jet Flow by Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 119 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. B. Long, P. S. Levin, D. C. Fourguette, “Simultaneous Two-dimensional Mapping of Species Concentration and Temperature in Turbulent Flames,” Opt. Lett. 10, 267 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. W. Dibble, M. B. Long, A. Masri, “Two-Dimensional Imaging of C2 in Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames,” at Tenth International Colloquium on Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (1985).
  14. M. J. Dyer, D. R. Crosley, “Fluorescence Imaging for Flame Chemistry,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers (1985), Vol. 84, p. 211.
  15. M. G. Allen, R. D. Howe, R. K. Hanson, “Digital Imaging of Reaction Zonesin Hydrocarbon-Air Flames Using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of CH and C2,” Opt. Lett. 11, 126 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. G. Allen, R. K. Hanson “Digital Imaging in Spray Flames,” presented at Western States Section of The Combustion Institute meeting at U.C. Davis, CA, 21–22 Oct. 1985.
  17. B. R. Marx, G. Holloway, L. Allen, “Simultaneous Two-Wavelength Narrow-band Output From a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 437 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence” Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed Flames of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Peters, F. A. Williams, “Liftoff Characteristics of Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” AIAA J. 21, 423 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Magre, R. W. Dibble, “Finite Chemical Kinetics Effects in a Subsonic Turbulent Hydrogen Flame,” Combust. Flame, in press.
  21. H. W. Schrotter, H. W. Klockner, “Raman Scattering Cross Sections in Gases and Liquids,” in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids (Topics in Current Physics, Vol. 11, A. Weber, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 123.
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence” Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed Flames of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (3)

1983 (3)

M. B. Long, D. C. Fourguette, M. C. Escoda, C. B. Layne, “Instantaneous Ramanography of a Turbulent Diffusion Flame,” Opt. Lett. 8, 244 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Escoda, M. B. Long, “Rayleigh Scattering Measurements of the Gas Concentration Field in Turbulent Jets,” AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Peters, F. A. Williams, “Liftoff Characteristics of Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” AIAA J. 21, 423 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (4)

1981 (1)

M. B. Long, B. T. Chu, R. K. Chang, “Instantaneous Two-dimensional Gas Concentration Measurements by Light Scattering,” AIAA J. 19, 1151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

B. F. Webber, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Two-Dimensional Average Concentration Measurements in a Jet Flow by Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 119 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

B. R. Marx, G. Holloway, L. Allen, “Simultaneous Two-Wavelength Narrow-band Output From a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 437 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

Allen, L.

B. R. Marx, G. Holloway, L. Allen, “Simultaneous Two-Wavelength Narrow-band Output From a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 437 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, R. D. Howe, R. K. Hanson, “Digital Imaging of Reaction Zonesin Hydrocarbon-Air Flames Using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of CH and C2,” Opt. Lett. 11, 126 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Allen, R. K. Hanson “Digital Imaging in Spray Flames,” presented at Western States Section of The Combustion Institute meeting at U.C. Davis, CA, 21–22 Oct. 1985.

Bilger, R. W.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence” Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed Flames of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. J. R. Lysaght, R. W. Bilger, J. H. Kent, “Visualization of Mixing in Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame 46, 105 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cattolica, R. J.

R. J. Cattolica, S. R. Vosen, “Two-dimensional Measurements of the [OH] in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber,” at Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1985), p. 1273.
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

M. B. Long, B. T. Chu, R. K. Chang, “Instantaneous Two-dimensional Gas Concentration Measurements by Light Scattering,” AIAA J. 19, 1151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Webber, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Two-Dimensional Average Concentration Measurements in a Jet Flow by Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 119 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chu, B. T.

M. B. Long, B. T. Chu, R. K. Chang, “Instantaneous Two-dimensional Gas Concentration Measurements by Light Scattering,” AIAA J. 19, 1151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Crosley, D. R.

M. J. Dyer, D. R. Crosley, “Two-dimensional Imaging of OH Laser-Induced Fluorescence in a Flame,” Opt. Lett. 7, 382 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Dyer, D. R. Crosley, “Fluorescence Imaging for Flame Chemistry,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers (1985), Vol. 84, p. 211.

Dibble, R. W.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence” Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed Flames of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Magre, R. W. Dibble, “Finite Chemical Kinetics Effects in a Subsonic Turbulent Hydrogen Flame,” Combust. Flame, in press.

R. W. Dibble, M. B. Long, A. Masri, “Two-Dimensional Imaging of C2 in Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames,” at Tenth International Colloquium on Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (1985).

Dyer, M. J.

M. J. Dyer, D. R. Crosley, “Two-dimensional Imaging of OH Laser-Induced Fluorescence in a Flame,” Opt. Lett. 7, 382 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Dyer, D. R. Crosley, “Fluorescence Imaging for Flame Chemistry,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers (1985), Vol. 84, p. 211.

Edner, H.

Escoda, M. C.

M. C. Escoda, M. B. Long, “Rayleigh Scattering Measurements of the Gas Concentration Field in Turbulent Jets,” AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Long, D. C. Fourguette, M. C. Escoda, C. B. Layne, “Instantaneous Ramanography of a Turbulent Diffusion Flame,” Opt. Lett. 8, 244 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fourguette, D. C.

Hanson, R. K.

Hoegberg, T.

Holloway, G.

B. R. Marx, G. Holloway, L. Allen, “Simultaneous Two-Wavelength Narrow-band Output From a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 437 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Holmsted, G.

Howe, R. D.

Kent, J. H.

A. J. R. Lysaght, R. W. Bilger, J. H. Kent, “Visualization of Mixing in Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame 46, 105 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Klockner, H. W.

H. W. Schrotter, H. W. Klockner, “Raman Scattering Cross Sections in Gases and Liquids,” in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids (Topics in Current Physics, Vol. 11, A. Weber, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 123.
[CrossRef]

Kychakoff, G.

Layne, C. B.

Levin, P. S.

Long, M. B.

M. B. Long, P. S. Levin, D. C. Fourguette, “Simultaneous Two-dimensional Mapping of Species Concentration and Temperature in Turbulent Flames,” Opt. Lett. 10, 267 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Fourguette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-Dimensional Rayleigh Thermometry in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Methane-Hydrogen Flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Escoda, M. B. Long, “Rayleigh Scattering Measurements of the Gas Concentration Field in Turbulent Jets,” AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Long, D. C. Fourguette, M. C. Escoda, C. B. Layne, “Instantaneous Ramanography of a Turbulent Diffusion Flame,” Opt. Lett. 8, 244 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Long, B. T. Chu, R. K. Chang, “Instantaneous Two-dimensional Gas Concentration Measurements by Light Scattering,” AIAA J. 19, 1151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Webber, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Two-Dimensional Average Concentration Measurements in a Jet Flow by Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 119 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Dibble, M. B. Long, A. Masri, “Two-Dimensional Imaging of C2 in Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames,” at Tenth International Colloquium on Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (1985).

Lysaght, A. J. R.

A. J. R. Lysaght, R. W. Bilger, J. H. Kent, “Visualization of Mixing in Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame 46, 105 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Magre, P.

P. Magre, R. W. Dibble, “Finite Chemical Kinetics Effects in a Subsonic Turbulent Hydrogen Flame,” Combust. Flame, in press.

Marx, B. R.

B. R. Marx, G. Holloway, L. Allen, “Simultaneous Two-Wavelength Narrow-band Output From a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 437 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Masri, A.

R. W. Dibble, M. B. Long, A. Masri, “Two-Dimensional Imaging of C2 in Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames,” at Tenth International Colloquium on Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (1985).

Masri, A. R.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence” Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed Flames of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, J. C.

Peters, N.

N. Peters, F. A. Williams, “Liftoff Characteristics of Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” AIAA J. 21, 423 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schrotter, H. W.

H. W. Schrotter, H. W. Klockner, “Raman Scattering Cross Sections in Gases and Liquids,” in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids (Topics in Current Physics, Vol. 11, A. Weber, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 123.
[CrossRef]

Seitzman, J. M.

Svanberg, S.

Vosen, S. R.

R. J. Cattolica, S. R. Vosen, “Two-dimensional Measurements of the [OH] in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber,” at Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1985), p. 1273.
[CrossRef]

Webber, B. F.

B. F. Webber, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Two-Dimensional Average Concentration Measurements in a Jet Flow by Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 119 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Williams, F. A.

N. Peters, F. A. Williams, “Liftoff Characteristics of Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” AIAA J. 21, 423 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zurn, R. M.

D. C. Fourguette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-Dimensional Rayleigh Thermometry in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Methane-Hydrogen Flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307 (1985).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (3)

M. B. Long, B. T. Chu, R. K. Chang, “Instantaneous Two-dimensional Gas Concentration Measurements by Light Scattering,” AIAA J. 19, 1151 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Escoda, M. B. Long, “Rayleigh Scattering Measurements of the Gas Concentration Field in Turbulent Jets,” AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Peters, F. A. Williams, “Liftoff Characteristics of Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” AIAA J. 21, 423 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. F. Webber, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Two-Dimensional Average Concentration Measurements in a Jet Flow by Raman Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 119 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (2)

A. J. R. Lysaght, R. W. Bilger, J. H. Kent, “Visualization of Mixing in Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame 46, 105 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Fluorescence” Interference with Raman Measurements in Nonpremixed Flames of Methane,” Combust. Flame 68, 109 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. C. Fourguette, R. M. Zurn, M. B. Long, “Two-Dimensional Rayleigh Thermometry in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Methane-Hydrogen Flame,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 44, 307 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. R. Marx, G. Holloway, L. Allen, “Simultaneous Two-Wavelength Narrow-band Output From a Pulsed Dye Laser,” Opt. Commun. 18, 437 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (6)

M. G. Allen, R. K. Hanson “Digital Imaging in Spray Flames,” presented at Western States Section of The Combustion Institute meeting at U.C. Davis, CA, 21–22 Oct. 1985.

R. W. Dibble, M. B. Long, A. Masri, “Two-Dimensional Imaging of C2 in Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames,” at Tenth International Colloquium on Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems (1985).

M. J. Dyer, D. R. Crosley, “Fluorescence Imaging for Flame Chemistry,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers (1985), Vol. 84, p. 211.

R. J. Cattolica, S. R. Vosen, “Two-dimensional Measurements of the [OH] in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber,” at Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 1985), p. 1273.
[CrossRef]

P. Magre, R. W. Dibble, “Finite Chemical Kinetics Effects in a Subsonic Turbulent Hydrogen Flame,” Combust. Flame, in press.

H. W. Schrotter, H. W. Klockner, “Raman Scattering Cross Sections in Gases and Liquids,” in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids (Topics in Current Physics, Vol. 11, A. Weber, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 123.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the two-wavelength flashlamp-pumped dye laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the two-wavelength CH–CH4 imaging system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Decomposed images of CH(a) and CH4(b) from a lifted methane diffusion flame. The data are normalized by the Raman signal of pure methane, and contour levels of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 are plotted.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of the Stokes Wavelength for Several Common Hydrocarbon Fuels for Excitation at λ = 431.5 nm. Fluorescence from the (0,1) Band of CH is Observed near 489 nm

Metrics