Abstract

Experimental verification of the properties of a spectroscopic device consisting of two etalons coupled by an afocal system, and which behaves as a high-luminosity single-etalon single-aperture Fabry-Perot spectrometer, has been made. These preliminary results, limited by the available equipment, confirm the predicted theoretical properties of the double-etalon modulator device. As a corollary to this experimental verification, it has been found that successful operation of the device requires very close alignment of the optical axes of the etalons.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions optiques d’emploi des cellules photoélectriques dans les spectrographes et les interféromètres,” J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).
  2. P. Jacquinot, “The Luminosity of Spectrometers with Prisms, Gratings, or Fabry-Perot Etalons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 761 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Connes, “Augmentation du produit luminosité × resolution des interféromètres par l’emploi d’une différence de marche indépendante de l’incidence,” Rev. Opt. 35, 37 (1956).
  4. P. Connes, “L’etalon de Fabry-Perot spherique,” J. Phys. Rad. 19, 262 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Jacquinot, “New Developments in Interference Spectroscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Hernandez, “Analytical Description of a Fabry-Perot Spectrometer. 9: Optimum Operation with a Spherical Etalon,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3707 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Hernandez, Fabry-Perot Interferometers (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, 1986).
  8. G. G. Shepherd, C. W. Lake, J. R. Miller, L. L. Cogger, “A Spatial Spectral Scanning Technique for the Fabry-Perot Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 4, 267 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. G. Hirschberg, P. Platz, “A Multichannel Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1375 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. G. Hirschberg, W. I. Fried, L. Hazelton, A. Wouters, “A Multiplex Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1979 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Meaburn, Detection and Spectrometry of Faint Light (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Dupoisot, R. Prat, “High Resolvance Interference Spectroscopy with a High Factor of Merit in the Visible Spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 18, 85 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Okano, J. S. Kim, T. Ichikawa, “Design of a Multiple-Zone Aperture and Application to a Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1622 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. A. Biondi, D. P. Sipler, M. Weinschenker, “Multiple Aperture Exit Plate for Field-Widening a Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 232 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, J. Moret-Bailly, “Dispositif de mesure du diametre des anneaux d’un interferometre Perot-Fabry eclaire en impulsions lumineuses,” Opt. Commun. 17, 293 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, “Diameter Measurements of Fabry-Perot Interference Rings using CCD Linear Sensors,” Opt. Commun. 30, 229 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. J. Abreu, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Tristatic High-Resolution Doppler Lidar to Study Winds and Turbulence in the Troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2196 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. G. Sivjee, T. J. Hallinan, G. R. Swenson, “Fabry-Perot Interferometer Imaging System for Thermospheric Temperature and Wind Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2206 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Rees, I. McWhirther, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors. II. Devices with Transparent Photocathodes,” J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Hernandez, “Afocal Coupled Etalons. DEM: a High-Resolution Double-Etalon Modulator Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4857 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, “Feedback Stabilized Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 126 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. E. L. Crow, F. A. Davis, M. W. Maxfield, Statistics Manual (Dover, New York, 1960).

1987 (1)

1985 (2)

1981 (2)

V. J. Abreu, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Tristatic High-Resolution Doppler Lidar to Study Winds and Turbulence in the Troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2196 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, I. McWhirther, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors. II. Devices with Transparent Photocathodes,” J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

1979 (2)

R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, “Diameter Measurements of Fabry-Perot Interference Rings using CCD Linear Sensors,” Opt. Commun. 30, 229 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Dupoisot, R. Prat, “High Resolvance Interference Spectroscopy with a High Factor of Merit in the Visible Spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 18, 85 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, J. Moret-Bailly, “Dispositif de mesure du diametre des anneaux d’un interferometre Perot-Fabry eclaire en impulsions lumineuses,” Opt. Commun. 17, 293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

1965 (2)

1960 (1)

P. Jacquinot, “New Developments in Interference Spectroscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

P. Connes, “L’etalon de Fabry-Perot spherique,” J. Phys. Rad. 19, 262 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

P. Connes, “Augmentation du produit luminosité × resolution des interféromètres par l’emploi d’une différence de marche indépendante de l’incidence,” Rev. Opt. 35, 37 (1956).

1954 (1)

1948 (1)

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions optiques d’emploi des cellules photoélectriques dans les spectrographes et les interféromètres,” J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

Abreu, V. J.

Barlow, F. E.

D. Rees, I. McWhirther, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors. II. Devices with Transparent Photocathodes,” J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Biondi, M. A.

Boquillon, J. P.

R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, “Diameter Measurements of Fabry-Perot Interference Rings using CCD Linear Sensors,” Opt. Commun. 30, 229 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, J. Moret-Bailly, “Dispositif de mesure du diametre des anneaux d’un interferometre Perot-Fabry eclaire en impulsions lumineuses,” Opt. Commun. 17, 293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chaux, R.

R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, “Diameter Measurements of Fabry-Perot Interference Rings using CCD Linear Sensors,” Opt. Commun. 30, 229 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, J. Moret-Bailly, “Dispositif de mesure du diametre des anneaux d’un interferometre Perot-Fabry eclaire en impulsions lumineuses,” Opt. Commun. 17, 293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cogger, L. L.

Connes, P.

P. Connes, “L’etalon de Fabry-Perot spherique,” J. Phys. Rad. 19, 262 (1958).
[CrossRef]

P. Connes, “Augmentation du produit luminosité × resolution des interféromètres par l’emploi d’une différence de marche indépendante de l’incidence,” Rev. Opt. 35, 37 (1956).

Crow, E. L.

E. L. Crow, F. A. Davis, M. W. Maxfield, Statistics Manual (Dover, New York, 1960).

Davis, F. A.

E. L. Crow, F. A. Davis, M. W. Maxfield, Statistics Manual (Dover, New York, 1960).

Dufour, C.

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions optiques d’emploi des cellules photoélectriques dans les spectrographes et les interféromètres,” J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

Dupoisot, J.

Fried, W. I.

Hallinan, T. J.

Hays, P. B.

Hazelton, L.

Hernandez, G.

Hirschberg, J. G.

Ichikawa, T.

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot, “New Developments in Interference Spectroscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

P. Jacquinot, “The Luminosity of Spectrometers with Prisms, Gratings, or Fabry-Perot Etalons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 761 (1954).
[CrossRef]

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions optiques d’emploi des cellules photoélectriques dans les spectrographes et les interféromètres,” J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

Killeen, T. L.

Kim, J. S.

Lake, C. W.

Maxfield, M. W.

E. L. Crow, F. A. Davis, M. W. Maxfield, Statistics Manual (Dover, New York, 1960).

McWhirther, I.

D. Rees, I. McWhirther, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors. II. Devices with Transparent Photocathodes,” J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Meaburn, J.

J. Meaburn, Detection and Spectrometry of Faint Light (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. R.

Mills, O. A.

Moret-Bailly, J.

R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, J. Moret-Bailly, “Dispositif de mesure du diametre des anneaux d’un interferometre Perot-Fabry eclaire en impulsions lumineuses,” Opt. Commun. 17, 293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Okano, S.

Platz, P.

Prat, R.

Rees, D.

D. Rees, I. McWhirther, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors. II. Devices with Transparent Photocathodes,” J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rounce, P. A.

D. Rees, I. McWhirther, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors. II. Devices with Transparent Photocathodes,” J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

Sipler, D. P.

Sivjee, G. G.

Swenson, G. R.

Weinschenker, M.

Wouters, A.

Appl. Opt. (11)

G. G. Shepherd, C. W. Lake, J. R. Miller, L. L. Cogger, “A Spatial Spectral Scanning Technique for the Fabry-Perot Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 4, 267 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Hirschberg, P. Platz, “A Multichannel Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1375 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Hirschberg, W. I. Fried, L. Hazelton, A. Wouters, “A Multiplex Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1979 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dupoisot, R. Prat, “High Resolvance Interference Spectroscopy with a High Factor of Merit in the Visible Spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 18, 85 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Okano, J. S. Kim, T. Ichikawa, “Design of a Multiple-Zone Aperture and Application to a Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1622 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Biondi, D. P. Sipler, M. Weinschenker, “Multiple Aperture Exit Plate for Field-Widening a Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 24, 232 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, “Analytical Description of a Fabry-Perot Spectrometer. 9: Optimum Operation with a Spherical Etalon,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3707 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Abreu, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, “Tristatic High-Resolution Doppler Lidar to Study Winds and Turbulence in the Troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2196 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Sivjee, T. J. Hallinan, G. R. Swenson, “Fabry-Perot Interferometer Imaging System for Thermospheric Temperature and Wind Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2206 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, “Afocal Coupled Etalons. DEM: a High-Resolution Double-Etalon Modulator Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4857 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, “Feedback Stabilized Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 126 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. E (1)

D. Rees, I. McWhirther, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, “Miniature Imaging Photon Detectors. II. Devices with Transparent Photocathodes,” J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Rad. (1)

P. Connes, “L’etalon de Fabry-Perot spherique,” J. Phys. Rad. 19, 262 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Rech. CNRS (1)

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions optiques d’emploi des cellules photoélectriques dans les spectrographes et les interféromètres,” J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, J. Moret-Bailly, “Dispositif de mesure du diametre des anneaux d’un interferometre Perot-Fabry eclaire en impulsions lumineuses,” Opt. Commun. 17, 293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Chaux, J. P. Boquillon, “Diameter Measurements of Fabry-Perot Interference Rings using CCD Linear Sensors,” Opt. Commun. 30, 229 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Jacquinot, “New Developments in Interference Spectroscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 267 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt. (1)

P. Connes, “Augmentation du produit luminosité × resolution des interféromètres par l’emploi d’une différence de marche indépendante de l’incidence,” Rev. Opt. 35, 37 (1956).

Other (3)

J. Meaburn, Detection and Spectrometry of Faint Light (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, Fabry-Perot Interferometers (Cambridge U. P., Cambridge, 1986).

E. L. Crow, F. A. Davis, M. W. Maxfield, Statistics Manual (Dover, New York, 1960).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the beam expander used to couple the two etalons (E1 and E2) in this experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modulation of the DEM signal as a function of the relative match parameter α: (a) ideal etalon pair; (b) practical etalon pair with finite (Gaussian) surface defects. The modulation scale has been normalized to the largest modulation of the ideal etalon pair DEM device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the experimental DEM spectrometer modulation (solid line) with the calculated modulation for a practical DEM consisting of two etalons with finite surface defects (dotted line). For convenience, the experimental points have been joined with lines. The experimental modulation has been normalized to the calculated modulation by a least-squares method.

Equations (2)

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α = n 0 2 n 0 1 - 1 η 2 = d 1 d 2 - 1 f 1 2 f 2 - 2 .
F 2 ( n 0 1 , n 0 2 , Δ n 1 max , η ) = I A 1 τ L [ 1 - A 1 ( 1 - R 1 ) - 1 ] 2 × [ 1 - A 2 ( 1 - R 2 ) - 1 ] 2 ( 1 - R 1 ) 2 ( 1 - R 2 ) 2 2 π × 1 - Δ n 1 max n 0 1 - 1 1 { 1 + R 1 2 - 2 R 1 cos [ 2 π n 0 1 ( 1 - Δ n 1 n 0 1 - 1 ) ] } - 1 × [ 1 + R 2 2 - 2 R 2 cos ( 2 π n 0 2 { 1 - η 2 ( 2 Δ n 1 n 0 1 - 1 - Δ n 1 2 n 0 1 - 2 ) × [ ( 1 - Δ n 1 n 0 1 - 1 ) 2 + f 1 2 f 2 - 2 ( 2 Δ n 1 n 0 1 - 1 - Δ n 1 2 n 0 1 - 2 ) ] - 1 } 1 / 2 ) ] - 1 × d ( 1 - Δ n 1 n 0 1 - 1 ) .

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