Abstract

An onion-peeling iterative, least-squares relaxation method to retrieve mixing ratio profiles from limb thermal emission spectra is presented. The method has been tested on synthetic data, containing various amounts of added random noise for O3, HNO3, and N2O. The retrieval method is used to obtain O3 and HNO3 mixing ratio profiles from high-resolution thermal emission spectra. Results of the retrievals compare favorably with those obtained by others.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Fabian et al., The Vertical Distribution of Stable Trace Gases at Mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. C. Gallagher, C. A. Forsberg, R. V. Pieri, “Stratospheric N2O, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 Composition Studies Utilizing in situ Cryogenic, Whole Air Sampling Methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3798 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Rasmussen, M. A. K. Khalil, “Atmospheric Benzine and Toluene,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1096 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, B. D. Robbins, R. A. Toth, C. Muller, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric Species: O3, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, H2O, HCl, and HF at Northern and Southern Mid-Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, A. Goldman, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Determination of the Latitudinal, Seasonal, and Diurnal Variability of Stratospheric N2O, NO, NO2, and HNO3),” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 733 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Girard, N. Louisnard, “Stratospheric Water Vapor, Nitrogen Dioxide, Nitric Acid, and Ozone Measurements Deduced from Spectroscopic Observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5109 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, Balloon-Borne and Aircraft Infrared Measurements of Ethane (C2H6) in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Bratosphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 211 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. P. Rinsland et al., “Stratospheric N2O Mixing Ratio Profile from High Resolution Balloon-Borne Solar Absorption Spectra and Laboratory Spectra near 1880 cm−1,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4341 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. D. McPeters, D. F. Heath, P. K. Bhartia, “Average Ozone Profiles for 1979 from the NIMBUS 7 SBUV Instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5199 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Muller, C. Lippens, J. Vercheval, M. Ackerman, J. Laurent, “The Grating Spectrometer Experiment in the Spacelab I Payload,” J. Opt. 16, 155 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. M. Abbas, J. Guo, I. G. Nolt, B. Carli, “Far Infrared Remote Sounding of Stratospheric Temperature and Trace Gas Distributions,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 145 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. M. Abbas, G. L. Shapiro, B. J. Conrath, V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Thermal Emission Spectroscopy of the Stratosphere from Balloon Platforms,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods (Deepak, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 133–148.
  13. J. C. Gille, J. M. Russell, “The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS): Experiment, Performance, and Results,” J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D4), 5125 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Russell et al., “Validation of Nitrogen Dioxide Results Measured by the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) Experiment on Nimbus 7,” J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D4), 5099 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Chahine, “A General Relaxation Method for Inverse Solution of the Full Radiative Transfer Equation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 741 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. S. Rothman et al., “AFGL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation: 1982 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2247 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Direct Integration Transmittance Model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 803 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. G. Kunde et al., “Infrared Spectroscopy of the Lower Stratosphere with a Balloon-Borne Cryogenic Fourier Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 545 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. M. Abbas, M. J. Glenn, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, B. J. Conrath, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4 and N2O Profiles from Infrared Limb Thermal Emissions,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8343 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. C. Brasunas et al., “Balloon-Borne Cryogenic Spectrometer for Measurement of Lower Stratospheric Trace Constituents,” submitted for publication.
  21. M. D. King, X. X. Harshvardin, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the El Chicon Stratospheric Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. World Meteorological Organization, Atmospheric Ozone, Report 16, World Meteorology Organization, Geneva (1985).
  23. E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, J. C. Gille, L. L. Gordley, P. L. Bailey, W. G. Planet, J. E. Harries, “The Validation of NIMBUS 7 LIMS Measurements of Ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5161 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. P. Weinreb, W. A. Morgan, I-Lok Chang, L. D. Johnson, P. A. Bridges, A. C. Neuendorffer, “High-Altitude Balloon Test of Satellite Solar Occultation Instrument for Monitoring Stratospheric O3, H2O and HNO3,” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 1, 87 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Fisher, F. Fergg, D. Rabus, “Stratospheric H2O and HNO3 Profiles Derived from Solar Occultation Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3831 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (2)

M. M. Abbas, M. J. Glenn, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, B. J. Conrath, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4 and N2O Profiles from Infrared Limb Thermal Emissions,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8343 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kunde et al., “Infrared Spectroscopy of the Lower Stratosphere with a Balloon-Borne Cryogenic Fourier Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 545 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

H. Fisher, F. Fergg, D. Rabus, “Stratospheric H2O and HNO3 Profiles Derived from Solar Occultation Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3831 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Muller, C. Lippens, J. Vercheval, M. Ackerman, J. Laurent, “The Grating Spectrometer Experiment in the Spacelab I Payload,” J. Opt. 16, 155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (9)

M. M. Abbas, J. Guo, I. G. Nolt, B. Carli, “Far Infrared Remote Sounding of Stratospheric Temperature and Trace Gas Distributions,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, J. M. Russell, “The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS): Experiment, Performance, and Results,” J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D4), 5125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell et al., “Validation of Nitrogen Dioxide Results Measured by the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) Experiment on Nimbus 7,” J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D4), 5099 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, X. X. Harshvardin, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the El Chicon Stratospheric Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, J. C. Gille, L. L. Gordley, P. L. Bailey, W. G. Planet, J. E. Harries, “The Validation of NIMBUS 7 LIMS Measurements of Ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Weinreb, W. A. Morgan, I-Lok Chang, L. D. Johnson, P. A. Bridges, A. C. Neuendorffer, “High-Altitude Balloon Test of Satellite Solar Occultation Instrument for Monitoring Stratospheric O3, H2O and HNO3,” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 1, 87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Girard, N. Louisnard, “Stratospheric Water Vapor, Nitrogen Dioxide, Nitric Acid, and Ozone Measurements Deduced from Spectroscopic Observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, Balloon-Borne and Aircraft Infrared Measurements of Ethane (C2H6) in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Bratosphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 211 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. D. McPeters, D. F. Heath, P. K. Bhartia, “Average Ozone Profiles for 1979 from the NIMBUS 7 SBUV Instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

C. C. Gallagher, C. A. Forsberg, R. V. Pieri, “Stratospheric N2O, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 Composition Studies Utilizing in situ Cryogenic, Whole Air Sampling Methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3798 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Rasmussen, M. A. K. Khalil, “Atmospheric Benzine and Toluene,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1096 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman et al., “AFGL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation: 1982 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2247 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

C. P. Rinsland et al., “Stratospheric N2O Mixing Ratio Profile from High Resolution Balloon-Borne Solar Absorption Spectra and Laboratory Spectra near 1880 cm−1,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

P. Fabian et al., The Vertical Distribution of Stable Trace Gases at Mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, B. D. Robbins, R. A. Toth, C. Muller, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric Species: O3, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, H2O, HCl, and HF at Northern and Southern Mid-Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, A. Goldman, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Determination of the Latitudinal, Seasonal, and Diurnal Variability of Stratospheric N2O, NO, NO2, and HNO3),” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 733 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Direct Integration Transmittance Model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 803 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

M. Chahine, “A General Relaxation Method for Inverse Solution of the Full Radiative Transfer Equation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 741 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M. M.

M. M. Abbas, M. J. Glenn, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, B. J. Conrath, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4 and N2O Profiles from Infrared Limb Thermal Emissions,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8343 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, J. Guo, I. G. Nolt, B. Carli, “Far Infrared Remote Sounding of Stratospheric Temperature and Trace Gas Distributions,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, G. L. Shapiro, B. J. Conrath, V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Thermal Emission Spectroscopy of the Stratosphere from Balloon Platforms,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods (Deepak, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 133–148.

Ackerman, M.

C. Muller, C. Lippens, J. Vercheval, M. Ackerman, J. Laurent, “The Grating Spectrometer Experiment in the Spacelab I Payload,” J. Opt. 16, 155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Arking, A.

M. D. King, X. X. Harshvardin, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the El Chicon Stratospheric Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, P. L.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, J. C. Gille, L. L. Gordley, P. L. Bailey, W. G. Planet, J. E. Harries, “The Validation of NIMBUS 7 LIMS Measurements of Ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P. K.

R. D. McPeters, D. F. Heath, P. K. Bhartia, “Average Ozone Profiles for 1979 from the NIMBUS 7 SBUV Instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brasunas, J. C.

M. M. Abbas, M. J. Glenn, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, B. J. Conrath, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4 and N2O Profiles from Infrared Limb Thermal Emissions,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8343 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Brasunas et al., “Balloon-Borne Cryogenic Spectrometer for Measurement of Lower Stratospheric Trace Constituents,” submitted for publication.

Bridges, P. A.

M. P. Weinreb, W. A. Morgan, I-Lok Chang, L. D. Johnson, P. A. Bridges, A. C. Neuendorffer, “High-Altitude Balloon Test of Satellite Solar Occultation Instrument for Monitoring Stratospheric O3, H2O and HNO3,” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 1, 87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

M. M. Abbas, J. Guo, I. G. Nolt, B. Carli, “Far Infrared Remote Sounding of Stratospheric Temperature and Trace Gas Distributions,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chahine, M.

M. Chahine, “A General Relaxation Method for Inverse Solution of the Full Radiative Transfer Equation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 741 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chang, I-Lok

M. P. Weinreb, W. A. Morgan, I-Lok Chang, L. D. Johnson, P. A. Bridges, A. C. Neuendorffer, “High-Altitude Balloon Test of Satellite Solar Occultation Instrument for Monitoring Stratospheric O3, H2O and HNO3,” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 1, 87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, M. T.

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, Balloon-Borne and Aircraft Infrared Measurements of Ethane (C2H6) in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Bratosphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 211 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, A. Goldman, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Determination of the Latitudinal, Seasonal, and Diurnal Variability of Stratospheric N2O, NO, NO2, and HNO3),” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 733 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Conrath, B. J.

M. M. Abbas, M. J. Glenn, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, B. J. Conrath, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4 and N2O Profiles from Infrared Limb Thermal Emissions,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8343 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, G. L. Shapiro, B. J. Conrath, V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Thermal Emission Spectroscopy of the Stratosphere from Balloon Platforms,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods (Deepak, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 133–148.

Fabian, P.

P. Fabian et al., The Vertical Distribution of Stable Trace Gases at Mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, B. D. Robbins, R. A. Toth, C. Muller, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric Species: O3, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, H2O, HCl, and HF at Northern and Southern Mid-Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fergg, F.

H. Fisher, F. Fergg, D. Rabus, “Stratospheric H2O and HNO3 Profiles Derived from Solar Occultation Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3831 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, H.

H. Fisher, F. Fergg, D. Rabus, “Stratospheric H2O and HNO3 Profiles Derived from Solar Occultation Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3831 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Forsberg, C. A.

C. C. Gallagher, C. A. Forsberg, R. V. Pieri, “Stratospheric N2O, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 Composition Studies Utilizing in situ Cryogenic, Whole Air Sampling Methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3798 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, C. C.

C. C. Gallagher, C. A. Forsberg, R. V. Pieri, “Stratospheric N2O, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 Composition Studies Utilizing in situ Cryogenic, Whole Air Sampling Methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3798 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J. C.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, J. C. Gille, L. L. Gordley, P. L. Bailey, W. G. Planet, J. E. Harries, “The Validation of NIMBUS 7 LIMS Measurements of Ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, J. M. Russell, “The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS): Experiment, Performance, and Results,” J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D4), 5125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Girard, A.

A. Girard, N. Louisnard, “Stratospheric Water Vapor, Nitrogen Dioxide, Nitric Acid, and Ozone Measurements Deduced from Spectroscopic Observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, M. J.

M. M. Abbas, M. J. Glenn, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, B. J. Conrath, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4 and N2O Profiles from Infrared Limb Thermal Emissions,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8343 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, Balloon-Borne and Aircraft Infrared Measurements of Ethane (C2H6) in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Bratosphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 211 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, A. Goldman, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Determination of the Latitudinal, Seasonal, and Diurnal Variability of Stratospheric N2O, NO, NO2, and HNO3),” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 733 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gordley, L. L.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, J. C. Gille, L. L. Gordley, P. L. Bailey, W. G. Planet, J. E. Harries, “The Validation of NIMBUS 7 LIMS Measurements of Ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

M. M. Abbas, J. Guo, I. G. Nolt, B. Carli, “Far Infrared Remote Sounding of Stratospheric Temperature and Trace Gas Distributions,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Harries, J. E.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, J. C. Gille, L. L. Gordley, P. L. Bailey, W. G. Planet, J. E. Harries, “The Validation of NIMBUS 7 LIMS Measurements of Ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Harshvardin, X. X.

M. D. King, X. X. Harshvardin, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the El Chicon Stratospheric Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Heath, D. F.

R. D. McPeters, D. F. Heath, P. K. Bhartia, “Average Ozone Profiles for 1979 from the NIMBUS 7 SBUV Instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

M. M. Abbas, M. J. Glenn, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, B. J. Conrath, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4 and N2O Profiles from Infrared Limb Thermal Emissions,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8343 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. D.

M. P. Weinreb, W. A. Morgan, I-Lok Chang, L. D. Johnson, P. A. Bridges, A. C. Neuendorffer, “High-Altitude Balloon Test of Satellite Solar Occultation Instrument for Monitoring Stratospheric O3, H2O and HNO3,” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 1, 87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Khalil, M. A. K.

R. A. Rasmussen, M. A. K. Khalil, “Atmospheric Benzine and Toluene,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1096 (1983).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

M. D. King, X. X. Harshvardin, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the El Chicon Stratospheric Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kunde, V. G.

M. M. Abbas, M. J. Glenn, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, B. J. Conrath, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4 and N2O Profiles from Infrared Limb Thermal Emissions,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8343 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kunde et al., “Infrared Spectroscopy of the Lower Stratosphere with a Balloon-Borne Cryogenic Fourier Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 26, 545 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Direct Integration Transmittance Model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 803 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, G. L. Shapiro, B. J. Conrath, V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Thermal Emission Spectroscopy of the Stratosphere from Balloon Platforms,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods (Deepak, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 133–148.

Laurent, J.

C. Muller, C. Lippens, J. Vercheval, M. Ackerman, J. Laurent, “The Grating Spectrometer Experiment in the Spacelab I Payload,” J. Opt. 16, 155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lippens, C.

C. Muller, C. Lippens, J. Vercheval, M. Ackerman, J. Laurent, “The Grating Spectrometer Experiment in the Spacelab I Payload,” J. Opt. 16, 155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Louisnard, N.

A. Girard, N. Louisnard, “Stratospheric Water Vapor, Nitrogen Dioxide, Nitric Acid, and Ozone Measurements Deduced from Spectroscopic Observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Maguire, W. C.

M. M. Abbas, M. J. Glenn, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, B. J. Conrath, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4 and N2O Profiles from Infrared Limb Thermal Emissions,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8343 (1987).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Direct Integration Transmittance Model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 803 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, G. L. Shapiro, B. J. Conrath, V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Thermal Emission Spectroscopy of the Stratosphere from Balloon Platforms,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods (Deepak, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 133–148.

Mankin, W. G.

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, Balloon-Borne and Aircraft Infrared Measurements of Ethane (C2H6) in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Bratosphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 211 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, A. Goldman, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Determination of the Latitudinal, Seasonal, and Diurnal Variability of Stratospheric N2O, NO, NO2, and HNO3),” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 733 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McPeters, R. D.

R. D. McPeters, D. F. Heath, P. K. Bhartia, “Average Ozone Profiles for 1979 from the NIMBUS 7 SBUV Instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, W. A.

M. P. Weinreb, W. A. Morgan, I-Lok Chang, L. D. Johnson, P. A. Bridges, A. C. Neuendorffer, “High-Altitude Balloon Test of Satellite Solar Occultation Instrument for Monitoring Stratospheric O3, H2O and HNO3,” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 1, 87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Muller, C.

C. Muller, C. Lippens, J. Vercheval, M. Ackerman, J. Laurent, “The Grating Spectrometer Experiment in the Spacelab I Payload,” J. Opt. 16, 155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, B. D. Robbins, R. A. Toth, C. Muller, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric Species: O3, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, H2O, HCl, and HF at Northern and Southern Mid-Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, D. G.

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, Balloon-Borne and Aircraft Infrared Measurements of Ethane (C2H6) in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Bratosphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 211 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, F. J.

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, Balloon-Borne and Aircraft Infrared Measurements of Ethane (C2H6) in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Bratosphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 211 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Neuendorffer, A. C.

M. P. Weinreb, W. A. Morgan, I-Lok Chang, L. D. Johnson, P. A. Bridges, A. C. Neuendorffer, “High-Altitude Balloon Test of Satellite Solar Occultation Instrument for Monitoring Stratospheric O3, H2O and HNO3,” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 1, 87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nolt, I. G.

M. M. Abbas, J. Guo, I. G. Nolt, B. Carli, “Far Infrared Remote Sounding of Stratospheric Temperature and Trace Gas Distributions,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pieri, R. V.

C. C. Gallagher, C. A. Forsberg, R. V. Pieri, “Stratospheric N2O, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 Composition Studies Utilizing in situ Cryogenic, Whole Air Sampling Methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3798 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Planet, W. G.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, J. C. Gille, L. L. Gordley, P. L. Bailey, W. G. Planet, J. E. Harries, “The Validation of NIMBUS 7 LIMS Measurements of Ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, D.

H. Fisher, F. Fergg, D. Rabus, “Stratospheric H2O and HNO3 Profiles Derived from Solar Occultation Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3831 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Raper, O. F.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, B. D. Robbins, R. A. Toth, C. Muller, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric Species: O3, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, H2O, HCl, and HF at Northern and Southern Mid-Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, R. A.

R. A. Rasmussen, M. A. K. Khalil, “Atmospheric Benzine and Toluene,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1096 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Remsberg, E. E.

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, J. C. Gille, L. L. Gordley, P. L. Bailey, W. G. Planet, J. E. Harries, “The Validation of NIMBUS 7 LIMS Measurements of Ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, Balloon-Borne and Aircraft Infrared Measurements of Ethane (C2H6) in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Bratosphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 211 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland et al., “Stratospheric N2O Mixing Ratio Profile from High Resolution Balloon-Borne Solar Absorption Spectra and Laboratory Spectra near 1880 cm−1,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4341 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, B. D.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, B. D. Robbins, R. A. Toth, C. Muller, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric Species: O3, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, H2O, HCl, and HF at Northern and Southern Mid-Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

Russell, J. M.

J. M. Russell et al., “Validation of Nitrogen Dioxide Results Measured by the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) Experiment on Nimbus 7,” J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D4), 5099 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, J. C. Gille, L. L. Gordley, P. L. Bailey, W. G. Planet, J. E. Harries, “The Validation of NIMBUS 7 LIMS Measurements of Ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, J. M. Russell, “The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS): Experiment, Performance, and Results,” J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D4), 5125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, G. L.

M. M. Abbas, G. L. Shapiro, B. J. Conrath, V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Thermal Emission Spectroscopy of the Stratosphere from Balloon Platforms,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods (Deepak, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 133–148.

Toth, R. A.

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, B. D. Robbins, R. A. Toth, C. Muller, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric Species: O3, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, H2O, HCl, and HF at Northern and Southern Mid-Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vercheval, J.

C. Muller, C. Lippens, J. Vercheval, M. Ackerman, J. Laurent, “The Grating Spectrometer Experiment in the Spacelab I Payload,” J. Opt. 16, 155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Weinreb, M. P.

M. P. Weinreb, W. A. Morgan, I-Lok Chang, L. D. Johnson, P. A. Bridges, A. C. Neuendorffer, “High-Altitude Balloon Test of Satellite Solar Occultation Instrument for Monitoring Stratospheric O3, H2O and HNO3,” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 1, 87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

R. A. Rasmussen, M. A. K. Khalil, “Atmospheric Benzine and Toluene,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1096 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (2)

M. M. Abbas, J. Guo, I. G. Nolt, B. Carli, “Far Infrared Remote Sounding of Stratospheric Temperature and Trace Gas Distributions,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, C. P. Rinsland, M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, Balloon-Borne and Aircraft Infrared Measurements of Ethane (C2H6) in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Bratosphere,” J. Atmos. Chem. 2, 211 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. (1)

M. P. Weinreb, W. A. Morgan, I-Lok Chang, L. D. Johnson, P. A. Bridges, A. C. Neuendorffer, “High-Altitude Balloon Test of Satellite Solar Occultation Instrument for Monitoring Stratospheric O3, H2O and HNO3,” J. Atmos. Ocean Technol. 1, 87 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

M. Chahine, “A General Relaxation Method for Inverse Solution of the Full Radiative Transfer Equation,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 741 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. (1)

M. D. King, X. X. Harshvardin, A. Arking, “A Model of the Radiative Properties of the El Chicon Stratospheric Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1121 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (11)

M. M. Abbas, M. J. Glenn, V. G. Kunde, J. C. Brasunas, B. J. Conrath, W. C. Maguire, J. R. Herman, “Simultaneous Measurement of Stratospheric O3, H2O, CH4 and N2O Profiles from Infrared Limb Thermal Emissions,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8343 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Gille, J. M. Russell, “The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS): Experiment, Performance, and Results,” J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D4), 5125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell et al., “Validation of Nitrogen Dioxide Results Measured by the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) Experiment on Nimbus 7,” J. Geophys. Res. 89 (D4), 5099 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Farmer, O. F. Raper, B. D. Robbins, R. A. Toth, C. Muller, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric Species: O3, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, H2O, HCl, and HF at Northern and Southern Mid-Latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Coffey, W. G. Mankin, A. Goldman, “Simultaneous Spectroscopic Determination of the Latitudinal, Seasonal, and Diurnal Variability of Stratospheric N2O, NO, NO2, and HNO3),” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 733 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Girard, N. Louisnard, “Stratospheric Water Vapor, Nitrogen Dioxide, Nitric Acid, and Ozone Measurements Deduced from Spectroscopic Observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. D. McPeters, D. F. Heath, P. K. Bhartia, “Average Ozone Profiles for 1979 from the NIMBUS 7 SBUV Instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Fabian et al., The Vertical Distribution of Stable Trace Gases at Mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Gallagher, C. A. Forsberg, R. V. Pieri, “Stratospheric N2O, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 Composition Studies Utilizing in situ Cryogenic, Whole Air Sampling Methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 3798 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Fisher, F. Fergg, D. Rabus, “Stratospheric H2O and HNO3 Profiles Derived from Solar Occultation Measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 90, 3831 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Remsberg, J. M. Russell, J. C. Gille, L. L. Gordley, P. L. Bailey, W. G. Planet, J. E. Harries, “The Validation of NIMBUS 7 LIMS Measurements of Ozone,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 5161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

C. Muller, C. Lippens, J. Vercheval, M. Ackerman, J. Laurent, “The Grating Spectrometer Experiment in the Spacelab I Payload,” J. Opt. 16, 155 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Direct Integration Transmittance Model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 803 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. M. Abbas, G. L. Shapiro, B. J. Conrath, V. G. Kunde, W. C. Maguire, “Thermal Emission Spectroscopy of the Stratosphere from Balloon Platforms,” in Advances in Remote Sensing Retrieval Methods (Deepak, Hampton, VA, 1985), pp. 133–148.

J. C. Brasunas et al., “Balloon-Borne Cryogenic Spectrometer for Measurement of Lower Stratospheric Trace Constituents,” submitted for publication.

World Meteorological Organization, Atmospheric Ozone, Report 16, World Meteorology Organization, Geneva (1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mixing ratio profiles used to calculate synthetic radiance data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contribution functions [Bν(T)Wν] computed for tangent heights with 5-km spacing for typical emission lines having optical depths near unity for (a) O3, (b) HNO3, and (c) N2O. The mixing ratio profiles in Fig. 1 were used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Mixing ratio retrievals from ten synthetic O3 lines containing 0, 1, 10, and 25% added random noise; (b) retrievals from synthetic O3 data with 5% added random noise for one- and ten-line data sets.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Mixing ratio retrievals from ten synthetic HNO3 lines containing 0, 1, 10, and 25% added random noise; (b) retrievals from synthetic HNO3 data with 5% added random noise for one- and ten-line data sets.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Mixing ratio retrievals from ten synthetic N2O lines containing 0, 1, 10, and 25% added random noise; (b) retrievals from synthetic N2O data with 5% added random noise for one- and ten-line data sets.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Limb sequence obtained 6 Nov. 1984 over Palestine, TX for a float altitude of ~40 km exhibiting CO2 and O3 emissions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

O3 mixing ratio profile retrieved from the thermal emission spectra shown in Fig. 6. The error bars indicate the 1σ uncertainty due to random and systematic errors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the observed thermal emission spectra with synthetic spectra computed using the retrieved O3 mixing ratio profile shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Limb sequence obtained 6 Nov. 1984 over Palestine, TX for a float height of ~40 km exhibiting HNO3 emissions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

HNO3 mixing ratio profile retrieved from the thermal emission spectral shown in Fig. 9. The error bars indicate the 1σ uncertainty due to random and systematic errors.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the observed thermal emission spectra with synthetic spectra computed using the retrieved HNO3 mixing ratio profile shown in Fig. 10.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Average of Ten HNO3 Mixing Ratio Profile Retrievals on Synthetic Data Containing 5% Random Noise for the One-Line Case Including the Assumed Profile, Standard Deviations, and Corresponding Percent Uncertainty

Tables Icon

Table II Estimated Percent Uncertainty In the HNO3 Mixing Ratios Retrieved from Synthetic Data Containing 5 % Random Noise for the One- and Ten-Line Cases

Tables Icon

Table III Systematic Error Sensitivity Study

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ν ( θ 0 , Z 0 ) = 0 B ν [ T ( Z ) ] W ν ( θ 0 , Z ) d Z ,
W ν ( θ 0 , Z ) = d τ ν 1 d Z - d τ ν 2 d Z .
τ ν = exp [ - M k ν i ( P , T ) d u i ] ,
τ ν = exp { - [ M - 1 k ν i ( P , T ) ρ i + k ν ( P , T ) q ρ ] d s } ,
I ν ( θ 0 , Z 0 , α q 0 ) - I ν obs ( θ 0 , Z 0 ) < δ ,
α ( 1 ) = 1.
α ( 2 ) = I ν obs ( θ 0 , Z 0 ) / I ν ( θ 0 , Z 0 , q 0 ) .
α ( n ) = α ( k ) - r ( k ) α ( k ) - α ( n - 1 ) r ( k ) - r ( n - 1 ) ,
r ( k ) = I ν obs ( θ 0 , Z 0 ) - I ν [ θ 0 , Z 0 , α ( k ) q 0 ] ,
α ( 2 ) = N I ν jobs ( θ 0 , Z 0 ) / N I ν j [ θ 0 , Z 0 , q 0 ( Z 0 ) ] ,
r ( k ) = N ( I ν jobs ( θ 0 , Z 0 ) - I ν j [ θ 0 , Z 0 , α ( k ) q 0 ( Z 0 ) ] 2 / N ,

Metrics