Abstract

The principles, construction, and operation of a novel gas correlation spectrometer employing the Zeeman effect to perform selective modulation are described. The retrieval of column amounts of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO) is discussed. The sun is used as an IR source, and the radiation is modulated by the splitting of absorption lines in a sample of NO gas which is positioned in a variable longitudinal field. A sample of the results obtained at a high altitude observatory is presented. The diurnal variation in the observed NO column is consistent with photochemical predictions. Unexpected shorter term variabilities which are observed may be dynamic effects but are more likely to be instrumental artifacts. The instrument is insensitive to tropospheric NO, making it potentially useful for long term monitoring from the ground of NO in the stratosphere and mesosphere.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. G. Adam, “Spectroscopic Investigations of Stratospheric Constituents. A Zeeman Modulated Radiometer for Measuring Nitric Oxide,” D.Phil Thesis, U. Oxford (1982).
  2. H. G. Adam, J. T. Houghton, E. J. Williamson, “A Zeeman Modulated Radiometer for Nitric Oxide Measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 408, 233 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. S. Rothman, “AFGL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation: 1982 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2247 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. S. Rothman et al., “AFGL Trace Gas Compilation: 1982 Version,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1616 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. P. Rinsland et al., “Stratospheric N2O Mixing Ratio Profile from High-Resolution Balloon-Borne Solar Absorption Spectra and Laboratory Spectra near 1880 cm−1,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4351 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. P. Rinsland, R. E. Boughner, J.-C. Larsen, G. M. Stokes, J. W. Brault, “Diurnal Variations of Atmosheric Nitric Oxide: Ground Based Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements and Their Interpretation with Time-Dependent Photochemical Model Calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9613 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. K. Roscoe, B. J. Kerridge, L. J. Gray, R. J. Wells, J. A. Pyle, “Simultaneous Measurements of NO and NO2 and their Comparison with Model Predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5405 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. L. McKenzie, H. K. Roscoe, “Zeeman Modulation Contrasted with Pressure Modulation in its Application to Measuring Atmospheric NO from the Ground,” Appl. Opt. (submitted Aug.1987).
    [PubMed]
  9. R. L. McKenzie, “Measurement of Nitric Oxide Column Amounts in the Atmosphere Using the Zeeman Modulation Technique,” D.Phil Thesis, U. Oxford (1986).
  10. P. Fabian, J. A. Pyle, R. J. Wells, “Diurnal Variations of Minor Constituents in the Stratosphere Modeled as a Function of Latitude and Season,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4981 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (2)

H. G. Adam, J. T. Houghton, E. J. Williamson, “A Zeeman Modulated Radiometer for Nitric Oxide Measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 408, 233 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roscoe, B. J. Kerridge, L. J. Gray, R. J. Wells, J. A. Pyle, “Simultaneous Measurements of NO and NO2 and their Comparison with Model Predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5405 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. P. Rinsland, R. E. Boughner, J.-C. Larsen, G. M. Stokes, J. W. Brault, “Diurnal Variations of Atmosheric Nitric Oxide: Ground Based Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements and Their Interpretation with Time-Dependent Photochemical Model Calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1982 (2)

C. P. Rinsland et al., “Stratospheric N2O Mixing Ratio Profile from High-Resolution Balloon-Borne Solar Absorption Spectra and Laboratory Spectra near 1880 cm−1,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4351 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Fabian, J. A. Pyle, R. J. Wells, “Diurnal Variations of Minor Constituents in the Stratosphere Modeled as a Function of Latitude and Season,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4981 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adam, H. G.

H. G. Adam, J. T. Houghton, E. J. Williamson, “A Zeeman Modulated Radiometer for Nitric Oxide Measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 408, 233 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Adam, “Spectroscopic Investigations of Stratospheric Constituents. A Zeeman Modulated Radiometer for Measuring Nitric Oxide,” D.Phil Thesis, U. Oxford (1982).

Boughner, R. E.

C. P. Rinsland, R. E. Boughner, J.-C. Larsen, G. M. Stokes, J. W. Brault, “Diurnal Variations of Atmosheric Nitric Oxide: Ground Based Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements and Their Interpretation with Time-Dependent Photochemical Model Calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brault, J. W.

C. P. Rinsland, R. E. Boughner, J.-C. Larsen, G. M. Stokes, J. W. Brault, “Diurnal Variations of Atmosheric Nitric Oxide: Ground Based Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements and Their Interpretation with Time-Dependent Photochemical Model Calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, P.

P. Fabian, J. A. Pyle, R. J. Wells, “Diurnal Variations of Minor Constituents in the Stratosphere Modeled as a Function of Latitude and Season,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4981 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gray, L. J.

H. K. Roscoe, B. J. Kerridge, L. J. Gray, R. J. Wells, J. A. Pyle, “Simultaneous Measurements of NO and NO2 and their Comparison with Model Predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5405 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, J. T.

H. G. Adam, J. T. Houghton, E. J. Williamson, “A Zeeman Modulated Radiometer for Nitric Oxide Measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 408, 233 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kerridge, B. J.

H. K. Roscoe, B. J. Kerridge, L. J. Gray, R. J. Wells, J. A. Pyle, “Simultaneous Measurements of NO and NO2 and their Comparison with Model Predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5405 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, J.-C.

C. P. Rinsland, R. E. Boughner, J.-C. Larsen, G. M. Stokes, J. W. Brault, “Diurnal Variations of Atmosheric Nitric Oxide: Ground Based Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements and Their Interpretation with Time-Dependent Photochemical Model Calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R. L.

R. L. McKenzie, H. K. Roscoe, “Zeeman Modulation Contrasted with Pressure Modulation in its Application to Measuring Atmospheric NO from the Ground,” Appl. Opt. (submitted Aug.1987).
[PubMed]

R. L. McKenzie, “Measurement of Nitric Oxide Column Amounts in the Atmosphere Using the Zeeman Modulation Technique,” D.Phil Thesis, U. Oxford (1986).

Pyle, J. A.

H. K. Roscoe, B. J. Kerridge, L. J. Gray, R. J. Wells, J. A. Pyle, “Simultaneous Measurements of NO and NO2 and their Comparison with Model Predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5405 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Fabian, J. A. Pyle, R. J. Wells, “Diurnal Variations of Minor Constituents in the Stratosphere Modeled as a Function of Latitude and Season,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4981 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

C. P. Rinsland, R. E. Boughner, J.-C. Larsen, G. M. Stokes, J. W. Brault, “Diurnal Variations of Atmosheric Nitric Oxide: Ground Based Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements and Their Interpretation with Time-Dependent Photochemical Model Calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland et al., “Stratospheric N2O Mixing Ratio Profile from High-Resolution Balloon-Borne Solar Absorption Spectra and Laboratory Spectra near 1880 cm−1,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4351 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roscoe, H. K.

H. K. Roscoe, B. J. Kerridge, L. J. Gray, R. J. Wells, J. A. Pyle, “Simultaneous Measurements of NO and NO2 and their Comparison with Model Predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5405 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, H. K. Roscoe, “Zeeman Modulation Contrasted with Pressure Modulation in its Application to Measuring Atmospheric NO from the Ground,” Appl. Opt. (submitted Aug.1987).
[PubMed]

Rothman, L. S.

Stokes, G. M.

C. P. Rinsland, R. E. Boughner, J.-C. Larsen, G. M. Stokes, J. W. Brault, “Diurnal Variations of Atmosheric Nitric Oxide: Ground Based Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements and Their Interpretation with Time-Dependent Photochemical Model Calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wells, R. J.

H. K. Roscoe, B. J. Kerridge, L. J. Gray, R. J. Wells, J. A. Pyle, “Simultaneous Measurements of NO and NO2 and their Comparison with Model Predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5405 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Fabian, J. A. Pyle, R. J. Wells, “Diurnal Variations of Minor Constituents in the Stratosphere Modeled as a Function of Latitude and Season,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4981 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, E. J.

H. G. Adam, J. T. Houghton, E. J. Williamson, “A Zeeman Modulated Radiometer for Nitric Oxide Measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 408, 233 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

C. P. Rinsland, R. E. Boughner, J.-C. Larsen, G. M. Stokes, J. W. Brault, “Diurnal Variations of Atmosheric Nitric Oxide: Ground Based Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements and Their Interpretation with Time-Dependent Photochemical Model Calculations,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 9613 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roscoe, B. J. Kerridge, L. J. Gray, R. J. Wells, J. A. Pyle, “Simultaneous Measurements of NO and NO2 and their Comparison with Model Predictions,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5405 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Fabian, J. A. Pyle, R. J. Wells, “Diurnal Variations of Minor Constituents in the Stratosphere Modeled as a Function of Latitude and Season,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4981 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

H. G. Adam, J. T. Houghton, E. J. Williamson, “A Zeeman Modulated Radiometer for Nitric Oxide Measurements,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 408, 233 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. G. Adam, “Spectroscopic Investigations of Stratospheric Constituents. A Zeeman Modulated Radiometer for Measuring Nitric Oxide,” D.Phil Thesis, U. Oxford (1982).

R. L. McKenzie, H. K. Roscoe, “Zeeman Modulation Contrasted with Pressure Modulation in its Application to Measuring Atmospheric NO from the Ground,” Appl. Opt. (submitted Aug.1987).
[PubMed]

R. L. McKenzie, “Measurement of Nitric Oxide Column Amounts in the Atmosphere Using the Zeeman Modulation Technique,” D.Phil Thesis, U. Oxford (1986).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of the experimental arrangement and (b) the signal as a function of the NO column amount for a field of 0.15 T and with 4.75 mbar of NO in the Zeeman modulation cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated modulation depths as a function of transmission by local water vapor lines. Signals have been normalized to unity for the case where the source is a local blackbody. The solid line then gives the correction that must be applied to the measured offset signal, and the broken line gives the calculated relative signal for an assumed atmospheric column of 1016 molecule cm−2. The plots shown are for an assumed observation altitude of 2.9 km through 1.5 and 11.5 airmasses, corresponding to solar zenith angles of 48 and 85° [(a) and (b), respectively].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ZMR weighting functions and a typical relative NO density profile (as used in Rinsland et al.6). The two weighting function curves represent two different water vapor amounts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of ZMR and signal processing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two views showing the main components of the ZMR, excluding the sun tracker, primary telescope mirror, and electronics and data logger.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Deduced NO above 25 km and water vapor above the observatory on day 260 of 1985. The integration period is 1 min. The solar zenith angle is shown on the upper abcissa.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M = G B ( T s ) τ CO τ atm τ s Δ τ z τ f r d ν B ( T s ) τ CO τ atm τ s τ ¯ z τ f r d ν ,

Metrics