Abstract

Pressed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) powder, pressed BaSO4, and Russian opal glass were evaluated as possible reflectance factor standards for goniospectrophotometry. Pressed PTFE was chosen based on reflectance properties, ease of preparation, durability, availability, and cost. A method of preparation was developed which combined the most Lambertian behavior with high reproducibility. Several of these PTFE preparations were then measured goniospectrophotometrically to provide a set of data which would sufficiently define the bidirectional spectral reflectance factors for use as a transfer standard for nonstandard instrumental geometries.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Erb, “High-Accuracy Gonioreflectance Spectrometry at the PTB,” Adv. Stand. Method. Spectrophotom. 2, 87 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth, D. J. Parry, “Goniophotometric and Polarization Properties of White Reflection Standard Materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Grum, R. M. Miller, “Goniospectrophotometric Characteristics of Standard Reference Materials for Colorimetry,” in Fifth AIC Congress, Mondial Colour 85 (1985).
  4. F. Grum, M. D. Fairchild, R. S. Berns, “Goniospectrophotometric Characteristics of White Reflectance Standards within the CIE Recommended View Angle Limits for Normal/450 Reflectance Factor Measurement,” in Proceedings, CIE Twenty-first Session, Venice (1987).
  5. D. J. O. Daoust, “Development of a Photometric Primary Transfer Standard for Reflectance Goniospectrophotometry,” Rochester Institute of Technology, M. S. Thesis (July1987).
  6. F. Grum, M. Saltzman, “New White Standard of Reflectance,” CIE Publication 36 (1976), p. 91.
  7. M. D. Fairchild, D. J. O. Daoust, “Goniospectrophotometric Data for Pressed PTFE and BaSo4 Primary Transfer Standards,” Munsell Color Science Laboratory Technical Report (Oct.1987).

1987 (2)

W. Erb, “High-Accuracy Gonioreflectance Spectrometry at the PTB,” Adv. Stand. Method. Spectrophotom. 2, 87 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Fairchild, D. J. O. Daoust, “Goniospectrophotometric Data for Pressed PTFE and BaSo4 Primary Transfer Standards,” Munsell Color Science Laboratory Technical Report (Oct.1987).

1985 (1)

F. Grum, R. M. Miller, “Goniospectrophotometric Characteristics of Standard Reference Materials for Colorimetry,” in Fifth AIC Congress, Mondial Colour 85 (1985).

1983 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth, D. J. Parry, “Goniophotometric and Polarization Properties of White Reflection Standard Materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

F. Grum, M. Saltzman, “New White Standard of Reflectance,” CIE Publication 36 (1976), p. 91.

Berns, R. S.

F. Grum, M. D. Fairchild, R. S. Berns, “Goniospectrophotometric Characteristics of White Reflectance Standards within the CIE Recommended View Angle Limits for Normal/450 Reflectance Factor Measurement,” in Proceedings, CIE Twenty-first Session, Venice (1987).

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth, D. J. Parry, “Goniophotometric and Polarization Properties of White Reflection Standard Materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Daoust, D. J. O.

M. D. Fairchild, D. J. O. Daoust, “Goniospectrophotometric Data for Pressed PTFE and BaSo4 Primary Transfer Standards,” Munsell Color Science Laboratory Technical Report (Oct.1987).

D. J. O. Daoust, “Development of a Photometric Primary Transfer Standard for Reflectance Goniospectrophotometry,” Rochester Institute of Technology, M. S. Thesis (July1987).

Erb, W.

W. Erb, “High-Accuracy Gonioreflectance Spectrometry at the PTB,” Adv. Stand. Method. Spectrophotom. 2, 87 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild, D. J. O. Daoust, “Goniospectrophotometric Data for Pressed PTFE and BaSo4 Primary Transfer Standards,” Munsell Color Science Laboratory Technical Report (Oct.1987).

F. Grum, M. D. Fairchild, R. S. Berns, “Goniospectrophotometric Characteristics of White Reflectance Standards within the CIE Recommended View Angle Limits for Normal/450 Reflectance Factor Measurement,” in Proceedings, CIE Twenty-first Session, Venice (1987).

Garforth, F. A.

F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth, D. J. Parry, “Goniophotometric and Polarization Properties of White Reflection Standard Materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Grum, F.

F. Grum, R. M. Miller, “Goniospectrophotometric Characteristics of Standard Reference Materials for Colorimetry,” in Fifth AIC Congress, Mondial Colour 85 (1985).

F. Grum, M. Saltzman, “New White Standard of Reflectance,” CIE Publication 36 (1976), p. 91.

F. Grum, M. D. Fairchild, R. S. Berns, “Goniospectrophotometric Characteristics of White Reflectance Standards within the CIE Recommended View Angle Limits for Normal/450 Reflectance Factor Measurement,” in Proceedings, CIE Twenty-first Session, Venice (1987).

Miller, R. M.

F. Grum, R. M. Miller, “Goniospectrophotometric Characteristics of Standard Reference Materials for Colorimetry,” in Fifth AIC Congress, Mondial Colour 85 (1985).

Parry, D. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth, D. J. Parry, “Goniophotometric and Polarization Properties of White Reflection Standard Materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Saltzman, M.

F. Grum, M. Saltzman, “New White Standard of Reflectance,” CIE Publication 36 (1976), p. 91.

Adv. Stand. Method. Spectrophotom. (1)

W. Erb, “High-Accuracy Gonioreflectance Spectrometry at the PTB,” Adv. Stand. Method. Spectrophotom. 2, 87 (1987).
[CrossRef]

CIE Publication 36 (1)

F. Grum, M. Saltzman, “New White Standard of Reflectance,” CIE Publication 36 (1976), p. 91.

Fifth AIC Congress, Mondial Colour 85 (1)

F. Grum, R. M. Miller, “Goniospectrophotometric Characteristics of Standard Reference Materials for Colorimetry,” in Fifth AIC Congress, Mondial Colour 85 (1985).

Light. Res. Technol. (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, F. A. Garforth, D. J. Parry, “Goniophotometric and Polarization Properties of White Reflection Standard Materials,” Light. Res. Technol. 15, 133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Munsell Color Science Laboratory Technical Report (1)

M. D. Fairchild, D. J. O. Daoust, “Goniospectrophotometric Data for Pressed PTFE and BaSo4 Primary Transfer Standards,” Munsell Color Science Laboratory Technical Report (Oct.1987).

Other (2)

F. Grum, M. D. Fairchild, R. S. Berns, “Goniospectrophotometric Characteristics of White Reflectance Standards within the CIE Recommended View Angle Limits for Normal/450 Reflectance Factor Measurement,” in Proceedings, CIE Twenty-first Session, Venice (1987).

D. J. O. Daoust, “Development of a Photometric Primary Transfer Standard for Reflectance Goniospectrophotometry,” Rochester Institute of Technology, M. S. Thesis (July1987).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic optical diagram of the Munsell Color Science Laboratory goniospectrophotometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Necessary equations for the calibration of the MCSL goniospectrophotometer for the measurement of absolute spectral reflectance factor β based on a master standard. The four equations represent the four combinations of polarization states for the incident and reflected beams.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of goniophotometric curves of three materials (Russian opal glass, BaSO4, and PTFE 1.55 g/cc pressed against 600-grit sandpaper) for a −45° illumination angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Goniophotometric curves (−45° illumination angle) for 1.55-g/cc PTFE samples pressed against various surfaces.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absolute spectral reflectance factors (555 nm) for PTFE samples pressed to a density of 1.55 g/cc against 40-μm lapping film at various angles of illumination.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absolute spectral reflectance factors (555 nm) for BaSO4 at various illumination angles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of polarization on the 0/45 spectral reflectance factor of pressed PTFE (1.55 g/cc, 40-μm lapping film).

Tables (1)

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Table I Estimated Precision of the MCSL

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