Abstract

The optical constants (n + ik) and dielectric function (1 + 2) of thin films of amorphous hydrogenated germanium prepared by glow discharge decomposition of germane have been determined by photometry. The results were shown to be essentially unaffected by the presence of an oxide overlayer in contrast to recent results obtained using ellipsometry. The effect of deposition temperature was investigated. The effect of increasing substrate temperature is to increase the height of the peak in 2 and the energy at which the peak occurs. The energy gap E0 is not significantly affected by substrate temperature and has the value of 1.06 eV.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  3. J. I. Gittleman, E. K. Sichel, Y. Arie, “Composite Semiconductors: Selective Absorbers of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mat. 1, 93 (1979).
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  5. P. P. Thogerson, F. J. Cocks, J. T. A. Pollock, P. L. Jones, “Germanium Selective Solar Absorber Surfaces,” J. Mat. Sci. 17, 1377 (1982).
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  6. D. Goldschmidt, “Amorphous Germanium as a Medium Temperature Solar Selective Absorber,” Thin Solid Films 90, 139 (1982).
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  7. S. B. White, D. R. McKenzie, D. R. Mills, “Low Emittance Solar Selective Surfaces Based on Amorphous Germanium,” in Proceedings, Ninth Biennial Congress of ISES Montreal (Pergamon, New York, 1986), p. 1314.
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    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Payson, R. C. Ross, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Plasma Deposited a-Ge:H,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 579 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Paul, “New Insights on Amorphous Semiconductors from Studies of Hydrogenated a-Ge, a-Si, a-Si1−xGex and a-GaAs,” in Fundamental Physics of Amorphous Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences, F. Yonezawa, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 72.
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. M. Antoine, B. Drevillon, P. Roca, I. Cabarrocas, “Growth Processes of RF Glow Discharge Deposited a-Si:H and a-Ge:H Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 769 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. R. Blanco, P. J. McMarr, K. Vedam, R. C. Ross, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Glow-Discharge-Deposited Thin Films of a-Ge:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3724 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. A. N. Connell, J. R. Pawlik, “Use of Hydrogenation in Structural and Electronic Studies of Gap States in Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 787 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, G. D. Cody, B. G. Brooks, “Temperature Dependence of the Optical Band Gap of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 54, 461 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, S. S. Chan, G. D. Cody, “Relationship Between Bond Angle Disorder and the Optical Edge of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 51, 203 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, W. Paul, “Amorphous Germanium: III. Optical Properties,” Adv. Phys. 22, 643 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. M. L. Theye, “Influence of Annealing on the Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium Films,” Mat. Res. Bull. 6, 103 (1971).
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  19. N. F. Mott, E. A. Davis, Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials, (Clarendon, Oxford, 1979).
  20. D. R. McKenzie, N. Savvides, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical Properties of a-Si and a-Si:H Prepared by DC Magnetron Techniques,” J. Phys. C 16, 4933 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
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  24. R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, D. R. McKenzie, R. P. Netterfield, “Unambiguous Determination of Optical Constants of Absorbing Films by Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1197 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  26. R. F. Potter, “Germanium,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1985), p. 465.
  27. L. Pajasova, “Optical Properties of GeO2 in the Ultraviolet Region,” Czech. J. Phys. B 19, 1265 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).
  29. A. Nag, L. Ward, “Optical Constants of Thin Films of Nickel, Copper and Germanium,” J. Phys. D 4, 829 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. B. White, D. R. McKenzie, “Accuracy of Optical Data Derived from Electron Energy Loss Spectra by Kramers-Krönig Analysis,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. 43, 53 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical Parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  32. N. Savvides, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, “Trends in Optical Parameters and Band Structure with Increasing Hydrogenation of Amorphous Silicon,” Solid State Commun. 48, 189 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. A. N. Connell, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Semiconductors,” in Amorphous Semiconductors, M. H. Brodsky, Ed., Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 36 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. L. Theye, A. Gheorgiu, K. Driss-Khodja, C. Boccara, “Absorption Edge in Amorphous Ge and GaAs: Comparative Study of the Role of Disorder and Defects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 1293 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. C. Dash, R. Newman, “Intrinsic Optical Absorption in Single Crystal Germanium and Silicon at 77°K and 300°K,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1151 (1955).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. B. White, D. R. McKenzie, “Accuracy of Optical Data Derived from Electron Energy Loss Spectra by Kramers-Krönig Analysis,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. 43, 53 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. R. Blanco, P. J. McMarr, K. Vedam, R. C. Ross, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Glow-Discharge-Deposited Thin Films of a-Ge:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3724 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, G. D. Cody, B. G. Brooks, “Temperature Dependence of the Optical Band Gap of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 54, 461 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Antoine, B. Drevillon, P. Roca, I. Cabarrocas, “Growth Processes of RF Glow Discharge Deposited a-Si:H and a-Ge:H Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

D. C. Joy, “A Parametric Partial Cross Section for ELS,” J. Microsc. 134, Pt. 1, 89 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, S. S. Chan, G. D. Cody, “Relationship Between Bond Angle Disorder and the Optical Edge of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 51, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, D. R. McKenzie, R. P. Netterfield, “Unambiguous Determination of Optical Constants of Absorbing Films by Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1197 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (3)

D. R. McKenzie, N. Savvides, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical Properties of a-Si and a-Si:H Prepared by DC Magnetron Techniques,” J. Phys. C 16, 4933 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical Parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Savvides, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, “Trends in Optical Parameters and Band Structure with Increasing Hydrogenation of Amorphous Silicon,” Solid State Commun. 48, 189 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

P. P. Thogerson, F. J. Cocks, J. T. A. Pollock, P. L. Jones, “Germanium Selective Solar Absorber Surfaces,” J. Mat. Sci. 17, 1377 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Goldschmidt, “Amorphous Germanium as a Medium Temperature Solar Selective Absorber,” Thin Solid Films 90, 139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. T. Kivaisi, L. E. Flordal, “Optical Behaviour of Selectively Absorbing Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures,” Sol. Energy Mat. 2, 403 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. I. Gittleman, E. K. Sichel, Y. Arie, “Composite Semiconductors: Selective Absorbers of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mat. 1, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

L. R. Gilbert, R. Messier, R. Roy, “Black Germanium Solar Selective Absorber Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 54, 149 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

J. S. Payson, R. C. Ross, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Plasma Deposited a-Ge:H,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 579 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. A. N. Connell, J. R. Pawlik, “Use of Hydrogenation in Structural and Electronic Studies of Gap States in Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 787 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Theye, A. Gheorgiu, K. Driss-Khodja, C. Boccara, “Absorption Edge in Amorphous Ge and GaAs: Comparative Study of the Role of Disorder and Defects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 1293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, W. Paul, “Amorphous Germanium: III. Optical Properties,” Adv. Phys. 22, 643 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

M. L. Theye, “Influence of Annealing on the Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium Films,” Mat. Res. Bull. 6, 103 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Nag, L. Ward, “Optical Constants of Thin Films of Nickel, Copper and Germanium,” J. Phys. D 4, 829 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium Films,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 397 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Chittick, “Properties of Glow-Discharge Deposited Amorphous Germanium and Silicon,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 3, 255 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

L. Pajasova, “Optical Properties of GeO2 in the Ultraviolet Region,” Czech. J. Phys. B 19, 1265 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

R. J. Archer, “Optical Constants of Germanium: 3600Å to 7000Å,” Phys. Rev. 110, 354 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

W. C. Dash, R. Newman, “Intrinsic Optical Absorption in Single Crystal Germanium and Silicon at 77°K and 300°K,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1151 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, A. M.

A. M. Antoine, B. Drevillon, P. Roca, I. Cabarrocas, “Growth Processes of RF Glow Discharge Deposited a-Si:H and a-Ge:H Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Archer, R. J.

R. J. Archer, “Optical Constants of Germanium: 3600Å to 7000Å,” Phys. Rev. 110, 354 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Arie, Y.

J. I. Gittleman, E. K. Sichel, Y. Arie, “Composite Semiconductors: Selective Absorbers of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mat. 1, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ashley, E. J.

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium Films,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 397 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical Parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium Films,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 397 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, J. R.

J. R. Blanco, P. J. McMarr, K. Vedam, R. C. Ross, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Glow-Discharge-Deposited Thin Films of a-Ge:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3724 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, C.

M. L. Theye, A. Gheorgiu, K. Driss-Khodja, C. Boccara, “Absorption Edge in Amorphous Ge and GaAs: Comparative Study of the Role of Disorder and Defects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 1293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

Botten, L. C.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, D. R. McKenzie, R. P. Netterfield, “Unambiguous Determination of Optical Constants of Absorbing Films by Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1197 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. McKenzie, N. Savvides, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical Properties of a-Si and a-Si:H Prepared by DC Magnetron Techniques,” J. Phys. C 16, 4933 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, B. G.

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, G. D. Cody, B. G. Brooks, “Temperature Dependence of the Optical Band Gap of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 54, 461 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cabarrocas, I.

A. M. Antoine, B. Drevillon, P. Roca, I. Cabarrocas, “Growth Processes of RF Glow Discharge Deposited a-Si:H and a-Ge:H Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S. S.

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, S. S. Chan, G. D. Cody, “Relationship Between Bond Angle Disorder and the Optical Edge of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 51, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chittick, R. C.

R. C. Chittick, “Properties of Glow-Discharge Deposited Amorphous Germanium and Silicon,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 3, 255 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cocks, F. J.

P. P. Thogerson, F. J. Cocks, J. T. A. Pollock, P. L. Jones, “Germanium Selective Solar Absorber Surfaces,” J. Mat. Sci. 17, 1377 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G. D.

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, G. D. Cody, B. G. Brooks, “Temperature Dependence of the Optical Band Gap of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 54, 461 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, S. S. Chan, G. D. Cody, “Relationship Between Bond Angle Disorder and the Optical Edge of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 51, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Connell, G. A. N.

G. A. N. Connell, J. R. Pawlik, “Use of Hydrogenation in Structural and Electronic Studies of Gap States in Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 787 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, W. Paul, “Amorphous Germanium: III. Optical Properties,” Adv. Phys. 22, 643 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. A. N. Connell, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Semiconductors,” in Amorphous Semiconductors, M. H. Brodsky, Ed., Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 36 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979).
[CrossRef]

Dash, W. C.

W. C. Dash, R. Newman, “Intrinsic Optical Absorption in Single Crystal Germanium and Silicon at 77°K and 300°K,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1151 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Davis, E. A.

N. F. Mott, E. A. Davis, Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials, (Clarendon, Oxford, 1979).

Donovan, T. M.

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium Films,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 397 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Drevillon, B.

A. M. Antoine, B. Drevillon, P. Roca, I. Cabarrocas, “Growth Processes of RF Glow Discharge Deposited a-Si:H and a-Ge:H Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Driss-Khodja, K.

M. L. Theye, A. Gheorgiu, K. Driss-Khodja, C. Boccara, “Absorption Edge in Amorphous Ge and GaAs: Comparative Study of the Role of Disorder and Defects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 1293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Flordal, L. E.

R. T. Kivaisi, L. E. Flordal, “Optical Behaviour of Selectively Absorbing Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures,” Sol. Energy Mat. 2, 403 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gheorgiu, A.

M. L. Theye, A. Gheorgiu, K. Driss-Khodja, C. Boccara, “Absorption Edge in Amorphous Ge and GaAs: Comparative Study of the Role of Disorder and Defects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 1293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, L. R.

L. R. Gilbert, R. Messier, R. Roy, “Black Germanium Solar Selective Absorber Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 54, 149 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gittleman, J. I.

J. I. Gittleman, E. K. Sichel, Y. Arie, “Composite Semiconductors: Selective Absorbers of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mat. 1, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, D.

D. Goldschmidt, “Amorphous Germanium as a Medium Temperature Solar Selective Absorber,” Thin Solid Films 90, 139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jones, P. L.

P. P. Thogerson, F. J. Cocks, J. T. A. Pollock, P. L. Jones, “Germanium Selective Solar Absorber Surfaces,” J. Mat. Sci. 17, 1377 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Joy, D. C.

D. C. Joy, “A Parametric Partial Cross Section for ELS,” J. Microsc. 134, Pt. 1, 89 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kivaisi, R. T.

R. T. Kivaisi, L. E. Flordal, “Optical Behaviour of Selectively Absorbing Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures,” Sol. Energy Mat. 2, 403 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kuwano, Y.

Y. Kuwano, “Photovoltaic Structures by Plasma Deposition,” in Plasma Deposited Thin Films, J. Mort, F. Jansen, Eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1986), p. 161.

McKenzie, D. R.

S. B. White, D. R. McKenzie, “Accuracy of Optical Data Derived from Electron Energy Loss Spectra by Kramers-Krönig Analysis,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. 43, 53 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, D. R. McKenzie, R. P. Netterfield, “Unambiguous Determination of Optical Constants of Absorbing Films by Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1197 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. McKenzie, N. Savvides, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical Properties of a-Si and a-Si:H Prepared by DC Magnetron Techniques,” J. Phys. C 16, 4933 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Savvides, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, “Trends in Optical Parameters and Band Structure with Increasing Hydrogenation of Amorphous Silicon,” Solid State Commun. 48, 189 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. B. White, D. R. McKenzie, D. R. Mills, “Low Emittance Solar Selective Surfaces Based on Amorphous Germanium,” in Proceedings, Ninth Biennial Congress of ISES Montreal (Pergamon, New York, 1986), p. 1314.

McMarr, P. J.

J. R. Blanco, P. J. McMarr, K. Vedam, R. C. Ross, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Glow-Discharge-Deposited Thin Films of a-Ge:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3724 (1986).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, D. R. McKenzie, R. P. Netterfield, “Unambiguous Determination of Optical Constants of Absorbing Films by Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1197 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. McKenzie, N. Savvides, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical Properties of a-Si and a-Si:H Prepared by DC Magnetron Techniques,” J. Phys. C 16, 4933 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Savvides, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, “Trends in Optical Parameters and Band Structure with Increasing Hydrogenation of Amorphous Silicon,” Solid State Commun. 48, 189 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Messier, R.

L. R. Gilbert, R. Messier, R. Roy, “Black Germanium Solar Selective Absorber Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 54, 149 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mills, D. R.

S. B. White, D. R. McKenzie, D. R. Mills, “Low Emittance Solar Selective Surfaces Based on Amorphous Germanium,” in Proceedings, Ninth Biennial Congress of ISES Montreal (Pergamon, New York, 1986), p. 1314.

Mott, N. F.

N. F. Mott, E. A. Davis, Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials, (Clarendon, Oxford, 1979).

Nag, A.

A. Nag, L. Ward, “Optical Constants of Thin Films of Nickel, Copper and Germanium,” J. Phys. D 4, 829 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, D. R. McKenzie, R. P. Netterfield, “Unambiguous Determination of Optical Constants of Absorbing Films by Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1197 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. McKenzie, N. Savvides, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical Properties of a-Si and a-Si:H Prepared by DC Magnetron Techniques,” J. Phys. C 16, 4933 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Newman, R.

W. C. Dash, R. Newman, “Intrinsic Optical Absorption in Single Crystal Germanium and Silicon at 77°K and 300°K,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1151 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Pajasova, L.

L. Pajasova, “Optical Properties of GeO2 in the Ultraviolet Region,” Czech. J. Phys. B 19, 1265 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Paul, W.

G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, W. Paul, “Amorphous Germanium: III. Optical Properties,” Adv. Phys. 22, 643 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. Paul, “New Insights on Amorphous Semiconductors from Studies of Hydrogenated a-Ge, a-Si, a-Si1−xGex and a-GaAs,” in Fundamental Physics of Amorphous Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences, F. Yonezawa, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 72.
[CrossRef]

Pawlik, J. R.

G. A. N. Connell, J. R. Pawlik, “Use of Hydrogenation in Structural and Electronic Studies of Gap States in Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 787 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Payson, J. S.

J. S. Payson, R. C. Ross, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Plasma Deposited a-Ge:H,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 579 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Persans, P. D.

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, G. D. Cody, B. G. Brooks, “Temperature Dependence of the Optical Band Gap of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 54, 461 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, S. S. Chan, G. D. Cody, “Relationship Between Bond Angle Disorder and the Optical Edge of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 51, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, J. T. A.

P. P. Thogerson, F. J. Cocks, J. T. A. Pollock, P. L. Jones, “Germanium Selective Solar Absorber Surfaces,” J. Mat. Sci. 17, 1377 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Potter, R. F.

R. F. Potter, “Germanium,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1985), p. 465.

Roca, P.

A. M. Antoine, B. Drevillon, P. Roca, I. Cabarrocas, “Growth Processes of RF Glow Discharge Deposited a-Si:H and a-Ge:H Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ross, R. C.

J. R. Blanco, P. J. McMarr, K. Vedam, R. C. Ross, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Glow-Discharge-Deposited Thin Films of a-Ge:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3724 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Payson, R. C. Ross, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Plasma Deposited a-Ge:H,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 579 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

L. R. Gilbert, R. Messier, R. Roy, “Black Germanium Solar Selective Absorber Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 54, 149 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ruppert, A. F.

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, G. D. Cody, B. G. Brooks, “Temperature Dependence of the Optical Band Gap of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 54, 461 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, S. S. Chan, G. D. Cody, “Relationship Between Bond Angle Disorder and the Optical Edge of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 51, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Savvides, N.

N. Savvides, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, “Trends in Optical Parameters and Band Structure with Increasing Hydrogenation of Amorphous Silicon,” Solid State Commun. 48, 189 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. R. McKenzie, N. Savvides, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical Properties of a-Si and a-Si:H Prepared by DC Magnetron Techniques,” J. Phys. C 16, 4933 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sichel, E. K.

J. I. Gittleman, E. K. Sichel, Y. Arie, “Composite Semiconductors: Selective Absorbers of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mat. 1, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, W. E.

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium Films,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 397 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Strong, J.

J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1938), p. 376.

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical Parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, R. J.

G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, W. Paul, “Amorphous Germanium: III. Optical Properties,” Adv. Phys. 22, 643 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Theye, M. L.

M. L. Theye, A. Gheorgiu, K. Driss-Khodja, C. Boccara, “Absorption Edge in Amorphous Ge and GaAs: Comparative Study of the Role of Disorder and Defects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 1293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Theye, “Influence of Annealing on the Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium Films,” Mat. Res. Bull. 6, 103 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Thogerson, P. P.

P. P. Thogerson, F. J. Cocks, J. T. A. Pollock, P. L. Jones, “Germanium Selective Solar Absorber Surfaces,” J. Mat. Sci. 17, 1377 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vedam, K.

J. R. Blanco, P. J. McMarr, K. Vedam, R. C. Ross, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Glow-Discharge-Deposited Thin Films of a-Ge:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3724 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ward, L.

A. Nag, L. Ward, “Optical Constants of Thin Films of Nickel, Copper and Germanium,” J. Phys. D 4, 829 (1971).
[CrossRef]

White, S. B.

S. B. White, D. R. McKenzie, “Accuracy of Optical Data Derived from Electron Energy Loss Spectra by Kramers-Krönig Analysis,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. 43, 53 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. B. White, D. R. McKenzie, D. R. Mills, “Low Emittance Solar Selective Surfaces Based on Amorphous Germanium,” in Proceedings, Ninth Biennial Congress of ISES Montreal (Pergamon, New York, 1986), p. 1314.

S. B. White, “An Assessment of the New Varian Specular Reflectance Accessory,” in Varian Instruments at Work, UV No. 45, Varian Techtron, Melbourne (1988).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

Adv. Phys. (1)

G. A. N. Connell, R. J. Temkin, W. Paul, “Amorphous Germanium: III. Optical Properties,” Adv. Phys. 22, 643 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Czech. J. Phys. B (1)

L. Pajasova, “Optical Properties of GeO2 in the Ultraviolet Region,” Czech. J. Phys. B 19, 1265 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. R. Blanco, P. J. McMarr, K. Vedam, R. C. Ross, “Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Glow-Discharge-Deposited Thin Films of a-Ge:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 3724 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Spectrosc. (1)

S. B. White, D. R. McKenzie, “Accuracy of Optical Data Derived from Electron Energy Loss Spectra by Kramers-Krönig Analysis,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. 43, 53 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Mat. Sci. (1)

P. P. Thogerson, F. J. Cocks, J. T. A. Pollock, P. L. Jones, “Germanium Selective Solar Absorber Surfaces,” J. Mat. Sci. 17, 1377 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

D. C. Joy, “A Parametric Partial Cross Section for ELS,” J. Microsc. 134, Pt. 1, 89 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

A. M. Antoine, B. Drevillon, P. Roca, I. Cabarrocas, “Growth Processes of RF Glow Discharge Deposited a-Si:H and a-Ge:H Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 769 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Theye, A. Gheorgiu, K. Driss-Khodja, C. Boccara, “Absorption Edge in Amorphous Ge and GaAs: Comparative Study of the Role of Disorder and Defects,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 1293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Chittick, “Properties of Glow-Discharge Deposited Amorphous Germanium and Silicon,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 3, 255 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Payson, R. C. Ross, “Optical and Electronic Properties of Plasma Deposited a-Ge:H,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77/78, 579 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (1)

D. R. McKenzie, N. Savvides, R. C. McPhedran, L. C. Botten, R. P. Netterfield, “Optical Properties of a-Si and a-Si:H Prepared by DC Magnetron Techniques,” J. Phys. C 16, 4933 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

A. Nag, L. Ward, “Optical Constants of Thin Films of Nickel, Copper and Germanium,” J. Phys. D 4, 829 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Mat. Res. Bull. (1)

M. L. Theye, “Influence of Annealing on the Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium Films,” Mat. Res. Bull. 6, 103 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

W. C. Dash, R. Newman, “Intrinsic Optical Absorption in Single Crystal Germanium and Silicon at 77°K and 300°K,” Phys. Rev. 99, 1151 (1955).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Archer, “Optical Constants of Germanium: 3600Å to 7000Å,” Phys. Rev. 110, 354 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical Parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Donovan, W. E. Spicer, J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Germanium Films,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 397 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. A. N. Connell, J. R. Pawlik, “Use of Hydrogenation in Structural and Electronic Studies of Gap States in Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 787 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mat. (2)

J. I. Gittleman, E. K. Sichel, Y. Arie, “Composite Semiconductors: Selective Absorbers of Solar Energy,” Sol. Energy Mat. 1, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Kivaisi, L. E. Flordal, “Optical Behaviour of Selectively Absorbing Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures,” Sol. Energy Mat. 2, 403 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (3)

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, G. D. Cody, B. G. Brooks, “Temperature Dependence of the Optical Band Gap of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 54, 461 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Persans, A. F. Ruppert, S. S. Chan, G. D. Cody, “Relationship Between Bond Angle Disorder and the Optical Edge of a-Ge:H,” Solid State Commun. 51, 203 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Savvides, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, “Trends in Optical Parameters and Band Structure with Increasing Hydrogenation of Amorphous Silicon,” Solid State Commun. 48, 189 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

L. R. Gilbert, R. Messier, R. Roy, “Black Germanium Solar Selective Absorber Surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 54, 149 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. Goldschmidt, “Amorphous Germanium as a Medium Temperature Solar Selective Absorber,” Thin Solid Films 90, 139 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

S. B. White, D. R. McKenzie, D. R. Mills, “Low Emittance Solar Selective Surfaces Based on Amorphous Germanium,” in Proceedings, Ninth Biennial Congress of ISES Montreal (Pergamon, New York, 1986), p. 1314.

W. Paul, “New Insights on Amorphous Semiconductors from Studies of Hydrogenated a-Ge, a-Si, a-Si1−xGex and a-GaAs,” in Fundamental Physics of Amorphous Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences, F. Yonezawa, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), p. 72.
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuwano, “Photovoltaic Structures by Plasma Deposition,” in Plasma Deposited Thin Films, J. Mort, F. Jansen, Eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1986), p. 161.

N. F. Mott, E. A. Davis, Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials, (Clarendon, Oxford, 1979).

G. A. N. Connell, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Semiconductors,” in Amorphous Semiconductors, M. H. Brodsky, Ed., Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 36 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Potter, “Germanium,” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1985), p. 465.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980).

J. Strong, Procedures in Experimental Physics (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1938), p. 376.

S. B. White, “An Assessment of the New Varian Specular Reflectance Accessory,” in Varian Instruments at Work, UV No. 45, Varian Techtron, Melbourne (1988).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thickness of the oxide film on a-Ge:H as a function of time in days after preparation as measured by EELS. The curve through the points is a guide to the eye.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive indices calculated as a function of wavelength for the following cases: —–, a-Ge:H without oxide overlayer; ○, a-Ge:H with 5-Å oxide overlayer calculated from modeled transmittance and front reflectance data; △, a-Ge:H with 5-Å oxide overlayer calculated from modeled transmittance and rear reflectance data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Imaginary part of the dielectric constant for various a-Ge:H films: ●, this work, substrate temperature 300°C, thickness 20 nm; ♦, this work, substrate temperature 25°C, thickness 12 nm; ▲, this work, substrate temperature 25°C, thickness 30 nm; ⊡, this work, substrate temperature 25°C, thickness 110 nm; A, Ref. (11), substrate temperature 250°C, ion assisted, measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry; B1, Ref. (12), substrate temperature 100°C, measured using SE; B2, Ref. (12), substrate temperature 300°C, measured using SE.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extension of the 2 data for the high temperature film shown in Fig. 3 using Kramers-Kronig analysis of the electron energy loss spectrum. The curve through the points is a guide to the eye: ●, this work, substrate temperature 300°C, thickness 20 nm, determined optically; ○, the same film, data extended using electron energy loss spectroscopy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of 2 data for two amorphous Ge films deposited onto high temperature substrates and a crystalline Ge sample: ●, a-Ge:H, this work, substrate temperature 300°C, thickness 20 nm, - - -, a-Ge, Ref. 16, substrate temperature 350°C; ——, crystalline germanium, Ref. 31.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of 2 data for two amorphous Ge films deposited onto substrates at room temperature: ●, a-Ge:H, this work, substrate temperature 25°C, thickness 30 nm; ——, a-Ge, Ref. 16, substrate temperature 25°C.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the effective number of electrons per atom contributing to transitions up to a given photon energy for three different forms of germanium: ●, a-Ge:H, this work, substrate temperature 25°C; ——, a-Ge, Ref. 16, substrate temperature 25°C, using quoted film density of 4.85 × 103 kg m−3; - - -, crystalline germanium, Ref. 31.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plots of ħω2 vs photon energy for the films of Tables I and II: ●, a-Ge:H, substrate temperature 300°C, thickness 20 nm; ○, a-Ge:H, substrate temperature 25°C, thickness 12 nm; △, a-Ge:H, substrate temperature 25°C, thickness 30 nm; ◇, a-Ge:H, substrate temperature 35°C, thickness 110 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plots as for Fig. 8 for the following films: △, a-Ge, Ref. 16, substrate temperature 25°C; ▲, a-Ge, Ref. 16, substrate temperature 350°C; ○, a-Ge:H, Ref. 12, substrate temperature 100°C; ●, a-Ge:H, Ref. 12, substrate temperature 300°C.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Typical Operating Parameters Used for Glow Discharge Deposition of a-Ge:H Thin Films

Tables Icon

Table II Optical Constants Measured for Three Films of Amorphous Hydrogenated Germanium Deposited onto Room Temperature Substrates

Tables Icon

Table III Optical Constants Measured for a 20-nm Film of Amorphous Hydrogenated Germanium Deposited onto a Substrate Held at 300°C

Tables Icon

Table IV Optical Gap and Density of States Constant for Various Forms of Germanium

Equations (2)

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n e f f ( w 0 ) = W M 0 2 0 m ρ π 2 0 h w 0 w 2 ( w ) d w ,
w 2 = B ( w - E 0 )

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