Abstract

Three- and four-element eyepiece designs are presented each with a different type of radial gradient-index distribution. Both quadratic and modified quadratic index profiles are shown to provide effective control of the field aberrations. In particular, the three-element design with a quadratic index profile demonstrates that the inhomogeneous power contribution can make significant contributions to the overall system performance, especially the astigmatism correction. Using gradient-index components has allowed for increased eye relief and field of view making these designs comparable with five- and six-element ones.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Nishi, H. Ichikawa, M. Toyama, I. Kitano, “Gradient-Index Objective for the Compact Disk System,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3340 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. O. McLaughlin et al., “Design of a Gradient Index Binocular Objective,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 237, 369 (1980).
  3. J. B. Caldwell et al., “Gradient-Index Binocular Objective Design,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3345 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. J. Sands, “Third-Order Aberrations of Inhomogeneous Lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1442 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 335–345.
  6. J. D. Forer et al., “Gradient-Index Eyepiece Design,” Appl. Opt. 22, 407 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 335.
  8. Military Standardization Handbook Optical Design (MIL-HDBK-141) (Department of Defense, Washington, DC, 1962).
  9. P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous Lenses, III: Paraxial Optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 879 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

P. O. McLaughlin et al., “Design of a Gradient Index Binocular Objective,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 237, 369 (1980).

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

P. J. Sands, “Third-Order Aberrations of Inhomogeneous Lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1442 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous Lenses, III: Paraxial Optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 879 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Sands, “Third-Order Aberrations of Inhomogeneous Lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1442 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

P. O. McLaughlin et al., “Design of a Gradient Index Binocular Objective,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 237, 369 (1980).

Other (3)

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 335–345.

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 335.

Military Standardization Handbook Optical Design (MIL-HDBK-141) (Department of Defense, Washington, DC, 1962).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout, field curves, and distortion curve for a homogeneous orthoscopic eyepiece at a 20° half-field of view scaled for a focal length of 21.4 mm and f/No. of 3.0 with eye relief of 17.4 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reoptimized homogeneous orthoscopic at 20° HFOV and 17.4 mm of eye relief.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the final gradient design for 25° HFOV and eye relief of 20 mm. The transverse aberration plots, showing an homogeneous design as well, are for a fractional object height of 0.6 and 0.9. Field curves extend to 0.9 FOH.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Index of refraction profile for the final orthoscopic design.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic, field curves, and percent distortion curve for the basic Wood lens eyepiece design with 20° HFOV and eye relief of 18 mm. Δn = −0.24.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of stop position on the third-order (monochromatic) aberration coefficients of a Wood lens with the stop in front.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Partially achromatized design with rim plots on-axis and at 20° HFOV.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic, field plots, and rim plots for the final design. HFOV is 25°, and eye relief is 18 mm. Rim plots are given for 0.6 and 0.9 FOH.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Index of refraction profile for the final three-element design.

Tables (1)

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Table I Effects of Increased Eye Relief and Field of View on a Homogeneous Orthoscopic Eyepiece In Terms of the Average rms Spot Diameter at 0, 0.7, and Full Field

Equations (7)

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N ( z , r ) = N 00 + N 01 z + N 02 z 2 +             ( axial ) + N 10 r 2 + N 20 r 4 +             ( radial ) + higher order terms ,
Φ = - 2 N 10 t ,
σ 4 = - Φ H 2 2 N 00 2 ,
V X 0 = N X 0 d N X 0 f - N X 0 c             X 0 ,
P x 0 = N X 0 d - N X 0 c N X 0 f - N X 0 c             X 0.
% distortion = tan θ - θ tan θ × 100 ,
f / No . = 3.0 ,             focal length = 21.4 mm ,             u b k = 0 ° , half - field of view = 25 ° ,             eye relief = 20 mm .

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