Abstract

The properties of gelatin films sensitized only with methylene blue are discussed, and a modified development process which gives higher diffraction efficiency for phase holograms recorded with a He–Ne laser is presented. The behavior of transmission and reflection gratings recorded in that medium is also studied.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Solano, “La sensibilisation des couches de gélatine utilisées pour le traitement des images en holographie conventionnelle et polarisée,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1985).
  2. C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Methylene Blue Sensitized Gelatin as a Photosensitive Medium for Conventional and Polarizing Holography,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1989 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. R. Magarinos, D. J. Coleman, “Holographic Mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 769 (1985).
  4. J. Kosar, Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965).
  5. G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Visible Light Bichromate Process and Material,” U.S. patent3,074,974 (1963).
  6. N. Capolla, “La gélatine sensibilisée au bleu de méthylène utilisée comme milieu enregistreur en holographie,” M.Sc. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1987).
  7. R. K. Curran, T. A. Shankoff, “The Mechanism of Hologram Formation in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1651 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Changkakoti, S. V. Pappu, “Study of the pH Dependence of Diffraction Efficiency of Phase Holograms in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 25, 798 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  11. Knowing the thickness and DE of each grating, we calculated with Kogelnik’s expression for DE the value of their index modulation. With the same expression we recalculated the DE that would have been obtained if all the gratings had the same thickness (27 μm) as the one with the biggest DE (86.6%).
  12. B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

J. R. Magarinos, D. J. Coleman, “Holographic Mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 769 (1985).

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Capolla, N.

N. Capolla, “La gélatine sensibilisée au bleu de méthylène utilisée comme milieu enregistreur en holographie,” M.Sc. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1987).

Chang, B. J.

Changkakoti, R.

Coleman, D. J.

J. R. Magarinos, D. J. Coleman, “Holographic Mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 769 (1985).

Curran, R. K.

Honda, K.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Kosar, J.

J. Kosar, Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965).

Kubota, T.

Leonard, C. D.

Lessard, R. A.

Magarinos, J. R.

J. R. Magarinos, D. J. Coleman, “Holographic Mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 769 (1985).

Ose, T.

Oster, G.

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Visible Light Bichromate Process and Material,” U.S. patent3,074,974 (1963).

Oster, G. K.

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Visible Light Bichromate Process and Material,” U.S. patent3,074,974 (1963).

Pappu, S. V.

Roberge, P. C.

Sasaki, M.

Shankoff, T. A.

Solano, C.

C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Methylene Blue Sensitized Gelatin as a Photosensitive Medium for Conventional and Polarizing Holography,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1989 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Solano, “La sensibilisation des couches de gélatine utilisées pour le traitement des images en holographie conventionnelle et polarisée,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1985).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. R. Magarinos, D. J. Coleman, “Holographic Mirrors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 769 (1985).

Other (5)

J. Kosar, Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965).

G. K. Oster, G. Oster, “Visible Light Bichromate Process and Material,” U.S. patent3,074,974 (1963).

N. Capolla, “La gélatine sensibilisée au bleu de méthylène utilisée comme milieu enregistreur en holographie,” M.Sc. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1987).

Knowing the thickness and DE of each grating, we calculated with Kogelnik’s expression for DE the value of their index modulation. With the same expression we recalculated the DE that would have been obtained if all the gratings had the same thickness (27 μm) as the one with the biggest DE (86.6%).

C. Solano, “La sensibilisation des couches de gélatine utilisées pour le traitement des images en holographie conventionnelle et polarisée,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Laval, Quebec (1985).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hologram formation in MBG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the three development methods.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DE of transmission gratings vs pH of the ammonium dichromate solution for A 1500 mJ/cm2 and B 1250 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Recording of transmission gratings in MBG. (The detector is part of a fringe locking device.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

DE of transmission gratings recorded in A inert atmosphere and C normal atmosphere.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

DE of reflection gratings recorded in A inert atmosphere and B normal atmosphere.

Equations (15)

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MB + h ν MB *
MB * MB ,
MB * M B .
M B + gelatin leuco MB + gelatin .
leuco MB + O 2 MB + O 2 - .
leuco MB + gelatin + Cr 6 + complex .
100 mliter of demineralized water ; 4.8 g of gelatin             BDH Chemicals , Ltd . , 44045 ; 0.016 g of MB             BDH Chemicals , Ltd . , 34048.
2 HCrO 4 - Cr 2 O 7 2 - + H 2 O ;
H 2 CrO 4 H + + HCrO 4 - ;
HCrO 4 - H + + CrO 4 2 - .
OH - + H + H 2 O .
Q = 2 π λ 0 t / n 0 d 2 ,
2 d sin θ = λ a / n 0 ,
η = sin 2 [ π t n 1 λ a cos θ ] ,
η = tan 2 ( π t n 1 cos ψ λ a ) ,

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