Abstract

Optical signal processing applications place demands on photodetector arrays beyond those encountered in image sensing applications. We review the basic requirements and show that increased dynamic range and nonlinear decision operations that lead to reduced output data rates are the key improvements needed for both 1-and 2-D arrays. Arrays of high-speed photodetector elements with integrated postdetection circuitry are also needed. Although we suggest some possible methods for achieving these goals, our main objective is to stimulate the photodetector community to design and fabricate more useful devices.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. VanderLugt, “Coherent Optical Processing,” Proc. IEEE 62, 1300 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Goodman, “Operations Achievable with Coherent Optical Information Processing Systems,” Proc. IEEE 65, 39 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Special Issue on Optical Computing, Proc. IEEE 65 (Jan.1977).
  4. Special Section on Acousto-optic Signal Processing, Proc. IEEE 69 (Jan.1981).
  5. Special Issue on Optical Computing, Proc. IEEE 72 (July1984).
  6. Special Section on Optical Pattern Recognition, Opt. Eng. 23, (Nov./Dec.1984).
  7. A. VanderLugt, “Operational Notation for the Analysis and Synthesis of Optical Data Processing Systems,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1055 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. George, J. Thomasson, A. Spindel, “Photodetector for Real Time Pattern Recognition,” U.S. Patent3,689,772 (1970).
  9. J. T. Thomasson, T. J. Middleton, N. Jensen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 45, 257 (1974).
  10. G. Lukes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 45, 265 (1974).
  11. A. Korpel, “Acousto-optics—A Review of Fundamentals,” Proc. IEEE 69, 48 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. H. Young, S-K Yao, “Design Considerations for Acousto-optics Devices,” Proc. IEEE 69, 54 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Doyle, W. Glenn, “Remote Real-time Reconstruction of Holograms Using the Lumatron,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1261 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. “Real-time Modulator for Coherent Optical Processing,” Final Report AFAL-TR-73-88, Environmental Institute of Michigan (May1973).
  15. See, for example, W. T. Rhodes, “Acousto Optic Signal Processing: Convolution and Correlation,” Proc. IEEE 69, 65 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. M. Turpin, “Spectrum Analysis Using Optical Processing,” Proc. IEEE 69, 79 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. VanderLugt, “Interferometric Spectrum Analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2770 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. VanderLugt, A. M. Bardos, “Spatial and Temporal Spectra of Periodic Functions for Spectrum Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4269 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. F. Barbe, “Imaging Devices Using the Charge-Coupled Concept,” Proc. IEEE 63, 38 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetectors for Acousto-optic Signal Processors,” Proc. IEEE 69, 100 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. M. Borsuk, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, “Photodetectors for Acousto-optic Signal Processing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 639, 2 (1986).
  22. S. G. Chamberlain, J. P. Y. Lee, “A Novel Wide Dynamic Range Silicon Photodetector and Linear Imaging Array,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-31, 175 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. H. White, D. R. Lampe, F. C. Blaha, I. A. Mack, “Characterization of Surface Channel CCD Image Arrays at Low Light Levels,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-9, 1 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  24. MICROTRAC, Leeds and Northrup, North Wales, Penn. and Particle and Droplet-Size Distribution Analyzer, Type ST 1800, Malvern Instruments, Malvern, England.
  25. J. T. Wallmark, Proc. IRE 45, 474 (1957); J. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, E. L. Portnoi, I. I. Protasov, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 3, 1103 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. M. Borsuk, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, “Photodetectors for Acousto-optic Signal Processing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 639, 2 (1986).

1984 (4)

S. G. Chamberlain, J. P. Y. Lee, “A Novel Wide Dynamic Range Silicon Photodetector and Linear Imaging Array,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-31, 175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Special Issue on Optical Computing, Proc. IEEE 72 (July1984).

Special Section on Optical Pattern Recognition, Opt. Eng. 23, (Nov./Dec.1984).

A. VanderLugt, A. M. Bardos, “Spatial and Temporal Spectra of Periodic Functions for Spectrum Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4269 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (7)

G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetectors for Acousto-optic Signal Processors,” Proc. IEEE 69, 100 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Special Section on Acousto-optic Signal Processing, Proc. IEEE 69 (Jan.1981).

A. Korpel, “Acousto-optics—A Review of Fundamentals,” Proc. IEEE 69, 48 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Young, S-K Yao, “Design Considerations for Acousto-optics Devices,” Proc. IEEE 69, 54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, W. T. Rhodes, “Acousto Optic Signal Processing: Convolution and Correlation,” Proc. IEEE 69, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Turpin, “Spectrum Analysis Using Optical Processing,” Proc. IEEE 69, 79 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. VanderLugt, “Interferometric Spectrum Analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

J. W. Goodman, “Operations Achievable with Coherent Optical Information Processing Systems,” Proc. IEEE 65, 39 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Special Issue on Optical Computing, Proc. IEEE 65 (Jan.1977).

1975 (1)

D. F. Barbe, “Imaging Devices Using the Charge-Coupled Concept,” Proc. IEEE 63, 38 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (4)

A. VanderLugt, “Coherent Optical Processing,” Proc. IEEE 62, 1300 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Thomasson, T. J. Middleton, N. Jensen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 45, 257 (1974).

G. Lukes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 45, 265 (1974).

M. H. White, D. R. Lampe, F. C. Blaha, I. A. Mack, “Characterization of Surface Channel CCD Image Arrays at Low Light Levels,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-9, 1 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1966 (1)

A. VanderLugt, “Operational Notation for the Analysis and Synthesis of Optical Data Processing Systems,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1055 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

J. T. Wallmark, Proc. IRE 45, 474 (1957); J. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, E. L. Portnoi, I. I. Protasov, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 3, 1103 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. W.

G. M. Borsuk, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, “Photodetectors for Acousto-optic Signal Processing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 639, 2 (1986).

Barbe, D. F.

D. F. Barbe, “Imaging Devices Using the Charge-Coupled Concept,” Proc. IEEE 63, 38 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bardos, A. M.

Blaha, F. C.

M. H. White, D. R. Lampe, F. C. Blaha, I. A. Mack, “Characterization of Surface Channel CCD Image Arrays at Low Light Levels,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-9, 1 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Borsuk, G. M.

G. M. Borsuk, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, “Photodetectors for Acousto-optic Signal Processing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 639, 2 (1986).

G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetectors for Acousto-optic Signal Processors,” Proc. IEEE 69, 100 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, S. G.

S. G. Chamberlain, J. P. Y. Lee, “A Novel Wide Dynamic Range Silicon Photodetector and Linear Imaging Array,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-31, 175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, R.

George, N.

N. George, J. Thomasson, A. Spindel, “Photodetector for Real Time Pattern Recognition,” U.S. Patent3,689,772 (1970).

Glenn, W.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Operations Achievable with Coherent Optical Information Processing Systems,” Proc. IEEE 65, 39 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, N.

J. T. Thomasson, T. J. Middleton, N. Jensen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 45, 257 (1974).

Korpel, A.

A. Korpel, “Acousto-optics—A Review of Fundamentals,” Proc. IEEE 69, 48 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kub, F. J.

G. M. Borsuk, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, “Photodetectors for Acousto-optic Signal Processing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 639, 2 (1986).

Lampe, D. R.

M. H. White, D. R. Lampe, F. C. Blaha, I. A. Mack, “Characterization of Surface Channel CCD Image Arrays at Low Light Levels,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-9, 1 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. P. Y.

S. G. Chamberlain, J. P. Y. Lee, “A Novel Wide Dynamic Range Silicon Photodetector and Linear Imaging Array,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-31, 175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lukes, G.

G. Lukes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 45, 265 (1974).

Mack, I. A.

M. H. White, D. R. Lampe, F. C. Blaha, I. A. Mack, “Characterization of Surface Channel CCD Image Arrays at Low Light Levels,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-9, 1 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Middleton, T. J.

J. T. Thomasson, T. J. Middleton, N. Jensen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 45, 257 (1974).

Rhodes, W. T.

See, for example, W. T. Rhodes, “Acousto Optic Signal Processing: Convolution and Correlation,” Proc. IEEE 69, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Spindel, A.

N. George, J. Thomasson, A. Spindel, “Photodetector for Real Time Pattern Recognition,” U.S. Patent3,689,772 (1970).

Thomasson, J.

N. George, J. Thomasson, A. Spindel, “Photodetector for Real Time Pattern Recognition,” U.S. Patent3,689,772 (1970).

Thomasson, J. T.

J. T. Thomasson, T. J. Middleton, N. Jensen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 45, 257 (1974).

Turpin, T. M.

T. M. Turpin, “Spectrum Analysis Using Optical Processing,” Proc. IEEE 69, 79 (1981).
[CrossRef]

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, A. M. Bardos, “Spatial and Temporal Spectra of Periodic Functions for Spectrum Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4269 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. VanderLugt, “Interferometric Spectrum Analyzer,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2770 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. VanderLugt, “Coherent Optical Processing,” Proc. IEEE 62, 1300 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. VanderLugt, “Operational Notation for the Analysis and Synthesis of Optical Data Processing Systems,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1055 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wallmark, J. T.

J. T. Wallmark, Proc. IRE 45, 474 (1957); J. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, E. L. Portnoi, I. I. Protasov, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 3, 1103 (1970).
[CrossRef]

White, M. H.

M. H. White, D. R. Lampe, F. C. Blaha, I. A. Mack, “Characterization of Surface Channel CCD Image Arrays at Low Light Levels,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-9, 1 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S-K

E. H. Young, S-K Yao, “Design Considerations for Acousto-optics Devices,” Proc. IEEE 69, 54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. H.

E. H. Young, S-K Yao, “Design Considerations for Acousto-optics Devices,” Proc. IEEE 69, 54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

M. H. White, D. R. Lampe, F. C. Blaha, I. A. Mack, “Characterization of Surface Channel CCD Image Arrays at Low Light Levels,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-9, 1 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

S. G. Chamberlain, J. P. Y. Lee, “A Novel Wide Dynamic Range Silicon Photodetector and Linear Imaging Array,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-31, 175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Special Section on Optical Pattern Recognition, Opt. Eng. 23, (Nov./Dec.1984).

Proc. IEEE (12)

A. VanderLugt, “Operational Notation for the Analysis and Synthesis of Optical Data Processing Systems,” Proc. IEEE 54, 1055 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. VanderLugt, “Coherent Optical Processing,” Proc. IEEE 62, 1300 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, “Operations Achievable with Coherent Optical Information Processing Systems,” Proc. IEEE 65, 39 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Special Issue on Optical Computing, Proc. IEEE 65 (Jan.1977).

Special Section on Acousto-optic Signal Processing, Proc. IEEE 69 (Jan.1981).

Special Issue on Optical Computing, Proc. IEEE 72 (July1984).

D. F. Barbe, “Imaging Devices Using the Charge-Coupled Concept,” Proc. IEEE 63, 38 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Borsuk, “Photodetectors for Acousto-optic Signal Processors,” Proc. IEEE 69, 100 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Korpel, “Acousto-optics—A Review of Fundamentals,” Proc. IEEE 69, 48 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Young, S-K Yao, “Design Considerations for Acousto-optics Devices,” Proc. IEEE 69, 54 (1981).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, W. T. Rhodes, “Acousto Optic Signal Processing: Convolution and Correlation,” Proc. IEEE 69, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Turpin, “Spectrum Analysis Using Optical Processing,” Proc. IEEE 69, 79 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

J. T. Wallmark, Proc. IRE 45, 474 (1957); J. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, E. L. Portnoi, I. I. Protasov, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 3, 1103 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (3)

G. M. Borsuk, G. W. Anderson, F. J. Kub, “Photodetectors for Acousto-optic Signal Processing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 639, 2 (1986).

J. T. Thomasson, T. J. Middleton, N. Jensen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 45, 257 (1974).

G. Lukes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 45, 265 (1974).

Other (3)

N. George, J. Thomasson, A. Spindel, “Photodetector for Real Time Pattern Recognition,” U.S. Patent3,689,772 (1970).

“Real-time Modulator for Coherent Optical Processing,” Final Report AFAL-TR-73-88, Environmental Institute of Michigan (May1973).

MICROTRAC, Leeds and Northrup, North Wales, Penn. and Particle and Droplet-Size Distribution Analyzer, Type ST 1800, Malvern Instruments, Malvern, England.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrum analyses: (a) optical spectrum analyzer; (b) spectra of wave patterns; (c) ring/wedge detector geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real-time spectrum analyzer: (a) the Bragg cell spectrum analyzer; (b) the geometry of the desired array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Heterodyne spectrum analysis: (a) interferometric optical system; (b) detector circuitry (rf receiver).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation system for pattern recognition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pattern recognition: (a) input scene; (b) correlation plane; (c) scan through correlation peak; (d) desired nonlinearity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The pn junction used as a photodiode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Crosstalk/depletion region.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Feedback amplifier.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Integrating detector with feedback.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photodetector with drain gate.

Equations (41)

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S ( α , β ) = - a ( x , y ) s ( x , y ) exp [ j 2 π ( α x + β y ) ] d x d y ,
α = ξ λ F 2             β = η λ F 2 ,
S ( α , t ) = - a ( x ) s ( t - x / v ) exp ( j 2 π α x ) d x ,
d = λ F 2 2 L .
Δ J = e μ η ϕ τ ,
G = τ / t 0 ,
B = 1 / τ .
G B = 1 / t 0 ,
ϕ = ϕ 0 exp ( - γ x ) ,
ϕ 0 = P 0 / h v
η = [ ϕ 0 - ϕ ( W + L ) ϕ 0 ] = ( 1 - r ) { 1 - exp [ - γ ( W + L ) ] } = ( 1 - r ) [ 1 - exp ( - γ W ) 1 + γ L ] .
J = e ϕ 0 η e ϕ 0 [ 1 - exp ( - γ W ) 1 + γ L ] ( 1 - r ) .
W = 2 ɛ e ( V a + V c ) ( 1 N a + 1 N d ) ,
C = ɛ A W = A 2 e ɛ ( V a + V c ) ( 1 N a + 1 N d ) ,
γ B γ B + γ C + γ S .
ϕ 1 = ϕ 0 exp ( - γ p + x p + ) .
G exp [ ( β n + β p ) W ] ,
G max V b n I R ,
G 1 1 - [ V b - I R V b ] n .
k = β p / β n .
G x k G + ( 1 - k ) [ 2 - 1 G ] .
SN = 2 e ( I s + I d + I h ) B n R L G m ,
T N = 4 k T B n ,
SNR = i s 2 G 2 R L 2 e ( I s + I d + I h ) B n R L G m + 4 k T B n ,
R L = 1 2 π c d f c ,
SNR = i s 2 G 2 2 e ( I s + I d + I h ) B n G m + 8 π k T c d B n f c .
G m k π k T c d f c e ( I s + I d + I h ) ,
SNR = i s 2 2 e ( I s + I d + I h ) B n .
D R = i s 2 2 e I d c d B n .
D R = i s 2 4 e ( I d + I h ) c d B n .
D R = i s 2 G 2 16 π k T c d B n f c .
i s = S [ P h + P s + 2 P n P s cos ( 2 π f 0 t ) ] ,
d d x { e D d n d x + μ e 2 c 0 n d n d x } = - I s ,
At x = 0 ,             d n d x = 0 ; At x = L ,             n = 0.
n ( x ) = k T c 0 e 2 + [ k T c 0 e 2 ] 2 + ( L 2 - x 2 ) I s c 0 μ e 2 .
N = W 0 L n ( x ) d x ,
N = W L 2 [ k T c 0 e 2 ] { ( a 2 + 1 a ) arcsin [ a a 2 + 1 ] - 1 } ,
N = π 4 ( W L 2 e ) I s ( c 0 / μ ) .
N Q C = K Q M C ,
R = M Q C .
K B Q T = K S M Q I C = K S I R .

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