Abstract

Detection of CO2 and CO at 1.58 μm (6322 cm−1) using an InGaAsP diode laser and mode control is described. Mode control is a technique whereby a short cavity, external to the laser, is used to force the laser to operate in a single mode. By monitoring the voltage across the terminals of the laser and using electronic feedback it is possible to optimize continually the external cavity so that the laser operates reliably in the mode of choice for scans >3.5 cm−1. This technique offers the possibility of high-sensitivity detection over a region of ~30 cm−1 with continuous coverage in overlapping sections of ~3 cm−1 with conventional (and hence inexpensive) multimode diode lasers.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Gustavsson, H. Martin, “Low-Cost High-Resolution Laser Spectrometer System in the Near Infrared Region Using a GaAlAs Diode Laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1132 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Sasada, “Stark-Modulation Spectroscopy of NH3 with a 1.23-μm Semiconductor Laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 448 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. T. Cassidy, “Trace Gas Detection Using 1.3-μm InGaAsP Diode Laser Transmitter Modules,” Appl. Opt. 27, 610 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Yanagawa, S. Saito, Y. Yamamoto, “Frequency Stabilization of 1.5 μm InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser to NH3 Absorption Lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 826 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kobayashi, I. Mito, “High Light Output-Power Single-Longitudinal-Mode Semiconductor Laser Diodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1202 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Yamaguchi, M. Kitamura, S. Murata, I. Mito, K. Kobayashi, “Wide Range Wavelength Tuning in 1.3 μm DBR- DC-PBH-LDs by Current Injection into the DBR Region,” Electron. Lett. 17, 63 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Raab, K. Hoffman, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Y. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High-Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. S. Zibrov et al., “Stabilization of the Emission Frequency of an Injection Laser with an External Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 502 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. A. Olsson, J. P. van der Ziel, “Performance Characteristics of 1.5 μm External Cavity Semiconductor Lasers for Coherent Optical Communications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 510 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. S. Rothman et al., “AFGL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation: 1982 edition,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2247 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Levi, Di Leon, J. Taine, “Infrared Absorption by Gas Mixtures in the 300–850 K Temperature Range I—4.3 μm and 2.7 μm CO2 Spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 35, 337 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. T. Cassidy, “Influence on the Steady-State Oscillation Spectrum of a Diode Laser for Feedback of Light Interacting Coherently and Incoherently with the Field Established in the Laser Cavity,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2070 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Goodwin, “Dynamic Alignment of Small Optical Components,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 97 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Uehara, “Signal Recording and Averaging in Diode-Laser Spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 12, 81 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, “Spectral Characteristics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of Feedback in 1.5 μm Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (4)

K. Uehara, “Signal Recording and Averaging in Diode-Laser Spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 12, 81 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Goodwin, “Dynamic Alignment of Small Optical Components,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 97 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Olsson, J. P. van der Ziel, “Performance Characteristics of 1.5 μm External Cavity Semiconductor Lasers for Coherent Optical Communications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 510 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

T. Gustavsson, H. Martin, “Low-Cost High-Resolution Laser Spectrometer System in the Near Infrared Region Using a GaAlAs Diode Laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1132 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Levi, Di Leon, J. Taine, “Infrared Absorption by Gas Mixtures in the 300–850 K Temperature Range I—4.3 μm and 2.7 μm CO2 Spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 35, 337 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of Feedback in 1.5 μm Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

K. Kobayashi, I. Mito, “High Light Output-Power Single-Longitudinal-Mode Semiconductor Laser Diodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1202 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, M. Kitamura, S. Murata, I. Mito, K. Kobayashi, “Wide Range Wavelength Tuning in 1.3 μm DBR- DC-PBH-LDs by Current Injection into the DBR Region,” Electron. Lett. 17, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, “Spectral Characteristics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov et al., “Stabilization of the Emission Frequency of an Injection Laser with an External Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 502 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. Raab, K. Hoffman, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Y. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High-Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, D. T.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of Feedback in 1.5 μm Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, “Spectral Characteristics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gabbert, M.

S. Raab, K. Hoffman, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Y. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High-Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Glushkov, M. V.

S. Raab, K. Hoffman, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Y. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High-Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, “Spectral Characteristics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, J.

J. Goodwin, “Dynamic Alignment of Small Optical Components,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 97 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gross, R.

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, T.

T. Gustavsson, H. Martin, “Low-Cost High-Resolution Laser Spectrometer System in the Near Infrared Region Using a GaAlAs Diode Laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1132 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, K.

S. Raab, K. Hoffman, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Y. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High-Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, M.

M. Yamaguchi, M. Kitamura, S. Murata, I. Mito, K. Kobayashi, “Wide Range Wavelength Tuning in 1.3 μm DBR- DC-PBH-LDs by Current Injection into the DBR Region,” Electron. Lett. 17, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

M. Yamaguchi, M. Kitamura, S. Murata, I. Mito, K. Kobayashi, “Wide Range Wavelength Tuning in 1.3 μm DBR- DC-PBH-LDs by Current Injection into the DBR Region,” Electron. Lett. 17, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, I. Mito, “High Light Output-Power Single-Longitudinal-Mode Semiconductor Laser Diodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1202 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kosichkin, Y.

S. Raab, K. Hoffman, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Y. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High-Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Leon, Di

R. Levi, Di Leon, J. Taine, “Infrared Absorption by Gas Mixtures in the 300–850 K Temperature Range I—4.3 μm and 2.7 μm CO2 Spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 35, 337 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Levi, R.

R. Levi, Di Leon, J. Taine, “Infrared Absorption by Gas Mixtures in the 300–850 K Temperature Range I—4.3 μm and 2.7 μm CO2 Spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 35, 337 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Martin, H.

T. Gustavsson, H. Martin, “Low-Cost High-Resolution Laser Spectrometer System in the Near Infrared Region Using a GaAlAs Diode Laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1132 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, P.

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. O.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, “Spectral Characteristics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mito, I.

M. Yamaguchi, M. Kitamura, S. Murata, I. Mito, K. Kobayashi, “Wide Range Wavelength Tuning in 1.3 μm DBR- DC-PBH-LDs by Current Injection into the DBR Region,” Electron. Lett. 17, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, I. Mito, “High Light Output-Power Single-Longitudinal-Mode Semiconductor Laser Diodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1202 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Murata, S.

M. Yamaguchi, M. Kitamura, S. Murata, I. Mito, K. Kobayashi, “Wide Range Wavelength Tuning in 1.3 μm DBR- DC-PBH-LDs by Current Injection into the DBR Region,” Electron. Lett. 17, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

N. A. Olsson, J. P. van der Ziel, “Performance Characteristics of 1.5 μm External Cavity Semiconductor Lasers for Coherent Optical Communications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 510 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Patzak, E.

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Raab, S.

S. Raab, K. Hoffman, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Y. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High-Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

Saito, S.

T. Yanagawa, S. Saito, Y. Yamamoto, “Frequency Stabilization of 1.5 μm InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser to NH3 Absorption Lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 826 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R.

C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, H.

Taine, J.

R. Levi, Di Leon, J. Taine, “Infrared Absorption by Gas Mixtures in the 300–850 K Temperature Range I—4.3 μm and 2.7 μm CO2 Spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 35, 337 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, “Spectral Characteristics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of Feedback in 1.5 μm Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, K.

van der Ziel, J. P.

N. A. Olsson, J. P. van der Ziel, “Performance Characteristics of 1.5 μm External Cavity Semiconductor Lasers for Coherent Optical Communications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 510 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Voumard, C.

C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Weller, J. F.

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, “Spectral Characteristics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wenke, G.

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, M. Kitamura, S. Murata, I. Mito, K. Kobayashi, “Wide Range Wavelength Tuning in 1.3 μm DBR- DC-PBH-LDs by Current Injection into the DBR Region,” Electron. Lett. 17, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

T. Yanagawa, S. Saito, Y. Yamamoto, “Frequency Stabilization of 1.5 μm InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser to NH3 Absorption Lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 826 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, T.

T. Yanagawa, S. Saito, Y. Yamamoto, “Frequency Stabilization of 1.5 μm InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser to NH3 Absorption Lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 826 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

A. S. Zibrov et al., “Stabilization of the Emission Frequency of an Injection Laser with an External Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 502 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Voumard, R. Salathe, H. Weber, “Resonance Amplifier Model Describing Diode Lasers Coupled to Short External Resonators,” Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Yanagawa, S. Saito, Y. Yamamoto, “Frequency Stabilization of 1.5 μm InGaAsP Distributed Feedback Laser to NH3 Absorption Lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 826 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Yamaguchi, M. Kitamura, S. Murata, I. Mito, K. Kobayashi, “Wide Range Wavelength Tuning in 1.3 μm DBR- DC-PBH-LDs by Current Injection into the DBR Region,” Electron. Lett. 17, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, A. Dandridge, J. F. Weller, R. O. Miles, “Spectral Characteristics of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of Feedback in 1.5 μm Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodwin, “Dynamic Alignment of Small Optical Components,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 97 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, I. Mito, “High Light Output-Power Single-Longitudinal-Mode Semiconductor Laser Diodes,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1202 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Wenke, R. Gross, P. Meissner, E. Patzak, “Characteristics of a Compact Three Cavity Laser Configuration,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 608 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Olsson, J. P. van der Ziel, “Performance Characteristics of 1.5 μm External Cavity Semiconductor Lasers for Coherent Optical Communications,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 510 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

R. Levi, Di Leon, J. Taine, “Infrared Absorption by Gas Mixtures in the 300–850 K Temperature Range I—4.3 μm and 2.7 μm CO2 Spectra,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 35, 337 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Gustavsson, H. Martin, “Low-Cost High-Resolution Laser Spectrometer System in the Near Infrared Region Using a GaAlAs Diode Laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1132 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Raab, K. Hoffman, M. Gabbert, M. V. Glushkov, Y. Kosichkin, “Application of a Diode Laser with an External Resonator in High-Resolution Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1068 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov et al., “Stabilization of the Emission Frequency of an Injection Laser with an External Resonator,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 502 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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