Abstract

The titanium-doped sapphire (Ti:Al2O3) laser is a relatively recent addition to the class of widely tunable lasers. Recent material growth has provided samples of high optical quality and high figure of merit. Cross sections, tuning methods, and large boule evaluation of heat exchanger method growth runs are discussed.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Operation of the Ti:Al2O3 laser was first reported by Moulton at the Twelfth International Quantum Electronics Conference, Munich (June 1982). Brief articles appeared in Physics News in 1982, P. F. Schewe, Ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1983) and in Solid State Research Report (Lincoln Laboratory, MIT, 1982–1983), pp. 15–21. A more complete description of Moulton’s efforts was in “Recent Advances in Transition-Metal-Doped Lasers,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, P. Hammerling, A. Budgor, A. Pinto, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 4–10. Work by others include P. Lacovara, L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, “Flash-lamp Pumped Ti:Al2O3 Laser Using Fluorescent Conversion,” Opt. Lett. 10, 273 (1985); G. F. Albrecht, J. M. Eggleston, J. J. Ewing, “Measurements of Ti3+:Al2O3 as a Lasing Material,” Opt. Commun. 52, 401 (1985); B. K. Sevastyanov et al., “Tunable Laser Based on Al2O3:Ti3+ Crystal,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 29, 566 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and Laser Characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 125 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. G. Deshazer, G. F. Albrecht, J. F. Seamans, “Tunable Titanium Sapphire Lasers,” presented to SPIE Conference on High Power and Solid State Lasers, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 1986.
  4. R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, C. P. Khattak, “Residual Infrared Absorption in As-Grown and Annealed Crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, (June1988).
  5. C. P. Khattak, A. N. Scoville, “Growth of Laser Crystals by Heat Exchanger Method (HEM),” Laser and Nonlinear Crystals Proc. SPIE 681, L. G. DeShazer, Ed., 1986, p. 58.
  6. R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and Optical Measurements on Ti:Al2O3 Crystals for Laser Applications: Concentration and Absorption Cross-Section of Ti3+ Ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345 (19May1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. E. McCumber, “Theory of Photon-Terminated Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. A 134, A299 (1964).
  8. B. F. Gachter, J. A. Koningstein, “Zero Phonon Transitions and Interacting Jahn-Teller Phonon Energies from the Fluorescence Spectrum of –Al2O3:Ti3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2003 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Curie, “Absorption and Emission Spectra,” in Optical Properties of Ions in Solids, B. DiBartolo, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985), p. 89.
  10. J. Eggleston, Spectra Technology Corp.; private communications.
  11. W. R. Rapoport, “Injection Locking of Tunable Ti:Al2O3 Using Semiconductor Laser Diodes,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers, Orlando, FL, 3–7 Nov. 1986, pp. 249–253.

1988 (1)

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, C. P. Khattak, “Residual Infrared Absorption in As-Grown and Annealed Crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, (June1988).

1986 (2)

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and Optical Measurements on Ti:Al2O3 Crystals for Laser Applications: Concentration and Absorption Cross-Section of Ti3+ Ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345 (19May1986).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and Laser Characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 125 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B. F. Gachter, J. A. Koningstein, “Zero Phonon Transitions and Interacting Jahn-Teller Phonon Energies from the Fluorescence Spectrum of –Al2O3:Ti3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2003 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of Photon-Terminated Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. A 134, A299 (1964).

Aggarwal, R. L.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, C. P. Khattak, “Residual Infrared Absorption in As-Grown and Annealed Crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, (June1988).

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and Optical Measurements on Ti:Al2O3 Crystals for Laser Applications: Concentration and Absorption Cross-Section of Ti3+ Ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345 (19May1986).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, G. F.

L. G. Deshazer, G. F. Albrecht, J. F. Seamans, “Tunable Titanium Sapphire Lasers,” presented to SPIE Conference on High Power and Solid State Lasers, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 1986.

Curie, D.

D. Curie, “Absorption and Emission Spectra,” in Optical Properties of Ions in Solids, B. DiBartolo, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985), p. 89.

Deshazer, L. G.

L. G. Deshazer, G. F. Albrecht, J. F. Seamans, “Tunable Titanium Sapphire Lasers,” presented to SPIE Conference on High Power and Solid State Lasers, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 1986.

Eggleston, J.

J. Eggleston, Spectra Technology Corp.; private communications.

Fahey, R. E.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, C. P. Khattak, “Residual Infrared Absorption in As-Grown and Annealed Crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, (June1988).

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and Optical Measurements on Ti:Al2O3 Crystals for Laser Applications: Concentration and Absorption Cross-Section of Ti3+ Ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345 (19May1986).
[CrossRef]

Gachter, B. F.

B. F. Gachter, J. A. Koningstein, “Zero Phonon Transitions and Interacting Jahn-Teller Phonon Energies from the Fluorescence Spectrum of –Al2O3:Ti3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2003 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Khattak, C. P.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, C. P. Khattak, “Residual Infrared Absorption in As-Grown and Annealed Crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, (June1988).

C. P. Khattak, A. N. Scoville, “Growth of Laser Crystals by Heat Exchanger Method (HEM),” Laser and Nonlinear Crystals Proc. SPIE 681, L. G. DeShazer, Ed., 1986, p. 58.

Koningstein, J. A.

B. F. Gachter, J. A. Koningstein, “Zero Phonon Transitions and Interacting Jahn-Teller Phonon Energies from the Fluorescence Spectrum of –Al2O3:Ti3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2003 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of Photon-Terminated Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. A 134, A299 (1964).

Moulton, P. F.

Rapoport, W. R.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, C. P. Khattak, “Residual Infrared Absorption in As-Grown and Annealed Crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, (June1988).

W. R. Rapoport, “Injection Locking of Tunable Ti:Al2O3 Using Semiconductor Laser Diodes,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers, Orlando, FL, 3–7 Nov. 1986, pp. 249–253.

Sanchez, A.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, C. P. Khattak, “Residual Infrared Absorption in As-Grown and Annealed Crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, (June1988).

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and Optical Measurements on Ti:Al2O3 Crystals for Laser Applications: Concentration and Absorption Cross-Section of Ti3+ Ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345 (19May1986).
[CrossRef]

Scoville, A. N.

C. P. Khattak, A. N. Scoville, “Growth of Laser Crystals by Heat Exchanger Method (HEM),” Laser and Nonlinear Crystals Proc. SPIE 681, L. G. DeShazer, Ed., 1986, p. 58.

Seamans, J. F.

L. G. Deshazer, G. F. Albrecht, J. F. Seamans, “Tunable Titanium Sapphire Lasers,” presented to SPIE Conference on High Power and Solid State Lasers, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 1986.

Strauss, A. J.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, C. P. Khattak, “Residual Infrared Absorption in As-Grown and Annealed Crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, (June1988).

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and Optical Measurements on Ti:Al2O3 Crystals for Laser Applications: Concentration and Absorption Cross-Section of Ti3+ Ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345 (19May1986).
[CrossRef]

Stuppi, M. M.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, C. P. Khattak, “Residual Infrared Absorption in As-Grown and Annealed Crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, (June1988).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and Optical Measurements on Ti:Al2O3 Crystals for Laser Applications: Concentration and Absorption Cross-Section of Ti3+ Ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345 (19May1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, C. P. Khattak, “Residual Infrared Absorption in As-Grown and Annealed Crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, (June1988).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. F. Gachter, J. A. Koningstein, “Zero Phonon Transitions and Interacting Jahn-Teller Phonon Energies from the Fluorescence Spectrum of –Al2O3:Ti3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2003 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of Photon-Terminated Optical Masers,” Phys. Rev. A 134, A299 (1964).

Other (6)

C. P. Khattak, A. N. Scoville, “Growth of Laser Crystals by Heat Exchanger Method (HEM),” Laser and Nonlinear Crystals Proc. SPIE 681, L. G. DeShazer, Ed., 1986, p. 58.

D. Curie, “Absorption and Emission Spectra,” in Optical Properties of Ions in Solids, B. DiBartolo, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1985), p. 89.

J. Eggleston, Spectra Technology Corp.; private communications.

W. R. Rapoport, “Injection Locking of Tunable Ti:Al2O3 Using Semiconductor Laser Diodes,” in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers, Orlando, FL, 3–7 Nov. 1986, pp. 249–253.

Operation of the Ti:Al2O3 laser was first reported by Moulton at the Twelfth International Quantum Electronics Conference, Munich (June 1982). Brief articles appeared in Physics News in 1982, P. F. Schewe, Ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1983) and in Solid State Research Report (Lincoln Laboratory, MIT, 1982–1983), pp. 15–21. A more complete description of Moulton’s efforts was in “Recent Advances in Transition-Metal-Doped Lasers,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, P. Hammerling, A. Budgor, A. Pinto, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 4–10. Work by others include P. Lacovara, L. Esterowitz, R. Allen, “Flash-lamp Pumped Ti:Al2O3 Laser Using Fluorescent Conversion,” Opt. Lett. 10, 273 (1985); G. F. Albrecht, J. M. Eggleston, J. J. Ewing, “Measurements of Ti3+:Al2O3 as a Lasing Material,” Opt. Commun. 52, 401 (1985); B. K. Sevastyanov et al., “Tunable Laser Based on Al2O3:Ti3+ Crystal,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 29, 566 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Deshazer, G. F. Albrecht, J. F. Seamans, “Tunable Titanium Sapphire Lasers,” presented to SPIE Conference on High Power and Solid State Lasers, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 1986.

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Figures (23)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ti:Al2O3 10-in. diam boule and cored rods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption measurement setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CS-34 boule absorption coefficient vs boule position.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CS-34 boule parasitic absorption setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Parasitic absorption coefficient vs boule position.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Figure of merit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Linear fit of α532 vs α785 for π polarization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Ti:Al2O3 fluorescence spectra.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ti:Al2O3 cross section.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Tuning methods.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Laser data fit to cross section.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Small-signal gain.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Fluorescence intensity vs λ for π/σ.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Input/output tuning curve for prism case.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Input/output for Brewster prism tuning.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Input/output for BRF tuner.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Alexandrite injection locking setup.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Output from alexandrite laser.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Output from Ti:Al2O3 laser (1:2:2 BRF tuner).

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Injection locked Ti:Al2O3 75-W peak.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Injection locked Ti:Al2O3 1.6 mW peak.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Injection locked Ti:Al2O3 300-μW peak.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Injection locked Ti:Al2O3 13-μW peak.

Equations (1)

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Δ λ SPL of 1 plate S ( ln 2 2 t τ ) 1 / 2 ,

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