Abstract

An apparatus is described in which the reflectance and transmittance of a hot sample and a cold sample may be measured simultaneously and differentially in the wavelength region from the infrared to the vacuum ultraviolet. These measurements may be carried out under an ultrahigh vacuum or a gaseous ambience, and the surfaces may be temperature treated (e.g., flashed atomically clean) before the measurement. The hot–cold differential capability of the apparatus is convenient when considering the temperature dependence of optical parameters.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Huen, G. B. Irani, F. Wooten, “Scanning Ultrahigh Vacuum Reflectometer,” Appl. Opt. 10, 552 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. H. Madjid, J. M. Martinez, “Thermionic Emission from Nickel Oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1313 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Y. Zaheer, “Photoconductivity and Photoemission Studies on Single Crystal Nickel Oxide,” Ph.D. Thesis, Pennsylvania State U., Department of Physics (Aug.1977).
  4. F. G. Allen, T. M. Buck, J. T. Law, “p Layers on Vacuum Heated Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 979 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Busch, H. Schade, A. Gobbi, P. Marmier, “Nachweis von Bor auf Silizium-Oberflaechen mit Aktivirungsanalyse,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 513 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Gardon, “The Emissivity of Transparent Materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 39, 278 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. H. Madjid, “Spectral Emissivity of Nonisothermal Semi-Infinite Slabs of Transparent Materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5423 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. H. Madjid, J. Martinez, “Normal Spectral Emissivity of Near-Stoichiometric Single Crystal Nickel Oxide in the Red and in the Green,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5419 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. B. Judd, “Terms, Definitions, and Symbols in Reflectometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 445 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (2)

A. H. Madjid, “Spectral Emissivity of Nonisothermal Semi-Infinite Slabs of Transparent Materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Madjid, J. Martinez, “Normal Spectral Emissivity of Near-Stoichiometric Single Crystal Nickel Oxide in the Red and in the Green,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5419 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. H. Madjid, J. M. Martinez, “Thermionic Emission from Nickel Oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1313 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1967 (1)

1962 (1)

G. Busch, H. Schade, A. Gobbi, P. Marmier, “Nachweis von Bor auf Silizium-Oberflaechen mit Aktivirungsanalyse,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 513 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

F. G. Allen, T. M. Buck, J. T. Law, “p Layers on Vacuum Heated Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 979 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

R. Gardon, “The Emissivity of Transparent Materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 39, 278 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Allen, F. G.

F. G. Allen, T. M. Buck, J. T. Law, “p Layers on Vacuum Heated Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 979 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Buck, T. M.

F. G. Allen, T. M. Buck, J. T. Law, “p Layers on Vacuum Heated Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 979 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Busch, G.

G. Busch, H. Schade, A. Gobbi, P. Marmier, “Nachweis von Bor auf Silizium-Oberflaechen mit Aktivirungsanalyse,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 513 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Gardon, R.

R. Gardon, “The Emissivity of Transparent Materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 39, 278 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, A.

G. Busch, H. Schade, A. Gobbi, P. Marmier, “Nachweis von Bor auf Silizium-Oberflaechen mit Aktivirungsanalyse,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 513 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Huen, T.

Irani, G. B.

Judd, D. B.

Law, J. T.

F. G. Allen, T. M. Buck, J. T. Law, “p Layers on Vacuum Heated Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 979 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Madjid, A. H.

A. H. Madjid, “Spectral Emissivity of Nonisothermal Semi-Infinite Slabs of Transparent Materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Madjid, J. Martinez, “Normal Spectral Emissivity of Near-Stoichiometric Single Crystal Nickel Oxide in the Red and in the Green,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5419 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Madjid, J. M. Martinez, “Thermionic Emission from Nickel Oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1313 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Marmier, P.

G. Busch, H. Schade, A. Gobbi, P. Marmier, “Nachweis von Bor auf Silizium-Oberflaechen mit Aktivirungsanalyse,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 513 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J.

A. H. Madjid, J. Martinez, “Normal Spectral Emissivity of Near-Stoichiometric Single Crystal Nickel Oxide in the Red and in the Green,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5419 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J. M.

A. H. Madjid, J. M. Martinez, “Thermionic Emission from Nickel Oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1313 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schade, H.

G. Busch, H. Schade, A. Gobbi, P. Marmier, “Nachweis von Bor auf Silizium-Oberflaechen mit Aktivirungsanalyse,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 513 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, F.

Zaheer, M. Y.

M. Y. Zaheer, “Photoconductivity and Photoemission Studies on Single Crystal Nickel Oxide,” Ph.D. Thesis, Pennsylvania State U., Department of Physics (Aug.1977).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

R. Gardon, “The Emissivity of Transparent Materials,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 39, 278 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

A. H. Madjid, “Spectral Emissivity of Nonisothermal Semi-Infinite Slabs of Transparent Materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Madjid, J. Martinez, “Normal Spectral Emissivity of Near-Stoichiometric Single Crystal Nickel Oxide in the Red and in the Green,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5419 (1973).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Allen, T. M. Buck, J. T. Law, “p Layers on Vacuum Heated Silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 31, 979 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

G. Busch, H. Schade, A. Gobbi, P. Marmier, “Nachweis von Bor auf Silizium-Oberflaechen mit Aktivirungsanalyse,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23, 513 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. H. Madjid, J. M. Martinez, “Thermionic Emission from Nickel Oxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1313 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Y. Zaheer, “Photoconductivity and Photoemission Studies on Single Crystal Nickel Oxide,” Ph.D. Thesis, Pennsylvania State U., Department of Physics (Aug.1977).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional view of the optical facility showing the optical paths of the system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Overall view of the facility.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry of the near-normal reflectometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hot chamber sample holder and heating detail.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the reflectivity of an as-is flame fusion excess-oxygen NiO sample (dot–dash line) with that of a near-stoichiometric NiO sample. Structure is much more pronounced in the latter sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the reflectivity in the ultraviolet of an excess-oxygen sample at room temperature (300 K, dot–dash line, scale on right) and at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Temperature dependence of the NiO 2p → 4s transition (activation energy E in eV); dE/dT = −1.54 × 10−4 eV/K. (b) Temperature dependence of the NiO Γ2 → 4s transition (activation energy E in eV); dE/dT = +3.1 × 0−4 eV/K.

Equations (1)

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X X λ = 3.5 γ λ - 1 ,

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