Abstract

This paper describes the optical and control principles of a newly developed three-dimensional optometer (TDO). The TDO makes it possible to measure simultaneously three basic ocular responses in an actual work situation: accommodation; eye movement; and pupil area. Although the subjects must use a chin rest, they need not fixate their eyes or use any drug for the measurement. Normal lighting is allowed. The TDO can measure accommodation from −12.7 to + 26.6 diopters and 100% of pupil area change when the eye moves within 40° horizontally and 30° vertically. The accuracy of measuring both accommodation and pupil area with the TDO is about the same as that of commerically available apparatus: ±0.25 diopters and ±2%, respectively. The error of measuring the angle of the eyes was less than ±0.5°. Examples of measurements during work with a visual display terminal are presented.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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