Abstract

We made reflection gratings by using the gelatin of Kodak 649F spectroscopic plates. The concentration of ammonium dichromate sensitizer was varied, and reflection efficiencies of fully developed plates were measured in different reconstructing angles. During the development process we varied the washing time, the time interval between the washing and isopropanol baths, and the duration of the isopropanol bath. The reflection efficiencies were measured for each processing variable. Finally, the characteristics of the gratings were tested by varying the recording geometry.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. W. Evans, “The Development of Dichromated Gelatin for Holographic Optical Element Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 302 (1985).
  3. D. Meyerhofer, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” RCA Rev. 33, III (1972).
  4. H. Owen, “Holographic Optical Elements in Dichromated Gelatin,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 296 (1985).
  5. R. D. Rallison, “Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) in Dichromated Gelatin (DCG): Progress,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 292 (1985).
  6. S. Sjollnder, “Dichromated Gelatin and Light Sensitivity,” J. Imaging Sci 30, no 7, 151 (1986).
  7. T. Keinonen, O. Salminen, “Dichromated Gelatin as a Holographical Recording Material. I. Transmission Gratings,” Publication of U. Joensuu, Series B1, No. 23 (1982).
  8. S. Sjolinder, “Bandwidth in Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Filters,” Opt. Acta 31, 1001 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. J. Coleman, J. R. Magarinos, “Controlled Shifting of the Spectral Response of Reflection Holograms,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2600 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. A. Cullen, “Some Characteristics of and Measurements on Dichromated Gelatin Reflection Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 647 (1983).
  11. Y. Ishii, K. Murata, “Flat-Field Linearized Scans with Reflection Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Gratings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1999 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. P. McGrew, “Color Control in Dichromated Gelatin Reflection Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 215, 24–31 (1980)

1986 (1)

S. Sjollnder, “Dichromated Gelatin and Light Sensitivity,” J. Imaging Sci 30, no 7, 151 (1986).

1985 (3)

R. W. Evans, “The Development of Dichromated Gelatin for Holographic Optical Element Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 302 (1985).

H. Owen, “Holographic Optical Elements in Dichromated Gelatin,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 296 (1985).

R. D. Rallison, “Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) in Dichromated Gelatin (DCG): Progress,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 292 (1985).

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

R. A. Cullen, “Some Characteristics of and Measurements on Dichromated Gelatin Reflection Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 647 (1983).

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

S. P. McGrew, “Color Control in Dichromated Gelatin Reflection Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 215, 24–31 (1980)

1979 (1)

1972 (1)

D. Meyerhofer, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” RCA Rev. 33, III (1972).

Chang, B. J.

Coleman, D. J.

Cullen, R. A.

R. A. Cullen, “Some Characteristics of and Measurements on Dichromated Gelatin Reflection Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 647 (1983).

Evans, R. W.

R. W. Evans, “The Development of Dichromated Gelatin for Holographic Optical Element Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 302 (1985).

Ishii, Y.

Keinonen, T.

T. Keinonen, O. Salminen, “Dichromated Gelatin as a Holographical Recording Material. I. Transmission Gratings,” Publication of U. Joensuu, Series B1, No. 23 (1982).

Leonard, C. D.

Magarinos, J. R.

McGrew, S. P.

S. P. McGrew, “Color Control in Dichromated Gelatin Reflection Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 215, 24–31 (1980)

Meyerhofer, D.

D. Meyerhofer, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” RCA Rev. 33, III (1972).

Murata, K.

Owen, H.

H. Owen, “Holographic Optical Elements in Dichromated Gelatin,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 296 (1985).

Rallison, R. D.

R. D. Rallison, “Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) in Dichromated Gelatin (DCG): Progress,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 292 (1985).

Salminen, O.

T. Keinonen, O. Salminen, “Dichromated Gelatin as a Holographical Recording Material. I. Transmission Gratings,” Publication of U. Joensuu, Series B1, No. 23 (1982).

Sjolinder, S.

S. Sjolinder, “Bandwidth in Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Filters,” Opt. Acta 31, 1001 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sjollnder, S.

S. Sjollnder, “Dichromated Gelatin and Light Sensitivity,” J. Imaging Sci 30, no 7, 151 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Imaging Sci (1)

S. Sjollnder, “Dichromated Gelatin and Light Sensitivity,” J. Imaging Sci 30, no 7, 151 (1986).

Opt. Acta (1)

S. Sjolinder, “Bandwidth in Dichromated Gelatin Holographic Filters,” Opt. Acta 31, 1001 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (5)

S. P. McGrew, “Color Control in Dichromated Gelatin Reflection Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 215, 24–31 (1980)

R. A. Cullen, “Some Characteristics of and Measurements on Dichromated Gelatin Reflection Holograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 369, 647 (1983).

R. W. Evans, “The Development of Dichromated Gelatin for Holographic Optical Element Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 302 (1985).

H. Owen, “Holographic Optical Elements in Dichromated Gelatin,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 296 (1985).

R. D. Rallison, “Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) in Dichromated Gelatin (DCG): Progress,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 523, 292 (1985).

RCA Rev. (1)

D. Meyerhofer, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” RCA Rev. 33, III (1972).

Other (1)

T. Keinonen, O. Salminen, “Dichromated Gelatin as a Holographical Recording Material. I. Transmission Gratings,” Publication of U. Joensuu, Series B1, No. 23 (1982).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Dependence of the reflection efficiency maximum on the sensitizer concentration. (b) The angular position of the reflection maxima. The dashed line shows the recording angle. The results are valid for hard emulsions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dependence of the reflection efficiency maximum on the sensitizer concentration for two sets of measurements done on different days. (b) The angular position of the reflection maxima for the curves in (a). The dashed line shows the recording angle. The results are valid for soft emulsions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Noise-to-signal ratio as a function of the sensitizer concentration for both hard and soft emulsions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the reflection efficiency maximum on the washing time after exposure. (b) The angular position of the reflection maxima. (c) The half-height widths of the reflection efficiency vs reconstruction angle curves. The results are valid for hard emulsion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Dependence of the reflection efficiency maximum on the washing time after exposure for two different sets of measurements. (b) The angular position of the reflection maxima. (c) The half-height widths of the reflection efficiency vs reconstruction angle curves. The results are valid for soft emulsion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Noise-to-signal ratio as a function of the washing time for soft and hard emulsions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Dependence of the reflection efficiency maximum on the time interval between water and isopropanol baths. (b) The angular position of the reflection maxima. (c) The half-height widths of the reflection efficiency vs reconstruction angle curves. The results are valid for hard emulsions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Dependence of the reflection efficiency maximum on the drying time in isopropanol. (b) The angular position of the reflection maxima. (c) The half-height widths of the reflection efficiency vs reconstruction angle curves. The results are valid for hard emulsions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Dependence of the reflection efficiency maximum on the recording angle. The plates were developed in the normal way according to Table I. (b) The angular position of the reflection efficiency maxima. The straight line shows the theoretical value. (c) The half-height widths of the reflection efficiency vs reconstruction angle curves. The results are valid for hard emulsions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Reflection efficiency maxima as a function of the rotating angle. The rotating angle is a measure of the plate deviation from its initial value (both beams entering at an angle of 25°). Interference plane tilt (the upper numbers in the horizontal scale) gives an angle between plate surface and interference planes. (b) The angular position of the reflection efficiency maxima. (c) The half-height widths of the reflection efficiency vs reconstruction angle curves. The results are valid for hard emulsions.

Tables (1)

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Table I Processing Procedure for Making DCG Holograms from Kodak 649F Plates

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