Abstract

Ion-exchange strengthened phosphate glass in an active-mirror geometry remained unfractured at pump power levels 3 times the average pump fracture limit of unstrengthened phosphate glass in the same geometry. In addition, pretreatment and posttreatment measurements of surface wavefront and roughness were made on a set of rectangular substrates to quantify any ion-exchange-induced surface modifications. Experimental measurements of treatment-induced wavefront deformation of strengthened blocks were shown to be less than modeled values of distortion attributable to extended treatment times.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Kelly, D. L. Smith, J. C. Lee, S. D. Jacobs, J. C. Lambropoulos, M. J. Shoup, “High-Repetition-Rate Cr-ND:GSGG Active-Mirror Amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 12, 996 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Ion Exchange Strengthening of Nd Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Seventeenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO (Oct. 1985), (to be published).
  3. K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, J. Lambropoulos, “Strengthened Glass for High Average Power Laser Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 736, 000 (1987).
  4. D. C. Brown, R. Bowman, J. Kuper, K. K. Lee, J. Menders, “High Average Power Active-Mirror Amplifier,” Appl. Opt. 25, 612 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Manufactured by Kigre, Inc., Hilton Head, SC.
  6. Mark II interferometer, Zygo Corp., Laurel Brook Rd., Middle-field, CT 06445.
  7. Talystep 1L Surface Profilometer, Rank Taylor Hobson, Ltd., Leicester, England.
  8. K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, K. L. Marshall, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Characterization of the Chemical Strengthened Nd-Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FF4.
  9. H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, “Relation Between Surface Roughness and Specular Reflectance at Normal Incidence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Bennett, J. Detrio, “Standard Test Method for Measuring Effective Surface Roughness of Optical Components by Total Integrated Scatter,” ASTM document 2A-44 (Mar.1984).
  11. K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, A. Lindquist, “Ion-Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass: Development and Applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 361 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. J. DeSalvo, J. A. Swanson, “ansys Engineering Analysis System User’s Manual,” Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc. (1June1985). (ansys is a registered trademark of Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., Johnson Rd., Houston, PA 15342.)
  13. K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface Damage Treatment for Ion Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Fall Glass Division Meeting of the American Ceramic Society (Nov. 1986).
  14. B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (Wiley, New York, 1960).
  15. D. Malcara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 4, p. 105.
  16. Model TN2205, General Electric, 890 7th St., N., Liverpool, NY 13088.
  17. Laser Program Annual Report 1984, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, , pp. 6–45.

1987 (3)

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, A. Lindquist, “Ion-Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass: Development and Applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 361 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kelly, D. L. Smith, J. C. Lee, S. D. Jacobs, J. C. Lambropoulos, M. J. Shoup, “High-Repetition-Rate Cr-ND:GSGG Active-Mirror Amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 12, 996 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, J. Lambropoulos, “Strengthened Glass for High Average Power Laser Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 736, 000 (1987).

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

J. Bennett, J. Detrio, “Standard Test Method for Measuring Effective Surface Roughness of Optical Components by Total Integrated Scatter,” ASTM document 2A-44 (Mar.1984).

1961 (1)

Bennett, H. E.

Bennett, J.

J. Bennett, J. Detrio, “Standard Test Method for Measuring Effective Surface Roughness of Optical Components by Total Integrated Scatter,” ASTM document 2A-44 (Mar.1984).

Boley, B. A.

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (Wiley, New York, 1960).

Bowman, R.

Brown, D. C.

Cerqua, K. A.

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, A. Lindquist, “Ion-Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass: Development and Applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 361 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, J. Lambropoulos, “Strengthened Glass for High Average Power Laser Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 736, 000 (1987).

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Ion Exchange Strengthening of Nd Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Seventeenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO (Oct. 1985), (to be published).

K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface Damage Treatment for Ion Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Fall Glass Division Meeting of the American Ceramic Society (Nov. 1986).

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, K. L. Marshall, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Characterization of the Chemical Strengthened Nd-Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FF4.

DeSalvo, G. J.

G. J. DeSalvo, J. A. Swanson, “ansys Engineering Analysis System User’s Manual,” Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc. (1June1985). (ansys is a registered trademark of Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., Johnson Rd., Houston, PA 15342.)

Detrio, J.

J. Bennett, J. Detrio, “Standard Test Method for Measuring Effective Surface Roughness of Optical Components by Total Integrated Scatter,” ASTM document 2A-44 (Mar.1984).

Jacobs, S. D.

K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, J. Lambropoulos, “Strengthened Glass for High Average Power Laser Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 736, 000 (1987).

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, A. Lindquist, “Ion-Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass: Development and Applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 361 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kelly, D. L. Smith, J. C. Lee, S. D. Jacobs, J. C. Lambropoulos, M. J. Shoup, “High-Repetition-Rate Cr-ND:GSGG Active-Mirror Amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 12, 996 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Ion Exchange Strengthening of Nd Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Seventeenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO (Oct. 1985), (to be published).

K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface Damage Treatment for Ion Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Fall Glass Division Meeting of the American Ceramic Society (Nov. 1986).

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, K. L. Marshall, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Characterization of the Chemical Strengthened Nd-Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FF4.

Kelly, J. H.

Kuper, J.

Lambropoulos, J.

K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, J. Lambropoulos, “Strengthened Glass for High Average Power Laser Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 736, 000 (1987).

Lambropoulos, J. C.

Lee, J. C.

Lee, K. K.

Lindquist, A.

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, A. Lindquist, “Ion-Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass: Development and Applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 361 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, J. Lambropoulos, “Strengthened Glass for High Average Power Laser Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 736, 000 (1987).

K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface Damage Treatment for Ion Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Fall Glass Division Meeting of the American Ceramic Society (Nov. 1986).

Malcara, D.

D. Malcara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 4, p. 105.

Marshall, K. L.

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, K. L. Marshall, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Characterization of the Chemical Strengthened Nd-Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FF4.

McIntyre, B. L.

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, K. L. Marshall, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Characterization of the Chemical Strengthened Nd-Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FF4.

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Ion Exchange Strengthening of Nd Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Seventeenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO (Oct. 1985), (to be published).

Menders, J.

Porteus, J. O.

Shoup, M. J.

Smith, D. L.

Swanson, J. A.

G. J. DeSalvo, J. A. Swanson, “ansys Engineering Analysis System User’s Manual,” Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc. (1June1985). (ansys is a registered trademark of Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., Johnson Rd., Houston, PA 15342.)

Weiner, J. H.

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (Wiley, New York, 1960).

Zhong, W.

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, K. L. Marshall, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Characterization of the Chemical Strengthened Nd-Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FF4.

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Ion Exchange Strengthening of Nd Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Seventeenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO (Oct. 1985), (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (1)

ASTM document 2A-44 (1)

J. Bennett, J. Detrio, “Standard Test Method for Measuring Effective Surface Roughness of Optical Components by Total Integrated Scatter,” ASTM document 2A-44 (Mar.1984).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, A. Lindquist, “Ion-Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass: Development and Applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 361 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, J. Lambropoulos, “Strengthened Glass for High Average Power Laser Applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 736, 000 (1987).

Other (11)

G. J. DeSalvo, J. A. Swanson, “ansys Engineering Analysis System User’s Manual,” Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc. (1June1985). (ansys is a registered trademark of Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., Johnson Rd., Houston, PA 15342.)

K. A. Cerqua, A. Lindquist, S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface Damage Treatment for Ion Exchange Strengthened Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Fall Glass Division Meeting of the American Ceramic Society (Nov. 1986).

B. A. Boley, J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (Wiley, New York, 1960).

D. Malcara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 4, p. 105.

Model TN2205, General Electric, 890 7th St., N., Liverpool, NY 13088.

Laser Program Annual Report 1984, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, , pp. 6–45.

Manufactured by Kigre, Inc., Hilton Head, SC.

Mark II interferometer, Zygo Corp., Laurel Brook Rd., Middle-field, CT 06445.

Talystep 1L Surface Profilometer, Rank Taylor Hobson, Ltd., Leicester, England.

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, K. L. Marshall, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Characterization of the Chemical Strengthened Nd-Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1986), paper FF4.

K. A. Cerqua, S. D. Jacobs, B. L. McIntyre, W. Zhong, “Ion Exchange Strengthening of Nd Doped Phosphate Laser Glass,” presented at the Seventeenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, CO (Oct. 1985), (to be published).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Q-89 active mirror pump fracture test apparatus. Disk is pumped in single-sided configuration at increasing 100-W increments until fracture occurs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Model predictions of glass surface deformation due to ion-exchange strengthening. Shown is the surface displacement and the associated deformation at 632.8 nm as a function of distance from the center of a 6-day treated disk.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Double-pass wavefront deformation of a 4-cmϕ strengthened Q-89 disk. The predicted 1.00 wave of deformation at 1054 nm is clearly concentrated at the edge of the disk’s 3.6-cm clear aperture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface wavefront deformation (at λ = 632 nm) of strengthened Q-89 rectangular blocks as a function of treatment time. Interferograms of posttreatment surfaces clearly illustrate that maximum distortion occurs at the sample edge.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Front-surface-shearing interferogram (at λ = 1.06 μm) of a strengthened glass disk during pump/fracture test at an input pump power of 3000 W. Vertical line is a reference fiducial.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Front-surface-edge deformation vs pump power for unstrengthened and strengthened glass disks. Solid line indicates model predictions normalized to unstrengthened data; strengthened samples performance agrees with code predictions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Unstrengthened and strengthened Q-89 glass disks following pump/fracture testing. Failure and survival at pump levels of 2 and 6.1 kW, respectively (a >3× improvement), are illustrated.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated stress vs pump power for Q-89 glass disks. Strengthened disk survived maximum system stress (174 MPa) while unstrengthened disks failed at ~70 MPa, a factor of 2.5× improvement.

Tables (1)

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Table I Measured Roughness Values and Associated Normal Incidence Reflectance of Strengthened Surface

Equations (2)

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TIS = R d / R 0 ,
σ = λ 4 π TIS .

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