Abstract

The values of the optical constants of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films are obtained using a classical oscillator model and the experimental values of their spectral transmittance. Auger electron spectroscopy was performed on the samples to determine the chemical composition of the films. These materials are important in the design of filters, mirrors, and antireflection coatings for optical instrumentation. Unfortunately their properties strongly depend on evaporation conditions. The procedure described here allowsdirect measurement of the dispersive refractive index of the film after deposition.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Pelletier, P. Roche, B. Vidal, “Determination automatique des constants optiques et de l’épaisseur de couches minces: application aux couches diélectriques,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 353 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Hjortsberg, “Determination of Optical Constants of Absorbing Materials Using Transmission and Reflection of Thin Films on Partially Metallized Substrates: Analysis of the New (T,Rm) Technique,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1254 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A Simple Method for the Determination of the Optical Constants n,k and the Thickness of a Weakly Absorbing Thin Film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. J. King, S. P. Talim, “A Comparison of the Thin Film Measurement by Wave Guide, Ellipsometry and Reflectometry,” Opt. Acta 28, 1107 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Bennett, M. J. Booty, “Computational Method for Determining n and k for a Thin Film from the Measured Reflectance, Transmittance, and Film Thickness,” Appl. Opt. 5, 41 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. P. Arndt et al., “Multiple Determination of the Optical Constants of Thin-Film Coating Materials,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3571 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. G. Spitzer, D. A. Kleinmann, “Infrared Lattice Bands of Quartz,” Phys. Rev. 121, 1324 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. W. Verleur, “Determination of Optical Constant from Reflectance or Transmittance Measurements on Bulk Crystal or Thin Films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1356 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Tolansky, Multiple Beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Clarendon, Oxford, 1948).
  10. A. M. Goodman, “Optical Interference Method for the Approximate Determination of Refractive Index and Thickness of a Transparent Layer,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2779 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Abeles, “Transmission of Light by a System of Alternate Layers,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 226, 1808 (1948).
  13. H. Dupoisot, J. Morizet, “Thin Film Coatings: Algorithms for the Determination of Reflectance and Transmittance, and Their Derivatives,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2701 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).
  15. L. E. Davis et al., Handbook of Auger Electron, Spectroscopy (Electronic Industries, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN, 1978).
  16. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York, 1976), p. 210.
  17. S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Higara, “Refractive Index and Packing Density for MgF2: Correlation of Temperature Dependence with Water Sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. H. Billings, “Optics,” in American Institute of Physics Handbook, D. E. Gray, Ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), Chap. 6.
  19. R. P. Netterfield, “Refractive Indices of Zinc Sulfide and Cryolite in Multilayer Stacks,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1969 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1981 (2)

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

1976 (3)

E. Pelletier, P. Roche, B. Vidal, “Determination automatique des constants optiques et de l’épaisseur de couches minces: application aux couches diélectriques,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 353 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A Simple Method for the Determination of the Optical Constants n,k and the Thickness of a Weakly Absorbing Thin Film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Netterfield, “Refractive Indices of Zinc Sulfide and Cryolite in Multilayer Stacks,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1969 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Higara, “Refractive Index and Packing Density for MgF2: Correlation of Temperature Dependence with Water Sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1966 (1)

1961 (1)

W. G. Spitzer, D. A. Kleinmann, “Infrared Lattice Bands of Quartz,” Phys. Rev. 121, 1324 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

F. Abeles, “Transmission of Light by a System of Alternate Layers,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 226, 1808 (1948).

Abeles, F.

F. Abeles, “Transmission of Light by a System of Alternate Layers,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 226, 1808 (1948).

Arndt, D. P.

Bennett, J. M.

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

Billings, B. H.

B. H. Billings, “Optics,” in American Institute of Physics Handbook, D. E. Gray, Ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), Chap. 6.

Booty, M. J.

Davis, L. E.

L. E. Davis et al., Handbook of Auger Electron, Spectroscopy (Electronic Industries, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN, 1978).

Dupoisot, H.

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A Simple Method for the Determination of the Optical Constants n,k and the Thickness of a Weakly Absorbing Thin Film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A Simple Method for the Determination of the Optical Constants n,k and the Thickness of a Weakly Absorbing Thin Film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, A. M.

Higara, R.

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Higara, “Refractive Index and Packing Density for MgF2: Correlation of Temperature Dependence with Water Sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hjortsberg, A.

King, R. J.

R. J. King, S. P. Talim, “A Comparison of the Thin Film Measurement by Wave Guide, Ellipsometry and Reflectometry,” Opt. Acta 28, 1107 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kittel, C.

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York, 1976), p. 210.

Kleinmann, D. A.

W. G. Spitzer, D. A. Kleinmann, “Infrared Lattice Bands of Quartz,” Phys. Rev. 121, 1324 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A Simple Method for the Determination of the Optical Constants n,k and the Thickness of a Weakly Absorbing Thin Film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Morizet, J.

Netterfield, R. P.

Ogura, S.

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Higara, “Refractive Index and Packing Density for MgF2: Correlation of Temperature Dependence with Water Sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

E. Pelletier, P. Roche, B. Vidal, “Determination automatique des constants optiques et de l’épaisseur de couches minces: application aux couches diélectriques,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 353 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Roche, P.

E. Pelletier, P. Roche, B. Vidal, “Determination automatique des constants optiques et de l’épaisseur de couches minces: application aux couches diélectriques,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 353 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, W. G.

W. G. Spitzer, D. A. Kleinmann, “Infrared Lattice Bands of Quartz,” Phys. Rev. 121, 1324 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, N.

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Higara, “Refractive Index and Packing Density for MgF2: Correlation of Temperature Dependence with Water Sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Talim, S. P.

R. J. King, S. P. Talim, “A Comparison of the Thin Film Measurement by Wave Guide, Ellipsometry and Reflectometry,” Opt. Acta 28, 1107 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Multiple Beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Clarendon, Oxford, 1948).

Verleur, H. W.

Vidal, B.

E. Pelletier, P. Roche, B. Vidal, “Determination automatique des constants optiques et de l’épaisseur de couches minces: application aux couches diélectriques,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 353 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

F. Abeles, “Transmission of Light by a System of Alternate Layers,” C. R. Acad. Sci. 226, 1808 (1948).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. E (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, “A Simple Method for the Determination of the Optical Constants n,k and the Thickness of a Weakly Absorbing Thin Film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nouv. Rev. Opt. (1)

E. Pelletier, P. Roche, B. Vidal, “Determination automatique des constants optiques et de l’épaisseur de couches minces: application aux couches diélectriques,” Nouv. Rev. Opt. 7, 353 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

R. J. King, S. P. Talim, “A Comparison of the Thin Film Measurement by Wave Guide, Ellipsometry and Reflectometry,” Opt. Acta 28, 1107 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. G. Spitzer, D. A. Kleinmann, “Infrared Lattice Bands of Quartz,” Phys. Rev. 121, 1324 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Ogura, N. Sugawara, R. Higara, “Refractive Index and Packing Density for MgF2: Correlation of Temperature Dependence with Water Sorption,” Thin Solid Films 30, 3 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

B. H. Billings, “Optics,” in American Institute of Physics Handbook, D. E. Gray, Ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), Chap. 6.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

L. E. Davis et al., Handbook of Auger Electron, Spectroscopy (Electronic Industries, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN, 1978).

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York, 1976), p. 210.

S. Tolansky, Multiple Beam Interferometry of Surfaces and Films (Clarendon, Oxford, 1948).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Auger spectrum for ZnS showing very clean samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Auger spectrum for MgF2 near the surface. The third derivative was used to detect electrically isolated films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectrum of MgF2. Low contrast fringes are caused by the similarity of refractive index of both the film and the glass substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The ZnS optical spectrum presenting good contrast between maxima and minima in transmittance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Real and imaginary parts of the refractive index for MgF2 calculated from the best-fitted parameters from two contributing oscillators.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Complex refractive index for ZnS. The dispersion is higher for the UV region. Two oscillators contribute to this calculation.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Film Thickness Measurement Comparison

Tables Icon

Table II MgF2 Refractive Index Dispersion

Tables Icon

Table III ZnS Refractive Index Dispersion

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ɛ = ɛ 1 + ɛ 2 = ɛ + S i / [ ( 1 - ω 2 / ω i 2 ) - j γ i ω / ω i ] ,
T = ( n s / n o ) ( τ τ * ) ,
M = k = 1 N ( T c - T e ) k 2 ,

Metrics