Abstract

Plasma spectra initiated on single, optically levitated, micron-sized droplets of a glycerine-saturated brine solution are presented. The temporal development of the droplet plasma is monitored by observing neutral and once-ionized carbon and neutral sodium emission, and that of the air plasma by once-ionized nitrogen emission. The dependence of the plasma on laser parameters, such as wavelength and irradiance, is discussed.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).
  2. R. L. Armstrong, “Aerosol Heating and Vaporization by Pulsed Light Beams,” Appl. Opt. 23, 148 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Sageev, J. H. Seinfeld, “Laser Heating of an Aqueous Aerosol Particle,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4368 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. A. Williams, “On Vaporization of Mist by Radiation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 8, 575 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman Scattering from Individual Water and Ethanol Droplets at Morphology-Dependent Resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser Emission from Individual Droplets at Wavelengths Corresponding to Morphology-Dependent Resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. K. Chang, S.-X. Qian, J. Eickmans, in Proceedings, Methods of Laser Spectroscopy Symposium, Rehovot, Israel, 16–20 Dec. 1985.
  8. R. L. Armstrong, “Interactions of Absorbing Aerosols with Intense Light-Beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2142 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. L. Armstrong, P. J. O’Rourke, A. Zardecki, “Vaporization of Irradiated Droplets,” Phys. Fluids 29, 3573 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. M. Chitanvis, “Explosion of Water Droplets,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1837 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. L. Armstrong, A. Zardecki, “Diffusive and Convective Vaporization of Irradiated Droplets,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4571, 1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. C. Smith, “Gas Breakdown Initiated by Laser Radiation Interaction with Aerosols and Solid Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2217 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. E. Lencioni, “The Effect of Dust on 10.6 μm Laser-Induced Air Breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 12 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. E. Lencioni, “Laser-Induced Air Breakdown for 10.6 μm Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 15 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Biswas, H. Lait, P. Shah, L. J. Radziemski, R. L. Armstrong, “Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Plasmas Initiated on Single, Levitated Aerosol Droplets,” Opt. Lett. 12, 313 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. H. Eickmans, W. F. Nsieh, R. K. Chang, “Laser-Induced Explosion of H2O Droplets: Spatially Resolved Spectra,” Opt. Lett. 12, 22 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W.-F. Hsieh, J. H. Eickmans, R. K. Chang, “Internal and External Laser-Induced Avalanche Breakdown of Single Droplets in an Argon Atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1816 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. T. Buscher, R. G. Tomlinson, E. K. Damon, “Frequency Dependence of Optically Induced Gas Breakdown” Phys. Rev. Lett., 15, 847 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. J. Alcock, C. DeMichelis, M. C. Richardson, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Gas Breakdown Using Dye Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 72 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Bekefi, Ed., Principles of Laser Plasmas (Wiley, New York, 1976), p. 593.
  21. L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Lorre, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry of Aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (4)

1986 (2)

R. L. Armstrong, P. J. O’Rourke, A. Zardecki, “Vaporization of Irradiated Droplets,” Phys. Fluids 29, 3573 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chitanvis, “Explosion of Water Droplets,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1837 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (4)

1983 (1)

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Lorre, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry of Aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. C. Smith, “Gas Breakdown Initiated by Laser Radiation Interaction with Aerosols and Solid Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2217 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. E. Lencioni, “Laser-Induced Air Breakdown for 10.6 μm Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 15 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

D. E. Lencioni, “The Effect of Dust on 10.6 μm Laser-Induced Air Breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 12 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. J. Alcock, C. DeMichelis, M. C. Richardson, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Gas Breakdown Using Dye Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

H. T. Buscher, R. G. Tomlinson, E. K. Damon, “Frequency Dependence of Optically Induced Gas Breakdown” Phys. Rev. Lett., 15, 847 (1965).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Williams, “On Vaporization of Mist by Radiation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 8, 575 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Alcock, A. J.

A. J. Alcock, C. DeMichelis, M. C. Richardson, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Gas Breakdown Using Dye Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. L.

A. Biswas, H. Lait, P. Shah, L. J. Radziemski, R. L. Armstrong, “Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Plasmas Initiated on Single, Levitated Aerosol Droplets,” Opt. Lett. 12, 313 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Armstrong, A. Zardecki, “Diffusive and Convective Vaporization of Irradiated Droplets,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4571, 1987).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Armstrong, P. J. O’Rourke, A. Zardecki, “Vaporization of Irradiated Droplets,” Phys. Fluids 29, 3573 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Armstrong, “Aerosol Heating and Vaporization by Pulsed Light Beams,” Appl. Opt. 23, 148 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Armstrong, “Interactions of Absorbing Aerosols with Intense Light-Beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2142 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, A.

Buscher, H. T.

H. T. Buscher, R. G. Tomlinson, E. K. Damon, “Frequency Dependence of Optically Induced Gas Breakdown” Phys. Rev. Lett., 15, 847 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Chitanvis, S. M.

Cremers, D. A.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Lorre, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry of Aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Damon, E. K.

H. T. Buscher, R. G. Tomlinson, E. K. Damon, “Frequency Dependence of Optically Induced Gas Breakdown” Phys. Rev. Lett., 15, 847 (1965).
[CrossRef]

DeMichelis, C.

A. J. Alcock, C. DeMichelis, M. C. Richardson, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Gas Breakdown Using Dye Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Eickmans, J.

R. K. Chang, S.-X. Qian, J. Eickmans, in Proceedings, Methods of Laser Spectroscopy Symposium, Rehovot, Israel, 16–20 Dec. 1985.

Eickmans, J. H.

Hoffman, N. M.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Lorre, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry of Aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W.-F.

Lait, H.

Lencioni, D. E.

D. E. Lencioni, “Laser-Induced Air Breakdown for 10.6 μm Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 15 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lencioni, “The Effect of Dust on 10.6 μm Laser-Induced Air Breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 12 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

Lorre, T. R.

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Lorre, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry of Aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nsieh, W. F.

O’Rourke, P. J.

R. L. Armstrong, P. J. O’Rourke, A. Zardecki, “Vaporization of Irradiated Droplets,” Phys. Fluids 29, 3573 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S.-X.

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman Scattering from Individual Water and Ethanol Droplets at Morphology-Dependent Resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Chang, S.-X. Qian, J. Eickmans, in Proceedings, Methods of Laser Spectroscopy Symposium, Rehovot, Israel, 16–20 Dec. 1985.

Radziemski, L. J.

A. Biswas, H. Lait, P. Shah, L. J. Radziemski, R. L. Armstrong, “Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Plasmas Initiated on Single, Levitated Aerosol Droplets,” Opt. Lett. 12, 313 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Lorre, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry of Aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M. C.

A. J. Alcock, C. DeMichelis, M. C. Richardson, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Gas Breakdown Using Dye Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sageev, G.

Seinfeld, J. H.

Shah, P.

Smith, D. C.

D. C. Smith, “Gas Breakdown Initiated by Laser Radiation Interaction with Aerosols and Solid Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2217 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Snow, J. B.

Tomlinson, R. G.

H. T. Buscher, R. G. Tomlinson, E. K. Damon, “Frequency Dependence of Optically Induced Gas Breakdown” Phys. Rev. Lett., 15, 847 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, H.-M.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Wall, K. F.

Williams, F. A.

F. A. Williams, “On Vaporization of Mist by Radiation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 8, 575 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Zardecki, A.

R. L. Armstrong, A. Zardecki, “Diffusive and Convective Vaporization of Irradiated Droplets,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4571, 1987).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Armstrong, P. J. O’Rourke, A. Zardecki, “Vaporization of Irradiated Droplets,” Phys. Fluids 29, 3573 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

L. J. Radziemski, T. R. Lorre, D. A. Cremers, N. M. Hoffman, “Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry of Aerosols,” Anal. Chem. 55, 1246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. J. Alcock, C. DeMichelis, M. C. Richardson, “Wavelength Dependence of Laser-Induced Gas Breakdown Using Dye Lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 72 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lencioni, “The Effect of Dust on 10.6 μm Laser-Induced Air Breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 12 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Lencioni, “Laser-Induced Air Breakdown for 10.6 μm Radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 15 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

F. A. Williams, “On Vaporization of Mist by Radiation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 8, 575 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. L. Armstrong, “Interactions of Absorbing Aerosols with Intense Light-Beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2142 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Armstrong, A. Zardecki, “Diffusive and Convective Vaporization of Irradiated Droplets,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4571, 1987).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Smith, “Gas Breakdown Initiated by Laser Radiation Interaction with Aerosols and Solid Surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2217 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Fluids (1)

R. L. Armstrong, P. J. O’Rourke, A. Zardecki, “Vaporization of Irradiated Droplets,” Phys. Fluids 29, 3573 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. T. Buscher, R. G. Tomlinson, E. K. Damon, “Frequency Dependence of Optically Induced Gas Breakdown” Phys. Rev. Lett., 15, 847 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. K. Chang, S.-X. Qian, J. Eickmans, in Proceedings, Methods of Laser Spectroscopy Symposium, Rehovot, Israel, 16–20 Dec. 1985.

G. Bekefi, Ed., Principles of Laser Plasmas (Wiley, New York, 1976), p. 593.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram showing experimental arrangement used to obtain time-resolved spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-averaged single-shot plasma spectra generated by irradiating a single levitated droplet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical data set showing the Nd:YAG pulse on-line and off-line C ii signals and the C ii line intensity as a function of time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tp values for the different spectral species probed, plotted as a function of the irradiating wavelength (a) below air breakdown threshold and (b) above air breakdown threshold.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of Tp on laser energy at 0.532 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

C ii/C i ratio plotted as a function of time after arrival of the irradiating Nd:YAG pulse (a) below breakdown threshold and (b) above breakdown threshold.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Experimental Apparatus and Settings

Tables Icon

Table II Laser Energies and Wavelengths Used

Metrics