Abstract

We obtained simultaneous measurements of the structure parameters CT2, CTQ, and CQ2 from the KNMI meteorological tower at Cabauw and investigated the behavior of these structure parameters in the mixed layer. In the lower part of the mixed layer, the structure parameters were found to follow the free-convection prediction (z/zi)−4/3. In the upper part of the mixed layer a frequency-dependent phase shift between temperature and humidity fluctuations was found.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (Dover, New York, 1967).
  2. J. C. Wyngaard, W. T. Pennell, D. H. Lenschow, M. A. LeMone, “The Temperature-Humidity Covariance Budget in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 47 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. Haugen, Ed., Workshop on Micrometeorology (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1973).
  4. J. C. Wyngaard, M. A. LeMone, “Behavior of the Refractive Index Structure Parameter in the Entraining Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 1573 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, D. A. Haugen, O. R. Cote, Y. Izumi, “Turbulence Structure in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2152 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. E. Kunkel, D. L. Walters, “Behavior of the Temperature Structure Parameter in a Desert Basin,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 130 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Dubosclard, “A Sodar Study of the Temperature Structure Parameter in the Convective Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 22, 325 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Druilhet, J. P. Frangi, D. Guedalia, J. Fontan, “Experimental Studies of the Turbulence Structure Parameters of the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 594 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. S. Frisch, G. R. Ochs, “A Note on the Behavior of the Temperature Structure Parameter in a Convective Layer Capped by a Marine Inversion,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 415 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. W. Fairall, R. Markson, G. E. Schacher, K. L. Davidson, “An Aircraft Study of Turbulence Dissipation Rate and Temperature Structure Function in the Unstable Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 19, 453 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Guillemet, H. Isaka, P. Mascart, “Molecular Dissipation of Turbulent Fluctuations in the Convective Mixed Layer. Part I: Height Variation of Dissipation Rates,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 27, 141 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. D. Burk, “Comparison of Structure Parameter Scaling Expressions with Turbulence Closure Model Predictions,” J. Atmos. Science 38, 751 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Kohsiek, W. A. A. Monna, “A Fast Response Psychrometer,” KNMI Scientific Report WR 80-4 (1980).
  14. W. Kohsiek, “Measuring CT2,CQ2, and CTQ in the Unstable Surface Layer, and Relations to the Vertical Fluxes of Heat and Moisture,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 24, 89 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. H. A. J. Herben, W. Kohsiek, “A Comparison of Radio Wave and In Situ Observations of Tropospheric Turbulence and Wind Velocity,” Radio Sci. 19, 1057 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1984

M. H. A. J. Herben, W. Kohsiek, “A Comparison of Radio Wave and In Situ Observations of Tropospheric Turbulence and Wind Velocity,” Radio Sci. 19, 1057 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

B. Guillemet, H. Isaka, P. Mascart, “Molecular Dissipation of Turbulent Fluctuations in the Convective Mixed Layer. Part I: Height Variation of Dissipation Rates,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 27, 141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Druilhet, J. P. Frangi, D. Guedalia, J. Fontan, “Experimental Studies of the Turbulence Structure Parameters of the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 594 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. Dubosclard, “A Sodar Study of the Temperature Structure Parameter in the Convective Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 22, 325 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. Kohsiek, “Measuring CT2,CQ2, and CTQ in the Unstable Surface Layer, and Relations to the Vertical Fluxes of Heat and Moisture,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 24, 89 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

S. D. Burk, “Comparison of Structure Parameter Scaling Expressions with Turbulence Closure Model Predictions,” J. Atmos. Science 38, 751 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Kunkel, D. L. Walters, “Behavior of the Temperature Structure Parameter in a Desert Basin,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 130 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. C. Wyngaard, M. A. LeMone, “Behavior of the Refractive Index Structure Parameter in the Entraining Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 1573 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, R. Markson, G. E. Schacher, K. L. Davidson, “An Aircraft Study of Turbulence Dissipation Rate and Temperature Structure Function in the Unstable Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 19, 453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. C. Wyngaard, W. T. Pennell, D. H. Lenschow, M. A. LeMone, “The Temperature-Humidity Covariance Budget in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 47 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, D. A. Haugen, O. R. Cote, Y. Izumi, “Turbulence Structure in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2152 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

A. S. Frisch, G. R. Ochs, “A Note on the Behavior of the Temperature Structure Parameter in a Convective Layer Capped by a Marine Inversion,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Burk, S. D.

S. D. Burk, “Comparison of Structure Parameter Scaling Expressions with Turbulence Closure Model Predictions,” J. Atmos. Science 38, 751 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cote, O. R.

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, D. A. Haugen, O. R. Cote, Y. Izumi, “Turbulence Structure in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2152 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, K. L.

C. W. Fairall, R. Markson, G. E. Schacher, K. L. Davidson, “An Aircraft Study of Turbulence Dissipation Rate and Temperature Structure Function in the Unstable Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 19, 453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Druilhet, A.

A. Druilhet, J. P. Frangi, D. Guedalia, J. Fontan, “Experimental Studies of the Turbulence Structure Parameters of the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 594 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dubosclard, G.

G. Dubosclard, “A Sodar Study of the Temperature Structure Parameter in the Convective Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 22, 325 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fairall, C. W.

C. W. Fairall, R. Markson, G. E. Schacher, K. L. Davidson, “An Aircraft Study of Turbulence Dissipation Rate and Temperature Structure Function in the Unstable Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 19, 453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fontan, J.

A. Druilhet, J. P. Frangi, D. Guedalia, J. Fontan, “Experimental Studies of the Turbulence Structure Parameters of the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 594 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Frangi, J. P.

A. Druilhet, J. P. Frangi, D. Guedalia, J. Fontan, “Experimental Studies of the Turbulence Structure Parameters of the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 594 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, A. S.

A. S. Frisch, G. R. Ochs, “A Note on the Behavior of the Temperature Structure Parameter in a Convective Layer Capped by a Marine Inversion,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Guedalia, D.

A. Druilhet, J. P. Frangi, D. Guedalia, J. Fontan, “Experimental Studies of the Turbulence Structure Parameters of the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 594 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Guillemet, B.

B. Guillemet, H. Isaka, P. Mascart, “Molecular Dissipation of Turbulent Fluctuations in the Convective Mixed Layer. Part I: Height Variation of Dissipation Rates,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 27, 141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, D. A.

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, D. A. Haugen, O. R. Cote, Y. Izumi, “Turbulence Structure in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2152 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Herben, M. H. A. J.

M. H. A. J. Herben, W. Kohsiek, “A Comparison of Radio Wave and In Situ Observations of Tropospheric Turbulence and Wind Velocity,” Radio Sci. 19, 1057 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Isaka, H.

B. Guillemet, H. Isaka, P. Mascart, “Molecular Dissipation of Turbulent Fluctuations in the Convective Mixed Layer. Part I: Height Variation of Dissipation Rates,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 27, 141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Izumi, Y.

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, D. A. Haugen, O. R. Cote, Y. Izumi, “Turbulence Structure in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2152 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kaimal, J. C.

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, D. A. Haugen, O. R. Cote, Y. Izumi, “Turbulence Structure in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2152 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kohsiek, W.

M. H. A. J. Herben, W. Kohsiek, “A Comparison of Radio Wave and In Situ Observations of Tropospheric Turbulence and Wind Velocity,” Radio Sci. 19, 1057 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. Kohsiek, “Measuring CT2,CQ2, and CTQ in the Unstable Surface Layer, and Relations to the Vertical Fluxes of Heat and Moisture,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 24, 89 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. Kohsiek, W. A. A. Monna, “A Fast Response Psychrometer,” KNMI Scientific Report WR 80-4 (1980).

Kunkel, K. E.

K. E. Kunkel, D. L. Walters, “Behavior of the Temperature Structure Parameter in a Desert Basin,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 130 (1981).
[CrossRef]

LeMone, M. A.

J. C. Wyngaard, M. A. LeMone, “Behavior of the Refractive Index Structure Parameter in the Entraining Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 1573 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyngaard, W. T. Pennell, D. H. Lenschow, M. A. LeMone, “The Temperature-Humidity Covariance Budget in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 47 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lenschow, D. H.

J. C. Wyngaard, W. T. Pennell, D. H. Lenschow, M. A. LeMone, “The Temperature-Humidity Covariance Budget in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 47 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Markson, R.

C. W. Fairall, R. Markson, G. E. Schacher, K. L. Davidson, “An Aircraft Study of Turbulence Dissipation Rate and Temperature Structure Function in the Unstable Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 19, 453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mascart, P.

B. Guillemet, H. Isaka, P. Mascart, “Molecular Dissipation of Turbulent Fluctuations in the Convective Mixed Layer. Part I: Height Variation of Dissipation Rates,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 27, 141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Monna, W. A. A.

W. Kohsiek, W. A. A. Monna, “A Fast Response Psychrometer,” KNMI Scientific Report WR 80-4 (1980).

Ochs, G. R.

A. S. Frisch, G. R. Ochs, “A Note on the Behavior of the Temperature Structure Parameter in a Convective Layer Capped by a Marine Inversion,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pennell, W. T.

J. C. Wyngaard, W. T. Pennell, D. H. Lenschow, M. A. LeMone, “The Temperature-Humidity Covariance Budget in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 47 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schacher, G. E.

C. W. Fairall, R. Markson, G. E. Schacher, K. L. Davidson, “An Aircraft Study of Turbulence Dissipation Rate and Temperature Structure Function in the Unstable Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 19, 453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tatarski, V. I.

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (Dover, New York, 1967).

Walters, D. L.

K. E. Kunkel, D. L. Walters, “Behavior of the Temperature Structure Parameter in a Desert Basin,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 130 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wyngaard, J. C.

J. C. Wyngaard, M. A. LeMone, “Behavior of the Refractive Index Structure Parameter in the Entraining Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 1573 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyngaard, W. T. Pennell, D. H. Lenschow, M. A. LeMone, “The Temperature-Humidity Covariance Budget in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 47 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, D. A. Haugen, O. R. Cote, Y. Izumi, “Turbulence Structure in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2152 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Boundary Layer Meteorol.

G. Dubosclard, “A Sodar Study of the Temperature Structure Parameter in the Convective Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 22, 325 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, R. Markson, G. E. Schacher, K. L. Davidson, “An Aircraft Study of Turbulence Dissipation Rate and Temperature Structure Function in the Unstable Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 19, 453 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. Guillemet, H. Isaka, P. Mascart, “Molecular Dissipation of Turbulent Fluctuations in the Convective Mixed Layer. Part I: Height Variation of Dissipation Rates,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 27, 141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. Kohsiek, “Measuring CT2,CQ2, and CTQ in the Unstable Surface Layer, and Relations to the Vertical Fluxes of Heat and Moisture,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 24, 89 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

A. S. Frisch, G. R. Ochs, “A Note on the Behavior of the Temperature Structure Parameter in a Convective Layer Capped by a Marine Inversion,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Kunkel, D. L. Walters, “Behavior of the Temperature Structure Parameter in a Desert Basin,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 130 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

J. C. Wyngaard, W. T. Pennell, D. H. Lenschow, M. A. LeMone, “The Temperature-Humidity Covariance Budget in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 47 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyngaard, M. A. LeMone, “Behavior of the Refractive Index Structure Parameter in the Entraining Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 1573 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, D. A. Haugen, O. R. Cote, Y. Izumi, “Turbulence Structure in the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2152 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Science

S. D. Burk, “Comparison of Structure Parameter Scaling Expressions with Turbulence Closure Model Predictions,” J. Atmos. Science 38, 751 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Climate Appl. Meteorol.

A. Druilhet, J. P. Frangi, D. Guedalia, J. Fontan, “Experimental Studies of the Turbulence Structure Parameters of the Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 22, 594 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Radio Sci.

M. H. A. J. Herben, W. Kohsiek, “A Comparison of Radio Wave and In Situ Observations of Tropospheric Turbulence and Wind Velocity,” Radio Sci. 19, 1057 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Kohsiek, W. A. A. Monna, “A Fast Response Psychrometer,” KNMI Scientific Report WR 80-4 (1980).

V. I. Tatarski, Wave Propagation in a Turbulent Medium (Dover, New York, 1967).

D. A. Haugen, Ed., Workshop on Micrometeorology (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1973).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase spectrum of temperature and humidity. Crosses, z/zi, = 0.71; circles, z/zi = 0.14. Data of 31 Aug. 1987, 10:00–10:30 GMT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dimensionless temperature structure parameter as a function of dimensionless height. The drawn line represents 2.7 (z/zi)−4/3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dimensionless humidity structure parameter as a function of dimensionless height. The drawn line represents 2.3 (z/zi)−4/3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dimensionless temperature–humidity structure parameter as a function of dimensionless height. The drawn line represents 2.1 (z/zi)−4/3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ratio of the dimensionless structure parameters of humidity and temperature as a function of dimensionless height.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Coherence of temperature and humidity as a function of dimensionless height.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Observations of Structure Parameters in the Convective Boundary Layer

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C n 2 = ( n 1 - n 2 ) 2 r 12 2 / 3 ,
C T 2 z i 2 / 3 θ * 2 = A ( z / z i ) - 4 / 3 ,
C T Q z i 2 / 3 θ * m * = B ( z / z i ) - 4 / 3 ,
C Q 2 z i 2 / 3 m * 2 = C ( z / z i ) - 4 / 3 ,
θ * = θ w s ¯ / w * ,
m * = q w s ¯ / w * ,
w * = ( g T θ v w s ¯ z i ) 1 / 3 .
C c 2 = 4.02 F c ( κ ) κ + 5 / 3 .
C T Q Co T Q C T 2 C Q 2 , COH T Q C T 2 C Q 2 ,
COH T Q ( κ ) { [ Co T Q ( κ ) 2 + Qu T Q ( κ ) 2 ] / F T ( κ ) F Q ( κ ) } 1 / 2 .

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