Abstract

A noncontact optical surface sensor with <1-nm resolution has been developed. The principle of this high precision optical surface sensor (HIPOSS) is based on the focus detection technique which has been employed in the pickup for optical disks. For focus detection, we chose the critical angle method of total reflection which used the steep reflectivity change around the critical angle. The HIPOSS was designed to increase the sensitivity and to eliminate some errors for nanometer order profilometer use. The size of the HIPOSS optical head is as small as 45 × 30 × 65 mm, so it can be installed side by side with a diamond stylus in the profile measuring instrument. These styli, if we term the HIPOSS an optical stylus, can be interchanged easily to obtain profile data on the same surface by different means, contact and noncontact. The repeatability of going and returning measurements is <1-nm rms, and the difference between HIPOSS and stylus measurements is also below 1-nm rms for most example surfaces. Using the high speed response of the HIPOSS, 3-D profile measurement over the workpiece and in-process measurements for ultraprecise diamond turning are also demonstrated.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).
  2. E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces By Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low-Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3820 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Makosch, B. Drollinger, “Surface Profile Measurement with a Scanning Differential ac Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4544 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. J. Downs, W. H. McGivern, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical System for Measuring the Profiles of Super-Smooth Surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Pantzer, J. Politch, L. Ek, “Heterodyne Profiling Instrument for the Angstrom Region,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4168 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. M. Bennett, “Comparison of Techniques for Measuring the Roughness of Optical Surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 380 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, “Development of a Three-Dimensional Noncontact Digital Optical Profiler,” ASME J. Tribology 108, 1 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. L. Church, T. V. Vorburger, J. C. Wyant, “Direct Comparison of Mechanical and Optical Measurements of the Finish of Precision Machined Optical Surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 388 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Bennett, “Measurement of the rms Roughness, Autocovariance Function and Other Statistical Properties of Optical Surfaces Using a FECO Scanning Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2705 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. E. Sommargren, “Optical Heterodyne Profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 20, 610 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Y. Lou, A. Martinez, D. Stanton, “Surface Profile Measurement with a Dual-Beam Optical System,” Appl. Opt. 23, 746 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Bouwhuis, J. J. M. Braat, “Video Disk Player Optics,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1993 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical Disk Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 7 (1982).
  15. T. Kohno, N. Ozawa, K. Miyamoto, T. Musha, “High Precision Optical Surface Sensor—HIPOSS,” in ICO13 Conference Digest (1984), p. 326.
  16. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 40.

1986 (2)

D. Pantzer, J. Politch, L. Ek, “Heterodyne Profiling Instrument for the Angstrom Region,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4168 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, “Development of a Three-Dimensional Noncontact Digital Optical Profiler,” ASME J. Tribology 108, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

E. L. Church, T. V. Vorburger, J. C. Wyant, “Direct Comparison of Mechanical and Optical Measurements of the Finish of Precision Machined Optical Surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 388 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, “Comparison of Techniques for Measuring the Roughness of Optical Surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 380 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Downs, W. H. McGivern, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical System for Measuring the Profiles of Super-Smooth Surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

1982 (1)

T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical Disk Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 7 (1982).

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces By Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Basila, D.

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, “Development of a Three-Dimensional Noncontact Digital Optical Profiler,” ASME J. Tribology 108, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Bennett, J. M.

Bhushan, B.

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, “Development of a Three-Dimensional Noncontact Digital Optical Profiler,” ASME J. Tribology 108, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 40.

Bouwhuis, G.

Braat, J. J. M.

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, T. V. Vorburger, J. C. Wyant, “Direct Comparison of Mechanical and Optical Measurements of the Finish of Precision Machined Optical Surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 388 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces By Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Downs, M. J.

M. J. Downs, W. H. McGivern, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical System for Measuring the Profiles of Super-Smooth Surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Drollinger, B.

Ek, L.

Ferguson, H. J.

M. J. Downs, W. H. McGivern, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical System for Measuring the Profiles of Super-Smooth Surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Itoh, K.

T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical Disk Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 7 (1982).

Jenkinson, H. A.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces By Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kohno, T.

T. Kohno, N. Ozawa, K. Miyamoto, T. Musha, “High Precision Optical Surface Sensor—HIPOSS,” in ICO13 Conference Digest (1984), p. 326.

Koliopoulos, C. L.

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, “Development of a Three-Dimensional Noncontact Digital Optical Profiler,” ASME J. Tribology 108, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lou, D. Y.

Makosch, G.

Martinez, A.

McGivern, W. H.

M. J. Downs, W. H. McGivern, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical System for Measuring the Profiles of Super-Smooth Surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, K.

T. Kohno, N. Ozawa, K. Miyamoto, T. Musha, “High Precision Optical Surface Sensor—HIPOSS,” in ICO13 Conference Digest (1984), p. 326.

Musha, T.

T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical Disk Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 7 (1982).

T. Kohno, N. Ozawa, K. Miyamoto, T. Musha, “High Precision Optical Surface Sensor—HIPOSS,” in ICO13 Conference Digest (1984), p. 326.

Ozawa, N.

T. Kohno, N. Ozawa, K. Miyamoto, T. Musha, “High Precision Optical Surface Sensor—HIPOSS,” in ICO13 Conference Digest (1984), p. 326.

Pantzer, D.

Politch, J.

Shibata, T.

T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical Disk Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 7 (1982).

Sommargren, G. E.

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Stanton, D.

Vorburger, T. V.

E. L. Church, T. V. Vorburger, J. C. Wyant, “Direct Comparison of Mechanical and Optical Measurements of the Finish of Precision Machined Optical Surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 388 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, P. G.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 40.

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, “Development of a Three-Dimensional Noncontact Digital Optical Profiler,” ASME J. Tribology 108, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, T. V. Vorburger, J. C. Wyant, “Direct Comparison of Mechanical and Optical Measurements of the Finish of Precision Machined Optical Surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 388 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zavada, J. M.

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces By Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

ASME J. Tribology (1)

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, D. Basila, “Development of a Three-Dimensional Noncontact Digital Optical Profiler,” ASME J. Tribology 108, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

E. L. Church, T. V. Vorburger, J. C. Wyant, “Direct Comparison of Mechanical and Optical Measurements of the Finish of Precision Machined Optical Surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 388 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, “Comparison of Techniques for Measuring the Roughness of Optical Surfaces,” Opt. Eng. 24, 380 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, H. A. Jenkinson, J. M. Zavada, “Measurement of the Finish of Diamond-Turned Metal Surfaces By Differential Light Scattering,” Opt. Eng. 16, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (1)

M. J. Downs, W. H. McGivern, H. J. Ferguson, “Optical System for Measuring the Profiles of Super-Smooth Surfaces,” Precis. Eng. 7, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

T. Musha, K. Itoh, T. Shibata, “Optical Disk Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 329, 7 (1982).

Other (3)

T. Kohno, N. Ozawa, K. Miyamoto, T. Musha, “High Precision Optical Surface Sensor—HIPOSS,” in ICO13 Conference Digest (1984), p. 326.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1964), p. 40.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity reflection coefficients.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle of critical angle of total reflection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical layout of the HIPOSS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

View of the HIPOSS optical head.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fully equipped profilometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Characteristic curves.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Noise level of the HIPOSS profilometer (0.6-nm peak-to-peak on the small thermal drift of the instrument).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured examples by the HIPOSS and diamond stylus.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sectional measurements of a thin scratch by the HIPOSS and diamond stylus (0.1 μmR, 1 mgf).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Repeatability of measurement.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison between the HIPOSS and the stylus.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Three-dimensional plots of surface texture: (a) HIPOSS; (b) diamond-stylus with 2-μm radius point.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Repeatability accuracy obtained with the HIPOSS in on-machine measurement.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Surface deflection measurement obtained with the HIPOSS.

Tables (1)

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Table I Quantitative Statistical Evaluation of Diamond-Turned Aluminum Surfaces (1-mm Translation Length, 20 μm/s Speed)

Equations (3)

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R p = n 2 cos θ i n 1 cos θ t n 2 cos θ i + n 1 cos θ t ,
R s = n 1 cos θ i n 2 cos θ t n 1 cos θ i + n 2 cos θ t ,
E = ( A B ) + ( C D ) A + B + C + D ,

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