Abstract

Seventy-five normal volunteers (20–78 yr) were tested on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test at each of five illuminance levels. Each cap score distribution was analyzed by fitting a two-cycle sine wave whose amplitude and phase characterize the polarity of the error distribution and its axis. Analysis of these parameters reveals a similarity between tritanlike defects in older groups and those of younger groups at lower illuminance levels. These data are also useful for specifying age norms for the polarity of the error distribution.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Kitahara, “An Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies, Vol. 7, G. Verriest, Ed. (Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 1984), p. 233.
  2. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color Axis Determination in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  3. K. Kitahara, “A new analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 89, 32 (1985).
  4. D. Allen, “Fourier Analysis and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 5, 337 (1985).
  5. J. V. Winston, D. A. Martin, J. R. Heckenlively, “Computer Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 62, 61 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Knoblauch, “On Quantifying the Bipolarity and Axis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.28, in press (1987).
    [PubMed]
  7. M. J. C. Crabbe, L. S. Mengher, “A BASIC Computer Program for Analysis of the Farnsworth 100-Hue Test,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 5, 81 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Benzschawel, “Computerized Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 254 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Verriest, R. Vandervyvere, R. Vanderdonck, “Nouvelles recherches se rapportant a l’influence du sexe et de l’age sur la discrimination chromatique, ainsi qu’ a la signification pratique des resultats du test 100 Hue Farnsworth-Munsell,” Rev. Opt. Theoret. Instrum. 41, 499 (1962).
  10. P. R. Boyce, R. H. Simons, “Hue Discrimination and Light Sources,” Light Res. Technol. 9, 125 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. J. Bowman, B. L. Cole, “A Recommendation for Illumination of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 57, 839 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, A. Uvijls, “A New Assessment of the 100 Hue Total Scores,” in Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, G. Verriest, Ed. (Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 1982), p. 199.
  13. P. Kinnear, “Proposals for Scoring and Assessing the 100-Hue Test,” Vision Res. 10, 423 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. J. Winer, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).
  15. W. J. Dixon, Ed., BMDP Statistical Software (U. California Press, Berkeley, 1983), p. 359.
  16. L. M. Hurvich, Color Vision (Sinauer, Massachusetts, 1981).
  17. J. H. Carter, “The Effects of Aging on Selected Visual Function: Color Vision, Glare Sensitivity, Field of Vision and Accommodation,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, K. Dismukes, Eds. (Alan R. Liss, New York, 1982), p. 121.
  18. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  19. R. A. Weale, The Aging Eye (Harper, New York, 1963).
  20. R. Lakowski, “Theory and Practice of Colour Vision Testing. Part 2,” Br. J. Indust. Med. 26, 265 (1969).
  21. J. M. Ordy, K. R. Brizzee, J. Hansche, “Visual Acuity and Foveal Cone Density in the Retina of the Aged Rhesus Monkey,” Neurobiol. Aging 1, 133 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Human Fovea during Development,” Vision Res. 26, 847 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The Effect of Age on the Nerve Fibre Population of the Human Optic Nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  24. F. M. de Monasterio, J. K. Newlander, E. P. McCrane, S. J. Schein, “Density Profile of Blue-Sensitive Cones Along the Horizontal Meridian of Macaque Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 289 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  25. E. N. Pugh, “The Nature of the pi-1 Colour Mechanism of W. S. Stiles,” J. Physiol. 257, 713 (1976).
    [PubMed]

1986 (2)

J. V. Winston, D. A. Martin, J. R. Heckenlively, “Computer Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 62, 61 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Human Fovea during Development,” Vision Res. 26, 847 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (6)

F. M. de Monasterio, J. K. Newlander, E. P. McCrane, S. J. Schein, “Density Profile of Blue-Sensitive Cones Along the Horizontal Meridian of Macaque Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 289 (1985).
[PubMed]

M. J. C. Crabbe, L. S. Mengher, “A BASIC Computer Program for Analysis of the Farnsworth 100-Hue Test,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 5, 81 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Benzschawel, “Computerized Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 254 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color Axis Determination in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176 (1985).
[PubMed]

K. Kitahara, “A new analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 89, 32 (1985).

D. Allen, “Fourier Analysis and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 5, 337 (1985).

1984 (1)

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The Effect of Age on the Nerve Fibre Population of the Human Optic Nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760 (1984).
[PubMed]

1980 (2)

J. M. Ordy, K. R. Brizzee, J. Hansche, “Visual Acuity and Foveal Cone Density in the Retina of the Aged Rhesus Monkey,” Neurobiol. Aging 1, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Bowman, B. L. Cole, “A Recommendation for Illumination of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 57, 839 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

P. R. Boyce, R. H. Simons, “Hue Discrimination and Light Sources,” Light Res. Technol. 9, 125 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

E. N. Pugh, “The Nature of the pi-1 Colour Mechanism of W. S. Stiles,” J. Physiol. 257, 713 (1976).
[PubMed]

1970 (1)

P. Kinnear, “Proposals for Scoring and Assessing the 100-Hue Test,” Vision Res. 10, 423 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

R. Lakowski, “Theory and Practice of Colour Vision Testing. Part 2,” Br. J. Indust. Med. 26, 265 (1969).

1962 (1)

G. Verriest, R. Vandervyvere, R. Vanderdonck, “Nouvelles recherches se rapportant a l’influence du sexe et de l’age sur la discrimination chromatique, ainsi qu’ a la signification pratique des resultats du test 100 Hue Farnsworth-Munsell,” Rev. Opt. Theoret. Instrum. 41, 499 (1962).

Allen, D.

D. Allen, “Fourier Analysis and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 5, 337 (1985).

Balazsi, A. G.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The Effect of Age on the Nerve Fibre Population of the Human Optic Nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760 (1984).
[PubMed]

Benzschawel, T.

T. Benzschawel, “Computerized Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 254 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowman, K. J.

K. J. Bowman, B. L. Cole, “A Recommendation for Illumination of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 57, 839 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyce, P. R.

P. R. Boyce, R. H. Simons, “Hue Discrimination and Light Sources,” Light Res. Technol. 9, 125 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brizzee, K. R.

J. M. Ordy, K. R. Brizzee, J. Hansche, “Visual Acuity and Foveal Cone Density in the Retina of the Aged Rhesus Monkey,” Neurobiol. Aging 1, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. H.

J. H. Carter, “The Effects of Aging on Selected Visual Function: Color Vision, Glare Sensitivity, Field of Vision and Accommodation,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, K. Dismukes, Eds. (Alan R. Liss, New York, 1982), p. 121.

Cole, B. L.

K. J. Bowman, B. L. Cole, “A Recommendation for Illumination of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 57, 839 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crabbe, M. J. C.

M. J. C. Crabbe, L. S. Mengher, “A BASIC Computer Program for Analysis of the Farnsworth 100-Hue Test,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 5, 81 (1985).
[CrossRef]

de Monasterio, F. M.

F. M. de Monasterio, J. K. Newlander, E. P. McCrane, S. J. Schein, “Density Profile of Blue-Sensitive Cones Along the Horizontal Meridian of Macaque Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 289 (1985).
[PubMed]

Douglas, G. R.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The Effect of Age on the Nerve Fibre Population of the Human Optic Nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760 (1984).
[PubMed]

Drance, S. M.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The Effect of Age on the Nerve Fibre Population of the Human Optic Nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760 (1984).
[PubMed]

Hansche, J.

J. M. Ordy, K. R. Brizzee, J. Hansche, “Visual Acuity and Foveal Cone Density in the Retina of the Aged Rhesus Monkey,” Neurobiol. Aging 1, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Heckenlively, J. R.

J. V. Winston, D. A. Martin, J. R. Heckenlively, “Computer Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 62, 61 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, A.

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Human Fovea during Development,” Vision Res. 26, 847 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

L. M. Hurvich, Color Vision (Sinauer, Massachusetts, 1981).

Kinnear, P.

P. Kinnear, “Proposals for Scoring and Assessing the 100-Hue Test,” Vision Res. 10, 423 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitahara, K.

K. Kitahara, “A new analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 89, 32 (1985).

K. Kitahara, “An Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies, Vol. 7, G. Verriest, Ed. (Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 1984), p. 233.

Knoblauch, K.

K. Knoblauch, “On Quantifying the Bipolarity and Axis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.28, in press (1987).
[PubMed]

Laethem, J. V.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, A. Uvijls, “A New Assessment of the 100 Hue Total Scores,” in Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, G. Verriest, Ed. (Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 1982), p. 199.

Lakowski, R.

R. Lakowski, “Theory and Practice of Colour Vision Testing. Part 2,” Br. J. Indust. Med. 26, 265 (1969).

Martin, D. A.

J. V. Winston, D. A. Martin, J. R. Heckenlively, “Computer Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 62, 61 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCrane, E. P.

F. M. de Monasterio, J. K. Newlander, E. P. McCrane, S. J. Schein, “Density Profile of Blue-Sensitive Cones Along the Horizontal Meridian of Macaque Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 289 (1985).
[PubMed]

Mengher, L. S.

M. J. C. Crabbe, L. S. Mengher, “A BASIC Computer Program for Analysis of the Farnsworth 100-Hue Test,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 5, 81 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Newlander, J. K.

F. M. de Monasterio, J. K. Newlander, E. P. McCrane, S. J. Schein, “Density Profile of Blue-Sensitive Cones Along the Horizontal Meridian of Macaque Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 289 (1985).
[PubMed]

Ordy, J. M.

J. M. Ordy, K. R. Brizzee, J. Hansche, “Visual Acuity and Foveal Cone Density in the Retina of the Aged Rhesus Monkey,” Neurobiol. Aging 1, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pass, A. S.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color Axis Determination in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176 (1985).
[PubMed]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color Axis Determination in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176 (1985).
[PubMed]

Pugh, E. N.

E. N. Pugh, “The Nature of the pi-1 Colour Mechanism of W. S. Stiles,” J. Physiol. 257, 713 (1976).
[PubMed]

Rootman, J.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The Effect of Age on the Nerve Fibre Population of the Human Optic Nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760 (1984).
[PubMed]

Schein, S. J.

F. M. de Monasterio, J. K. Newlander, E. P. McCrane, S. J. Schein, “Density Profile of Blue-Sensitive Cones Along the Horizontal Meridian of Macaque Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 289 (1985).
[PubMed]

Schulzer, M.

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The Effect of Age on the Nerve Fibre Population of the Human Optic Nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760 (1984).
[PubMed]

Simons, R. H.

P. R. Boyce, R. H. Simons, “Hue Discrimination and Light Sources,” Light Res. Technol. 9, 125 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color Axis Determination in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176 (1985).
[PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Uvijls, A.

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, A. Uvijls, “A New Assessment of the 100 Hue Total Scores,” in Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, G. Verriest, Ed. (Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 1982), p. 199.

Vanderdonck, R.

G. Verriest, R. Vandervyvere, R. Vanderdonck, “Nouvelles recherches se rapportant a l’influence du sexe et de l’age sur la discrimination chromatique, ainsi qu’ a la signification pratique des resultats du test 100 Hue Farnsworth-Munsell,” Rev. Opt. Theoret. Instrum. 41, 499 (1962).

Vandervyvere, R.

G. Verriest, R. Vandervyvere, R. Vanderdonck, “Nouvelles recherches se rapportant a l’influence du sexe et de l’age sur la discrimination chromatique, ainsi qu’ a la signification pratique des resultats du test 100 Hue Farnsworth-Munsell,” Rev. Opt. Theoret. Instrum. 41, 499 (1962).

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, R. Vandervyvere, R. Vanderdonck, “Nouvelles recherches se rapportant a l’influence du sexe et de l’age sur la discrimination chromatique, ainsi qu’ a la signification pratique des resultats du test 100 Hue Farnsworth-Munsell,” Rev. Opt. Theoret. Instrum. 41, 499 (1962).

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, A. Uvijls, “A New Assessment of the 100 Hue Total Scores,” in Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, G. Verriest, Ed. (Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 1982), p. 199.

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, The Aging Eye (Harper, New York, 1963).

Winer, B. J.

B. J. Winer, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).

Winston, J. V.

J. V. Winston, D. A. Martin, J. R. Heckenlively, “Computer Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 62, 61 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yuodelis, C.

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Human Fovea during Development,” Vision Res. 26, 847 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, A. S. Pass, “Color Axis Determination in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 176 (1985).
[PubMed]

A. G. Balazsi, J. Rootman, S. M. Drance, M. Schulzer, G. R. Douglas, “The Effect of Age on the Nerve Fibre Population of the Human Optic Nerve,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 97, 760 (1984).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (2)

T. Benzschawel, “Computerized Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62, 254 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Bowman, B. L. Cole, “A Recommendation for Illumination of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 57, 839 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Indust. Med. (1)

R. Lakowski, “Theory and Practice of Colour Vision Testing. Part 2,” Br. J. Indust. Med. 26, 265 (1969).

Doc. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. V. Winston, D. A. Martin, J. R. Heckenlively, “Computer Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Doc. Ophthalmol. 62, 61 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

F. M. de Monasterio, J. K. Newlander, E. P. McCrane, S. J. Schein, “Density Profile of Blue-Sensitive Cones Along the Horizontal Meridian of Macaque Retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 289 (1985).
[PubMed]

J. Physiol. (1)

E. N. Pugh, “The Nature of the pi-1 Colour Mechanism of W. S. Stiles,” J. Physiol. 257, 713 (1976).
[PubMed]

Light Res. Technol. (1)

P. R. Boyce, R. H. Simons, “Hue Discrimination and Light Sources,” Light Res. Technol. 9, 125 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Neurobiol. Aging (1)

J. M. Ordy, K. R. Brizzee, J. Hansche, “Visual Acuity and Foveal Cone Density in the Retina of the Aged Rhesus Monkey,” Neurobiol. Aging 1, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi (1)

K. Kitahara, “A new analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 89, 32 (1985).

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. (2)

D. Allen, “Fourier Analysis and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 5, 337 (1985).

M. J. C. Crabbe, L. S. Mengher, “A BASIC Computer Program for Analysis of the Farnsworth 100-Hue Test,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 5, 81 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt. Theoret. Instrum. (1)

G. Verriest, R. Vandervyvere, R. Vanderdonck, “Nouvelles recherches se rapportant a l’influence du sexe et de l’age sur la discrimination chromatique, ainsi qu’ a la signification pratique des resultats du test 100 Hue Farnsworth-Munsell,” Rev. Opt. Theoret. Instrum. 41, 499 (1962).

Vision Res. (2)

C. Yuodelis, A. Hendrickson, “A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Human Fovea during Development,” Vision Res. 26, 847 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kinnear, “Proposals for Scoring and Assessing the 100-Hue Test,” Vision Res. 10, 423 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

B. J. Winer, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).

W. J. Dixon, Ed., BMDP Statistical Software (U. California Press, Berkeley, 1983), p. 359.

L. M. Hurvich, Color Vision (Sinauer, Massachusetts, 1981).

J. H. Carter, “The Effects of Aging on Selected Visual Function: Color Vision, Glare Sensitivity, Field of Vision and Accommodation,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, K. Dismukes, Eds. (Alan R. Liss, New York, 1982), p. 121.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

R. A. Weale, The Aging Eye (Harper, New York, 1963).

G. Verriest, J. V. Laethem, A. Uvijls, “A New Assessment of the 100 Hue Total Scores,” in Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. 33, G. Verriest, Ed. (Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 1982), p. 199.

K. Kitahara, “An Analysis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” in Colour Vision Deficiencies, Vol. 7, G. Verriest, Ed. (Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, 1984), p. 233.

K. Knoblauch, “On Quantifying the Bipolarity and Axis of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.28, in press (1987).
[PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Average cap score distributions for each age group and illuminance level. Cap position 1 is located at the 12 o’clock position.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top row: mean error as a function of illuminance level in the 20-yr old group (left), 50-yr old group (middle), and 70-yr old group (right). Middle row: amplitude of best fitting two-cycle sine wave as a function of illuminance level; age groups as above. Bottom row: modulation of best fitting sine wave as a function of illuminance level; age groups as above. Error bars indicate :±1 standard deviation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Square root of the amplitude as a function of age for each of the five illuminance levels tested. Open circles indicate values for individual observers; solid lines are least-squares regression lines and dashed curves 95% prediction limits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Square root of the modulation as a function of age for each of the five illuminance levels tested. Open circles indicate values for individual observers; solid lines are least-squares regression lines, and dashed curves are 95% prediction limits.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top: mean error as a function of illuminance: 20- and 30-yr groups are correctly placed; other groups have been shifted laterally to produce best fit by eye. Solid line is drawn through 20-yr points. Middle: amplitude as a function of illuminance. Lateral shift of each data set is determined by top graph. Bottom: modulation as a function of illuminance. Lateral shift of each data set is determined by top graph. Error bars indicate ±1 standard deviation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Axis of polarity in terms of cap number as a function of age with each symbol type representing a fixed illuminance level. Right-hand ordinate is obtained by adding 42.5 (mod 84) to cap numbers of left-hand ordinate.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Distribution of Age and Sex in Normal Sample

Tables Icon

Table II Norms for Square Root of Amplitude and Upper 95% Confidence Limit for Prediction of an Individual Observation

Tables Icon

Table III Norms for Square Root of Modulation and Upper 95% Confidence Limit for Prediction of an Individual Observation

Equations (1)

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