Abstract

The optical density of the human lens changes during life. Literature concerning both the spectral density function and the rate of such changes is reviewed. Analysis indicates that two components govern the spectral lens density function, with one increasing gradually during life. The average lens density increases linearly at 400 nm by 0.12 density unit per decade between the ages of 20 and 60 and by 0.40 density unit per decade above age 60. A tabulation of the two components of the average 32-yr old lens is given, as are equations to derive the average spectral lens density functions for observers aged 20–80.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Wald, “Human Vision and the Spectrum,” Science 101, 653 (1945).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. W. D. Wright, “The Visual Sensitivity of Normal and Aphakic Observers in the Ultra-Violet,” Année Psychol. 50, 169 (1951).
  3. K. E. W. P. Tan, “Vision in the Ultraviolet,” Thesis, Utrecht (1971).
  4. D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral Transmission of the Human Ocular Media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The Variation with Age of the Spectral Transmissivity of the Living Human Crystalline Lens,” Gerontologica 3, 213 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. Ludvigh, E. F. McCarthy, “Absorption of the Visible Light by the Refractive Media of the Human Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 20, 37 (1938).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. A. Weale, “Light Absorption by the Lens of the Human Eye,” Opt. Acta 1, 107 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the Ocular Media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776 (1962).
  9. J. Mellerio, “Light Absorption and Scatter in the Human Lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. Lerman, “Biophysical Aspects of Corneal and Lenticular Transparency,” Current Eye Res. 3, (1984).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967; 1982).
  12. B. H. Crawford, “The Scotopic Visibility Function,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 62, 321 (1949).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. H. Ruddock, “The Effect of Age upon Colour Vision—II Changes with Age in Light Transmission of the Ocular Media,” Vision Res. 5, 47 (1965).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Coren, J. S. Girgus, “Density of Human Lens Pigmentation: in Vivo Measurements over an Extended Age Range,” Vision Res. 12, 343 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. Colour-Matching Investigation: Final Report (1958),” Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Lutze, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Improved Clinical Technique for Wald-Marré Functions,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. (in press).
  17. J. D. Moreland, “Temporal Variations in Anomaloscope Equations,” Mod. Prob. Ophthalmol. 19, 167 (1978).
  18. J. S. Werner, “Development of Scotopic Sensitivity and the Absorption Spectrum of the Human Ocular Media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 247 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. D. Moreland, “The Effect of Inert Ocular Pigments on Anomaloscope Matches and its Reduction,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 12 (1972).
    [PubMed]
  20. M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral Sensitivity of Human Infants at Absolute Visual Threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. K. Sasaki, T. Shibata, M. Fukada, O. Hockwin, “Changes of Lens Transparency with Aging: A Clinical Study with Human Volunteers using a Scheimpflug Camera,” in Aging of the Lens, F. Regnault, O. Hockwin, Y. Courtois, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 195–206.
  22. D. Grover, S. Zigman, “Coloration of Human Lenses by Near Ultraviolet Photo-Oxidized Tryptophan,” Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. R. A. Weale, “The Effects of the Ageing Lens on Vision,” in Ciba Foundation Symposium, “The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), pp. 5–20.
  24. A. Spector, D. Roy, J. Stauffer, “Isolation and Characterization of an Age-Dependent Polypeptide from Human Lens and Non-Tryptophan Fluorescence,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 9 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. Zigman, J. Groff, T. Yulo, G. Griess, “Light Extinction and Protein in Lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 555 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, “The Yellow Colour of the Lens of Man and Other Primates,” J. Physiol. 203, 411 (1969).
    [PubMed]
  27. S. Lerman, R. Borkman, “Spectroscopic Evaluation and Classification of the Normal, Aging, and Cataractous Lens,” Ophthalmol. Res. 8, 335 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Zigman, “Ultraviolet Light and Human Lens Pigmentation,” Vision Res. 18, 509 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. B. T. Philipson, P. P. Fagerholm, “Lens Changes Responsible for Increased Light Scattering in Some Types of Senile Cataract,” in Ciba Foundation Symposium, The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), pp. 45–58.
  30. R. W. Rodieck, The Vertebrate Retina Principles of Structure and Function (Freeman, San Francisco, 1973).
  31. J. J. Vos “On Mechanisms of Glare,” Thesis, U. Utrecht, Institute for Perception RVO-TNO (1963).
  32. V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral Sensitivity of the Foveal Cone Photopigments Between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

S. Lerman, “Biophysical Aspects of Corneal and Lenticular Transparency,” Current Eye Res. 3, (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral Sensitivity of Human Infants at Absolute Visual Threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (2)

J. D. Moreland, “Temporal Variations in Anomaloscope Equations,” Mod. Prob. Ophthalmol. 19, 167 (1978).

S. Zigman, “Ultraviolet Light and Human Lens Pigmentation,” Vision Res. 18, 509 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

S. Lerman, R. Borkman, “Spectroscopic Evaluation and Classification of the Normal, Aging, and Cataractous Lens,” Ophthalmol. Res. 8, 335 (1976).
[Crossref]

S. Zigman, J. Groff, T. Yulo, G. Griess, “Light Extinction and Protein in Lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 555 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

A. Spector, D. Roy, J. Stauffer, “Isolation and Characterization of an Age-Dependent Polypeptide from Human Lens and Non-Tryptophan Fluorescence,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 9 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral Sensitivity of the Foveal Cone Photopigments Between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral Transmission of the Human Ocular Media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (3)

D. Grover, S. Zigman, “Coloration of Human Lenses by Near Ultraviolet Photo-Oxidized Tryptophan,” Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Moreland, “The Effect of Inert Ocular Pigments on Anomaloscope Matches and its Reduction,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 12 (1972).
[PubMed]

S. Coren, J. S. Girgus, “Density of Human Lens Pigmentation: in Vivo Measurements over an Extended Age Range,” Vision Res. 12, 343 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

J. Mellerio, “Light Absorption and Scatter in the Human Lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, “The Yellow Colour of the Lens of Man and Other Primates,” J. Physiol. 203, 411 (1969).
[PubMed]

1965 (1)

K. H. Ruddock, “The Effect of Age upon Colour Vision—II Changes with Age in Light Transmission of the Ocular Media,” Vision Res. 5, 47 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the Ocular Media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776 (1962).

1959 (2)

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The Variation with Age of the Spectral Transmissivity of the Living Human Crystalline Lens,” Gerontologica 3, 213 (1959).
[Crossref]

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. Colour-Matching Investigation: Final Report (1958),” Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Light Absorption by the Lens of the Human Eye,” Opt. Acta 1, 107 (1954).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

W. D. Wright, “The Visual Sensitivity of Normal and Aphakic Observers in the Ultra-Violet,” Année Psychol. 50, 169 (1951).

1949 (1)

B. H. Crawford, “The Scotopic Visibility Function,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 62, 321 (1949).
[Crossref]

1945 (1)

G. Wald, “Human Vision and the Spectrum,” Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1938 (1)

E. Ludvigh, E. F. McCarthy, “Absorption of the Visible Light by the Refractive Media of the Human Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 20, 37 (1938).
[Crossref]

Boettner, E. A.

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the Ocular Media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776 (1962).

Borkman, R.

S. Lerman, R. Borkman, “Spectroscopic Evaluation and Classification of the Normal, Aging, and Cataractous Lens,” Ophthalmol. Res. 8, 335 (1976).
[Crossref]

Burch, J. M.

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. Colour-Matching Investigation: Final Report (1958),” Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

Cooper, G. F.

G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, “The Yellow Colour of the Lens of Man and Other Primates,” J. Physiol. 203, 411 (1969).
[PubMed]

Coren, S.

S. Coren, J. S. Girgus, “Density of Human Lens Pigmentation: in Vivo Measurements over an Extended Age Range,” Vision Res. 12, 343 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, B. H.

B. H. Crawford, “The Scotopic Visibility Function,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 62, 321 (1949).
[Crossref]

Fagerholm, P. P.

B. T. Philipson, P. P. Fagerholm, “Lens Changes Responsible for Increased Light Scattering in Some Types of Senile Cataract,” in Ciba Foundation Symposium, The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), pp. 45–58.

Fukada, M.

K. Sasaki, T. Shibata, M. Fukada, O. Hockwin, “Changes of Lens Transparency with Aging: A Clinical Study with Human Volunteers using a Scheimpflug Camera,” in Aging of the Lens, F. Regnault, O. Hockwin, Y. Courtois, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 195–206.

Girgus, J. S.

S. Coren, J. S. Girgus, “Density of Human Lens Pigmentation: in Vivo Measurements over an Extended Age Range,” Vision Res. 12, 343 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griess, G.

S. Zigman, J. Groff, T. Yulo, G. Griess, “Light Extinction and Protein in Lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 555 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Groff, J.

S. Zigman, J. Groff, T. Yulo, G. Griess, “Light Extinction and Protein in Lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 555 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grover, D.

D. Grover, S. Zigman, “Coloration of Human Lenses by Near Ultraviolet Photo-Oxidized Tryptophan,” Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hockwin, O.

K. Sasaki, T. Shibata, M. Fukada, O. Hockwin, “Changes of Lens Transparency with Aging: A Clinical Study with Human Volunteers using a Scheimpflug Camera,” in Aging of the Lens, F. Regnault, O. Hockwin, Y. Courtois, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 195–206.

Lerman, S.

S. Lerman, “Biophysical Aspects of Corneal and Lenticular Transparency,” Current Eye Res. 3, (1984).
[Crossref]

S. Lerman, R. Borkman, “Spectroscopic Evaluation and Classification of the Normal, Aging, and Cataractous Lens,” Ophthalmol. Res. 8, 335 (1976).
[Crossref]

Ludvigh, E.

E. Ludvigh, E. F. McCarthy, “Absorption of the Visible Light by the Refractive Media of the Human Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 20, 37 (1938).
[Crossref]

Lutze, M.

M. Lutze, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Improved Clinical Technique for Wald-Marré Functions,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. (in press).

McCarthy, E. F.

E. Ludvigh, E. F. McCarthy, “Absorption of the Visible Light by the Refractive Media of the Human Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 20, 37 (1938).
[Crossref]

Mellerio, J.

J. Mellerio, “Light Absorption and Scatter in the Human Lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, “Temporal Variations in Anomaloscope Equations,” Mod. Prob. Ophthalmol. 19, 167 (1978).

J. D. Moreland, “The Effect of Inert Ocular Pigments on Anomaloscope Matches and its Reduction,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 12 (1972).
[PubMed]

Philipson, B. T.

B. T. Philipson, P. P. Fagerholm, “Lens Changes Responsible for Increased Light Scattering in Some Types of Senile Cataract,” in Ciba Foundation Symposium, The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), pp. 45–58.

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral Sensitivity of the Foveal Cone Photopigments Between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lutze, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Improved Clinical Technique for Wald-Marré Functions,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. (in press).

Powers, M. K.

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral Sensitivity of Human Infants at Absolute Visual Threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robson, J. G.

G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, “The Yellow Colour of the Lens of Man and Other Primates,” J. Physiol. 203, 411 (1969).
[PubMed]

Rodieck, R. W.

R. W. Rodieck, The Vertebrate Retina Principles of Structure and Function (Freeman, San Francisco, 1973).

Roy, D.

A. Spector, D. Roy, J. Stauffer, “Isolation and Characterization of an Age-Dependent Polypeptide from Human Lens and Non-Tryptophan Fluorescence,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 9 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruddock, K. H.

K. H. Ruddock, “The Effect of Age upon Colour Vision—II Changes with Age in Light Transmission of the Ocular Media,” Vision Res. 5, 47 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Said, F. S.

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The Variation with Age of the Spectral Transmissivity of the Living Human Crystalline Lens,” Gerontologica 3, 213 (1959).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, T. Shibata, M. Fukada, O. Hockwin, “Changes of Lens Transparency with Aging: A Clinical Study with Human Volunteers using a Scheimpflug Camera,” in Aging of the Lens, F. Regnault, O. Hockwin, Y. Courtois, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 195–206.

Schneck, M.

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral Sensitivity of Human Infants at Absolute Visual Threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shibata, T.

K. Sasaki, T. Shibata, M. Fukada, O. Hockwin, “Changes of Lens Transparency with Aging: A Clinical Study with Human Volunteers using a Scheimpflug Camera,” in Aging of the Lens, F. Regnault, O. Hockwin, Y. Courtois, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 195–206.

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral Sensitivity of the Foveal Cone Photopigments Between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lutze, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Improved Clinical Technique for Wald-Marré Functions,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. (in press).

Spector, A.

A. Spector, D. Roy, J. Stauffer, “Isolation and Characterization of an Age-Dependent Polypeptide from Human Lens and Non-Tryptophan Fluorescence,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 9 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stauffer, J.

A. Spector, D. Roy, J. Stauffer, “Isolation and Characterization of an Age-Dependent Polypeptide from Human Lens and Non-Tryptophan Fluorescence,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 9 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. Colour-Matching Investigation: Final Report (1958),” Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967; 1982).

Tan, K. E. W. P.

K. E. W. P. Tan, “Vision in the Ultraviolet,” Thesis, Utrecht (1971).

Teller, D. Y.

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral Sensitivity of Human Infants at Absolute Visual Threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Norren, D.

D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral Transmission of the Human Ocular Media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237 (1974).
[Crossref]

Vos, J. J.

D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral Transmission of the Human Ocular Media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. J. Vos “On Mechanisms of Glare,” Thesis, U. Utrecht, Institute for Perception RVO-TNO (1963).

Wald, G.

G. Wald, “Human Vision and the Spectrum,” Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The Variation with Age of the Spectral Transmissivity of the Living Human Crystalline Lens,” Gerontologica 3, 213 (1959).
[Crossref]

R. A. Weale, “Light Absorption by the Lens of the Human Eye,” Opt. Acta 1, 107 (1954).
[Crossref]

R. A. Weale, “The Effects of the Ageing Lens on Vision,” in Ciba Foundation Symposium, “The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), pp. 5–20.

Werner, J. S.

Wolter, J. R.

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the Ocular Media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776 (1962).

Wright, W. D.

W. D. Wright, “The Visual Sensitivity of Normal and Aphakic Observers in the Ultra-Violet,” Année Psychol. 50, 169 (1951).

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967; 1982).

Yulo, T.

S. Zigman, J. Groff, T. Yulo, G. Griess, “Light Extinction and Protein in Lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 555 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zigman, S.

S. Zigman, “Ultraviolet Light and Human Lens Pigmentation,” Vision Res. 18, 509 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zigman, J. Groff, T. Yulo, G. Griess, “Light Extinction and Protein in Lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 555 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Grover, S. Zigman, “Coloration of Human Lenses by Near Ultraviolet Photo-Oxidized Tryptophan,” Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Année Psychol. (1)

W. D. Wright, “The Visual Sensitivity of Normal and Aphakic Observers in the Ultra-Violet,” Année Psychol. 50, 169 (1951).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Ludvigh, E. F. McCarthy, “Absorption of the Visible Light by the Refractive Media of the Human Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 20, 37 (1938).
[Crossref]

Current Eye Res. (1)

S. Lerman, “Biophysical Aspects of Corneal and Lenticular Transparency,” Current Eye Res. 3, (1984).
[Crossref]

Exp. Eye Res. (3)

A. Spector, D. Roy, J. Stauffer, “Isolation and Characterization of an Age-Dependent Polypeptide from Human Lens and Non-Tryptophan Fluorescence,” Exp. Eye Res. 21, 9 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zigman, J. Groff, T. Yulo, G. Griess, “Light Extinction and Protein in Lens,” Exp. Eye Res. 23, 555 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Grover, S. Zigman, “Coloration of Human Lenses by Near Ultraviolet Photo-Oxidized Tryptophan,” Exp. Eye Res. 13, 70 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerontologica (1)

F. S. Said, R. A. Weale, “The Variation with Age of the Spectral Transmissivity of the Living Human Crystalline Lens,” Gerontologica 3, 213 (1959).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. A. Boettner, J. R. Wolter, “Transmission of the Ocular Media,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 776 (1962).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Physiol. (1)

G. F. Cooper, J. G. Robson, “The Yellow Colour of the Lens of Man and Other Primates,” J. Physiol. 203, 411 (1969).
[PubMed]

Mod. Prob. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. D. Moreland, “Temporal Variations in Anomaloscope Equations,” Mod. Prob. Ophthalmol. 19, 167 (1978).

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. D. Moreland, “The Effect of Inert Ocular Pigments on Anomaloscope Matches and its Reduction,” Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 11, 12 (1972).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmol. Res. (1)

S. Lerman, R. Borkman, “Spectroscopic Evaluation and Classification of the Normal, Aging, and Cataractous Lens,” Ophthalmol. Res. 8, 335 (1976).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (2)

W. S. Stiles, J. M. Burch, “N.P.L. Colour-Matching Investigation: Final Report (1958),” Opt. Acta 6, 1 (1959).
[Crossref]

R. A. Weale, “Light Absorption by the Lens of the Human Eye,” Opt. Acta 1, 107 (1954).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

B. H. Crawford, “The Scotopic Visibility Function,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 62, 321 (1949).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

G. Wald, “Human Vision and the Spectrum,” Science 101, 653 (1945).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (7)

D. van Norren, J. J. Vos, “Spectral Transmission of the Human Ocular Media,” Vision Res. 14, 1237 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Mellerio, “Light Absorption and Scatter in the Human Lens,” Vision Res. 11, 129 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Ruddock, “The Effect of Age upon Colour Vision—II Changes with Age in Light Transmission of the Ocular Media,” Vision Res. 5, 47 (1965).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Coren, J. S. Girgus, “Density of Human Lens Pigmentation: in Vivo Measurements over an Extended Age Range,” Vision Res. 12, 343 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zigman, “Ultraviolet Light and Human Lens Pigmentation,” Vision Res. 18, 509 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Powers, M. Schneck, D. Y. Teller, “Spectral Sensitivity of Human Infants at Absolute Visual Threshold,” Vision Res. 21, 1005 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, “Spectral Sensitivity of the Foveal Cone Photopigments Between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

R. A. Weale, “The Effects of the Ageing Lens on Vision,” in Ciba Foundation Symposium, “The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), pp. 5–20.

K. Sasaki, T. Shibata, M. Fukada, O. Hockwin, “Changes of Lens Transparency with Aging: A Clinical Study with Human Volunteers using a Scheimpflug Camera,” in Aging of the Lens, F. Regnault, O. Hockwin, Y. Courtois, Eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 195–206.

B. T. Philipson, P. P. Fagerholm, “Lens Changes Responsible for Increased Light Scattering in Some Types of Senile Cataract,” in Ciba Foundation Symposium, The Human Lens—in Relation to Cataract (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973), pp. 45–58.

R. W. Rodieck, The Vertebrate Retina Principles of Structure and Function (Freeman, San Francisco, 1973).

J. J. Vos “On Mechanisms of Glare,” Thesis, U. Utrecht, Institute for Perception RVO-TNO (1963).

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science (Wiley, New York, 1967; 1982).

M. Lutze, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, “Improved Clinical Technique for Wald-Marré Functions,” Doc. Ophthalmol. Proc. Ser. (in press).

K. E. W. P. Tan, “Vision in the Ultraviolet,” Thesis, Utrecht (1971).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Logarithm of the deviations of average color matching functions (CMFs) from the mean for four age groups. Data are calculated separately for each primary: P1, 15,500 cm−1 (circles); P2, 19,000 cm’ (triangles); and P3, 22,500 cm−1 (inverted triangles). The solid curve is the lens spectral density function of Wyszecki and Stiles,11 corrected for pupil size and weighted to fit the data at 14,000 cm−1. Functions are plotted on a wavenumber axis to facilitate evaluation of Rayleigh scattering (light in a given direction varies as λ4) which would yield a linear wavenumber dependence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical density of the lens as a function of wavenumber. The solid line represents the spectral density function L adjusted to represent a 32-yr-old observer. The dashed line represents an estimate of the lens component which increases with age (L1, derived from the data of Fig. 1). L1 may be compared to data representing the difference of observers differing by five decades (below 55). Circles, Stiles and Burch15 data scaled to represent five decades; hexagons, Lutze et al.,16 scaled to represent five decades; triangles, Said and Weale5 data for a 63-yr-old lens compared with data for four lenses between 4 and 20 yr; inverted triangles, Ruddock’s13 comparison of a 63- with a 21-yr-old observer; squares, Tan’s3 comparison of four observers in the third decade with two observers in the seventh decade. Tan’s data were scaled by 0.6 to reflect the acceleration of age changes after age 60.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differences of the three average Stiles and Burch15 log CMFs (symbols as in Fig. 1) for age groups β, γ, and δ compared with age group α. The solid curves represent the component of the lens affected by aging L1 from Table I scaled as described in the table to represent the differences in average age between the groups.

Tables (1)

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Table I Tabulation of the Optical Density of the Total Lens Transmission Function TL for an Average 32-yr-old Observer and Separation of TL into Components: TL1 Represents Portion Affected by Aging after age 20, and TL2 Represents Portion Stable after age 20*

Equations (2)

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T L = T L 1 [ 1 + 0.02 ( A - 32 ) ] + T L 2 .
T L = T L 1 [ 1.56 + 0.0667 ( A - 60 ) ] + T L 2 ,

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