Abstract

Spatial distributions of the near-field and internal electromagnetic intensities have been calculated and experimentally observed for dielectric cylinders and spheres which are large relative to the incident wavelength. Two prominent features of the calculated results are the high intensity peaks which exist in both the internal and near fields of these objects, even for nonresonant conditions, and the well-defined shadow behind the objects. Such intensity distributions were confirmed by using the fluorescence from iodine vapor to image the near-field intensity distribution and the fluorescence from ethanol droplets impregnated with rhodamine 590 to image the internal-intensity distribution.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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1987 (2)

J. H. Eickmans, W.-F. Hsieh, R. K. Chang, “Laser-Induced Explosion of H2O Droplets: Spatially Resolved Spectra,” Opt. Lett. 12, 22 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Schlicht, K. F. Wall, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, “Light Scattering by Two Parallel Glass Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, May (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

1985 (3)

1984 (3)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, “Enhanced Raman Scattering by a Two-Dimensional Array of Dielectric Spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3487 (1982); “Enhanced Raman Scattering by Two-Dimensional Array of Polarizable Spheres,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 52, 1457 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

C. G. Morgan, “Laser-Induced Breakdown of Gases,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621 (1975).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

M. D. Levenson, A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine Interactions in Molecular Iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 10 (1972).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, R. L.

Barber, P. W.

B. Schlicht, K. F. Wall, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, “Light Scattering by Two Parallel Glass Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, May (1987).
[Crossref]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, “Internal Electric Field Distributions of a Dielectric Cylinder at Resonance Wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 6, 540 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bar-Ziv, E.

Chang, R. K.

Chitanvis, S. M.

Chylek, P.

Cooke, D. D.

Dusel, P. W.

Eickmans, J. H.

Fuller, K. A.

Greene, W. M.

Harrington, R. F.

R. F. Harrington, Time Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961).

Hsieh, W.-F.

Inoue, M.

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, “Enhanced Raman Scattering by a Two-Dimensional Array of Dielectric Spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3487 (1982); “Enhanced Raman Scattering by Two-Dimensional Array of Polarizable Spheres,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 52, 1457 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kattawar, G. W.

Kerker, M.

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson, A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine Interactions in Molecular Iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 10 (1972).
[Crossref]

Long, M. B.

Longwell, J. P.

Morgan, C. G.

C. G. Morgan, “Laser-Induced Breakdown of Gases,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621 (1975).
[Crossref]

Ohtaka, K.

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, “Enhanced Raman Scattering by a Two-Dimensional Array of Dielectric Spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3487 (1982); “Enhanced Raman Scattering by Two-Dimensional Array of Polarizable Spheres,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 52, 1457 (1983).
[Crossref]

Owen, J. F.

Pendleton, J. D.

Pinnick, R. G.

Pluchino, A. B.

Qian, S.-X.

Sageev, G.

Sarofim, A. F.

Schawlow, A. L.

M. D. Levenson, A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine Interactions in Molecular Iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 10 (1972).
[Crossref]

Schlicht, B.

B. Schlicht, K. F. Wall, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, “Light Scattering by Two Parallel Glass Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, May (1987).
[Crossref]

Seinfeld, J. H.

Snow, J. B.

Spjut, R. E.

Tzeng, H-M.

Wall, K. F.

Wang, R. T.

Wiscombe, W. J.

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

B. Schlicht, K. F. Wall, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, “Light Scattering by Two Parallel Glass Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, May (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. D. Levenson, A. L. Schawlow, “Hyperfine Interactions in Molecular Iodine,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 10 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, “Enhanced Raman Scattering by a Two-Dimensional Array of Dielectric Spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 3487 (1982); “Enhanced Raman Scattering by Two-Dimensional Array of Polarizable Spheres,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 52, 1457 (1983).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. G. Morgan, “Laser-Induced Breakdown of Gases,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621 (1975).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. F. Harrington, Time Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative intensity vs r/a on a line through the center of a dielectric fiber with TM incident polarization, x = 100, and m = 1.5. r/a = ±1 defines the boundary of the fiber. Incident intensity is unity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Maximum intensity outside the shadow side of a dielectric fiber vs size parameter for TM incident polarization and m = 1.5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radial location of the maximum intensity outside the shadow side of a dielectric fiber vs size parameter for the same case as in Fig. 2. The sharp lines are associated with morphology-dependent resonances.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximum intensity outside the shadow side of a dielectric fiber vs index of refraction for TM incident polarization and x = 100. The sharp lines are associated with morphology-dependent resonances.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radial location of the maximum intensity outside the shadow side of a dielectric fiber vs index of refraction for the same case as in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near-field intensity distribution of a dielectric fiber for a = 40 μm with x = 488.5 and m = 1.5 for a TM polarized wave incident from the left. The circular fiber is located at the center of the plot with the internal intensity set equal to zero. The dimensions in the horizontal plane are r/a = ±3 in both orthogonal directions. The maximum intensity at the peak is 68.1 times the incident intensity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental arrangement for determining the near-field intensity distribution. The iodine crystal fills the cell with I2 vapor. Incident wavelength is 0.5145 μm (green).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Near-field intensity distribution of a glass fiber approximately 40 μm in radius with an index of refraction of 1.5. (a) Photograph of the orange fluorescent intensity distribution. (b) False-color image of the calculated result of Fig. 6 for comparison with the measured fluorescence.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Near-field intensity distribution of a glass sphere approximately 50 μm in radius with an index of refraction of 1.5. (a) Photograph of the orange fluorescent intensity distribution. (b) False-color image of the calculated result of Fig. 10 for comparison with the measured fluorescence.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Near-field intensity distribution over the equatorial plane of a dielectric sphere for a = 49.1 μm with x = 600 and m = 1.5 for a TM polarized wave incident from the left. The sphere is located at the center of the plot with the internal intensity set equal to zero. The dimensions in the horizontal plane are r/a = ±3 in both orthogonal directions. The maximum intensity at the peak is 5032 times the incident intensity. The vertical scale in the plot is truncated at 50 to better show the details of the near-field intensity distribution.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relative intensity on a line through the center of a dielectric sphere for a = 35 μm with vertical incident polarization x = 413.4 and m = 1.3611. r/a = ±1 defines the boundary of the sphere. Incident intensity is unity. The maximum intensities at the internal and external near-field peaks are 279 and 2356, respectively.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Internal intensity distribution within the equatorial plane for the dielectric sphere of Fig. 11. The center of the sphere is located at the center of the plot. The dimensions in the horizontal plane are r/a = ±1 in both orthogonal directions.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The experimental arrangement shows (a) the liquid sphere illuminated at a wavelength of 0.5632 μm and (b) the effects of refraction at the sphere surface which causes the internal fluorescence source to appear to be shifted closer to the surface.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Internal intensity of an ethanol sphere approximately 35 μm in radius with an index of refraction of 1.3611. The incident wave illuminates the droplet from the left. (a) False-color image of the internal fluorescence distribution. (b) False-color image of the calculated internal intensity distribution of Fig. 12 for comparison with the measured fluorescence.

Equations (6)

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E z i = n = - i - n J n ( k ρ ) exp ( i n ϕ ) ,
E z S = n = - i - n ( - b n ) H n ( 2 ) ( k ρ ) exp ( i n ϕ ) ,
E z int = n = - i - n d n J n ( m k ρ ) exp ( i n ϕ ) ,
b n = m J n ( k a ) J n ( m k a ) - J n ( k a ) J n ( m k a ) m H n ( 2 ) ( k a ) J n ( m k a ) - H n ( 2 ) ( k a ) J n ( m k a ) ,
d n = J n ( k a ) - b n H n ( 2 ) ( k a ) J n ( m k a ) ,
b n = m J n ( k a ) A n - J n ( k a ) m H n ( 2 ) ( k a ) A n - H n ( 2 ) ( k a ) ,

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