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  1. H. Kogelnik, T. Li, “Laser Beams and Resonators,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1550 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. E. Siegman, “A Canonical Formulation for Analyzing Multi-element Unstable Resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 35 (1976); correction in IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 315 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  3. See, for example, D. M. Walsh, L. V.Knight Knight, “Transverse Modes of a Laser Resonator with Gaussian Mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2947 (1986) and references therein.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. E. Siegman, An Introduction to Lasers and Masers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971), Chap. 8.
  5. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1976), Chap. 2.
  6. J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1981), Chap. 2.
  7. We are not concerned here with general astigmatism as considered in J. A. Arnaud, H. Kogelnik, “Gaussian Light Beams with General Astigmatism,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1687 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. Turunen, “Astigmatism in Laser Beam Optical Systems,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2908 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. G. A. Massey, A. E. Siegman, “Reflection and Refraction of Gaussian Light Beams at Tilted Ellipsoidal Surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 8, 975 (1969).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Kasuya, T. Suzuki, K. Shimoda, “A Prism Anamorphic System for Gaussian Beam Expander,” Appl. Phys. 17, 131 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  11. See, for example, A. L. Bloom, “Observation of New Visible Gas Laser Transitions by Removal of Dominance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 101 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. C. Hanna, “Astigmatic Gaussian Beams Produced by Axially Asymmetric Lasers Cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 483 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically Compensated Cavities for cw Dye Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. C. Sinclair, “Optical Loss and Thermal Distortion in Gas-Laser Brewster Windows,” Appl. Opt. 9, 797 (1970).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. G. de Mars, M. Seiden, F. A. Horrigan, “Optical Degradation of High-Power Ionized Argon Gas Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 631 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. L. Chao, J. M. Forsyth, “Properties of High-Order Transverse Modes in Astigmatic Laser Cavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 867 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. D. White, “Reflecting Prisms for Dispersive Optical Cavities,” Appl. Opt. 3, 431 (1964).
    [Crossref]

1986 (2)

1978 (1)

T. Kasuya, T. Suzuki, K. Shimoda, “A Prism Anamorphic System for Gaussian Beam Expander,” Appl. Phys. 17, 131 (1978).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

A. E. Siegman, “A Canonical Formulation for Analyzing Multi-element Unstable Resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 35 (1976); correction in IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 315 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

1972 (1)

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically Compensated Cavities for cw Dye Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

1969 (3)

1968 (1)

G. de Mars, M. Seiden, F. A. Horrigan, “Optical Degradation of High-Power Ionized Argon Gas Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 631 (1968).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

1964 (1)

1963 (1)

See, for example, A. L. Bloom, “Observation of New Visible Gas Laser Transitions by Removal of Dominance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 101 (1963).
[Crossref]

Arnaud, J. A.

Bloom, A. L.

See, for example, A. L. Bloom, “Observation of New Visible Gas Laser Transitions by Removal of Dominance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 101 (1963).
[Crossref]

Chao, S. L.

de Mars, G.

G. de Mars, M. Seiden, F. A. Horrigan, “Optical Degradation of High-Power Ionized Argon Gas Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 631 (1968).
[Crossref]

Dienes, A.

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically Compensated Cavities for cw Dye Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373 (1972).
[Crossref]

Forsyth, J. M.

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, “Astigmatic Gaussian Beams Produced by Axially Asymmetric Lasers Cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 483 (1969).
[Crossref]

Horrigan, F. A.

G. de Mars, M. Seiden, F. A. Horrigan, “Optical Degradation of High-Power Ionized Argon Gas Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 631 (1968).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically Compensated Cavities for cw Dye Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kasuya, T.

T. Kasuya, T. Suzuki, K. Shimoda, “A Prism Anamorphic System for Gaussian Beam Expander,” Appl. Phys. 17, 131 (1978).
[Crossref]

Knight, L. V.Knight

Kogelnik, H.

Kogelnik, H. W.

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically Compensated Cavities for cw Dye Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373 (1972).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Massey, G. A.

Seiden, M.

G. de Mars, M. Seiden, F. A. Horrigan, “Optical Degradation of High-Power Ionized Argon Gas Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 631 (1968).
[Crossref]

Shank, C. V.

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically Compensated Cavities for cw Dye Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373 (1972).
[Crossref]

Shimoda, K.

T. Kasuya, T. Suzuki, K. Shimoda, “A Prism Anamorphic System for Gaussian Beam Expander,” Appl. Phys. 17, 131 (1978).
[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, “A Canonical Formulation for Analyzing Multi-element Unstable Resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 35 (1976); correction in IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 315 (1976).
[Crossref]

G. A. Massey, A. E. Siegman, “Reflection and Refraction of Gaussian Light Beams at Tilted Ellipsoidal Surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 8, 975 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Siegman, An Introduction to Lasers and Masers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971), Chap. 8.

Sinclair, D. C.

Suzuki, T.

T. Kasuya, T. Suzuki, K. Shimoda, “A Prism Anamorphic System for Gaussian Beam Expander,” Appl. Phys. 17, 131 (1978).
[Crossref]

Turunen, J.

Verdeyen, J. T.

J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1981), Chap. 2.

Walsh, D. M.

White, A. D.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1976), Chap. 2.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Kasuya, T. Suzuki, K. Shimoda, “A Prism Anamorphic System for Gaussian Beam Expander,” Appl. Phys. 17, 131 (1978).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

See, for example, A. L. Bloom, “Observation of New Visible Gas Laser Transitions by Removal of Dominance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 101 (1963).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

D. C. Hanna, “Astigmatic Gaussian Beams Produced by Axially Asymmetric Lasers Cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 483 (1969).
[Crossref]

H. W. Kogelnik, E. P. Ippen, A. Dienes, C. V. Shank, “Astigmatically Compensated Cavities for cw Dye Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 373 (1972).
[Crossref]

G. de Mars, M. Seiden, F. A. Horrigan, “Optical Degradation of High-Power Ionized Argon Gas Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 631 (1968).
[Crossref]

A. E. Siegman, “A Canonical Formulation for Analyzing Multi-element Unstable Resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 35 (1976); correction in IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 315 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (3)

A. E. Siegman, An Introduction to Lasers and Masers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971), Chap. 8.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1976), Chap. 2.

J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1981), Chap. 2.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tilted spherical interface between two media of refractive index n1 and n2. The normal to the spherical surface (radius of curvature R) at the point of incidence is tilted at angle θ1 from the optical axis of propagation (z axis). The x-z plane is the tangential plane, and the y-z plane is the sagittal plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Propagation of a ray through a prism. The refractive index is n, and the apex angle is α. L is the geometrical path length in the prism.

Equations (24)

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M st = | cos θ 2 cos θ 1 0 n 2 cos θ 2 - n 1 cos θ 1 n 2 R cos θ 1 cos θ 2 n 1 cos θ 1 n 2 cos θ 2 | ,
M ss = | 1 0 n 2 cos θ 2 - n 1 cos θ 1 n 2 R n 1 n 2 | .
M ft = | cos θ 2 cos θ 1 0 0 n 1 cos θ 1 n 2 cos θ 2 | ,
M fs = | 1 0 0 n 1 n 2 | .
M prt = | cos θ 4 cos θ 3 0 0 n cos θ 3 cos θ 4 | | 1 L 0 1 | | cos θ 2 cos θ 1 0 0 cos θ 1 n cos θ 2 |
M prt = | cos θ 2 cos θ 4 cos θ 1 cos θ 3 L cos θ 1 cos θ 4 n cos θ 2 cos θ 3 0 cos θ 1 cos θ 3 cos θ 2 cos θ 4 | ,
B = S sin α cos θ 1 cos θ 4 n cos θ 2 cos 2 θ 3 .
M prs = | 1 L n 0 1 | .
M prBt = | 1 L n 3 0 1 | ,
M prBs = | 1 L n 0 1 | .
M pt = | 1 t cos 2 θ 1 n cos 3 θ 2 0 1 | ,
M ps = | 1 t n cos θ 2 0 1 | .
M pBt = | 1 t ( n 2 + 1 ) 1 / 2 n 4 0 1 | ,
M pBs = | 1 t ( n 2 + 1 ) 1 / 2 n 2 0 1 | .
f t = f 0 ( n - 1 ) ( cos 2 θ 1 ) n cos θ 2 - cos θ 1 ,
f s = f 0 ( n - 1 ) n cos θ 2 - cos θ 1 ,
M wt = | 1 + t ( n cos θ 2 - cos θ 1 ) n R t cos 3 θ 2 t cos 2 θ 1 n cos 3 θ 2 n cos θ 2 - cos θ 1 R t cos 2 θ 1 1 | ,
M ws = | 1 + t ( n cos θ 2 - cos θ 1 ) n R s cos 3 θ 2 t n cos θ 2 n cos θ 2 - cos θ 1 R s 1 | .
M wt = M ws .
R s = R t cos 2 θ 1 .
R s = ( n 2 + 1 ) - 1 R t .
C t = - 2 n cos 2 θ 2 R cos 2 θ 1 + 2 ( n cos θ 2 - cos θ 1 ) R t cos 2 θ 1 ,
C s = - 2 n / R .
R t = ( n 2 + 1 ) 1 / 2 R / n .

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