Abstract

A new method is proposed to visualize the microcirculation map using a dynamic laser speckle effect. A skin surface is illuminated by He–Ne laser line spot and its image speckle is detected by a CCD array sensor. The difference between a pair of output data for successive scannings of the image speckles at the sensor plane was calculated and integrated for each pixel. The results were displayed in color graphics showing the spatial variation of the flow level in the area of interest.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Stern, “In Vivo Evaluation of Microcirculation by Coherent Light Scattering,” Nature London 254, 56 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, “Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Spectroscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  3. D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, “An Instrument to Measure Cutaneous Blood Flow Using the Doppler Shift of Laser Light,” IEEETrans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, “A New Instrument for Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Light Beating Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 12 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. Wunderlich, R. L. Folger, B. R. Ware, D. B. Giddon, “Laser Doppler Blood Flow Meter and Optical Plethymograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1258 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Bonner, R. Nossal, “Model for Laser Doppler Measurements of Blood Flow in Tissue,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2097 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. E. Nilsson, “Signal Processor for Laser Doppler Tissue Flowmeters,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 22, 343 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. F. M. de Mul, J. van Spijker, D. van der Plas, J. Greve, J. G. Aarnoudse, T. M. Smits, “Mini Laser-Doppler (Blood) Flow Monitor with Diode Laser Source and Detection Integrated in the Probe,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2970 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Ruth, D. Haina, W. Waidelich, “The Determination of a Blood-Flow Parameter by the Doppler Method,” Opt. Acta 31, 759 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of Laser Scattering from Skin Tissue with Application to Laser Doppler Blood Flow Measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Duteil, J. C. Bernengo, W. Schalla, “A Double Wavelength Laser Doppler System to Investigate Skin Microcirculation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-32, 439 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. P. Shepherd, G. L. Riedel, “Continuous Measurement of Intestinal Mucosal Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Velocimetry,” Am. J. Physiol. 242, G688 (1982).
  13. H. Ahn, J. Lindhagen, G. E. Nilsson, E. G. Salerud, M. Jodal, O. Lundgren, “Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the Assessment of Intestinal Blood Flow,” Gastroenterology 88, 951 (1985).
    [PubMed]
  14. A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow Visualization by Means of Single-Exposure Speckle Photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Blood Flow Observed by Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” Opt. Lett. 10, 104 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of Retinal Blood Flow Using Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, R. J. Adrian, Ed. (Ladoan, Lisbon, 1987), to be published.
  17. B. Ruth, “Superposition of Two Dynamic Speckle Patterns: an Application to Non-Contact Blood Flow Measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 257 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Asakura, N. Takai, “Dynamic Laser Speckles and Their Application to Velocity Measurements of the Diffuse Object,” Appl. Phys. 25, 179 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Laser Speckle Skin Blood Flowgraphy Using an Image Sensor (I),” in preprints 34th Spring Meeting, Japan Society of Applied Physics, 34, No. 3, 625 (1987).
  20. H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Visualization of Microcircular Flow by a Laser Speckle Image Sensor,” in Proceedings, Fourth World Congress for Microcirculation, M. Tsuchiya, Ed. (The Japanese Society for Microcirculation, Tokyo, 1987), to be published.
  21. H. Fujii, J. W. Y. Lit, “Measurement of Surface Roughness Using Dichromatic Speckle,” Opt. Commun. 22, 231 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1987

B. Ruth, “Superposition of Two Dynamic Speckle Patterns: an Application to Non-Contact Blood Flow Measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 257 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

H. Ahn, J. Lindhagen, G. E. Nilsson, E. G. Salerud, M. Jodal, O. Lundgren, “Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the Assessment of Intestinal Blood Flow,” Gastroenterology 88, 951 (1985).
[PubMed]

L. Duteil, J. C. Bernengo, W. Schalla, “A Double Wavelength Laser Doppler System to Investigate Skin Microcirculation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-32, 439 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Blood Flow Observed by Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” Opt. Lett. 10, 104 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

G. E. Nilsson, “Signal Processor for Laser Doppler Tissue Flowmeters,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 22, 343 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. F. M. de Mul, J. van Spijker, D. van der Plas, J. Greve, J. G. Aarnoudse, T. M. Smits, “Mini Laser-Doppler (Blood) Flow Monitor with Diode Laser Source and Detection Integrated in the Probe,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2970 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ruth, D. Haina, W. Waidelich, “The Determination of a Blood-Flow Parameter by the Doppler Method,” Opt. Acta 31, 759 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of Laser Scattering from Skin Tissue with Application to Laser Doppler Blood Flow Measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

A. P. Shepherd, G. L. Riedel, “Continuous Measurement of Intestinal Mucosal Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Velocimetry,” Am. J. Physiol. 242, G688 (1982).

1981

R. Bonner, R. Nossal, “Model for Laser Doppler Measurements of Blood Flow in Tissue,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2097 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow Visualization by Means of Single-Exposure Speckle Photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Asakura, N. Takai, “Dynamic Laser Speckles and Their Application to Velocity Measurements of the Diffuse Object,” Appl. Phys. 25, 179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, “A New Instrument for Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Light Beating Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 12 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Wunderlich, R. L. Folger, B. R. Ware, D. B. Giddon, “Laser Doppler Blood Flow Meter and Optical Plethymograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, “An Instrument to Measure Cutaneous Blood Flow Using the Doppler Shift of Laser Light,” IEEETrans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

H. Fujii, J. W. Y. Lit, “Measurement of Surface Roughness Using Dichromatic Speckle,” Opt. Commun. 22, 231 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, “Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Spectroscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

1975

M. D. Stern, “In Vivo Evaluation of Microcirculation by Coherent Light Scattering,” Nature London 254, 56 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Ahn, H.

H. Ahn, J. Lindhagen, G. E. Nilsson, E. G. Salerud, M. Jodal, O. Lundgren, “Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the Assessment of Intestinal Blood Flow,” Gastroenterology 88, 951 (1985).
[PubMed]

Aizu, Y.

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of Retinal Blood Flow Using Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, R. J. Adrian, Ed. (Ladoan, Lisbon, 1987), to be published.

Asakura, T.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Blood Flow Observed by Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” Opt. Lett. 10, 104 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Asakura, N. Takai, “Dynamic Laser Speckles and Their Application to Velocity Measurements of the Diffuse Object,” Appl. Phys. 25, 179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of Retinal Blood Flow Using Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, R. J. Adrian, Ed. (Ladoan, Lisbon, 1987), to be published.

Bernengo, J. C.

L. Duteil, J. C. Bernengo, W. Schalla, “A Double Wavelength Laser Doppler System to Investigate Skin Microcirculation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-32, 439 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R.

Bowen, P. D.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, “Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Spectroscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Bowman, R. L.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, “Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Spectroscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Briers, J. D.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow Visualization by Means of Single-Exposure Speckle Photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chimosky, J. E.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, “Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Spectroscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

de Mul, F. F. M.

Duteil, L.

L. Duteil, J. C. Bernengo, W. Schalla, “A Double Wavelength Laser Doppler System to Investigate Skin Microcirculation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-32, 439 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow Visualization by Means of Single-Exposure Speckle Photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Folger, R. L.

R. W. Wunderlich, R. L. Folger, B. R. Ware, D. B. Giddon, “Laser Doppler Blood Flow Meter and Optical Plethymograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Blood Flow Observed by Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” Opt. Lett. 10, 104 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fujii, J. W. Y. Lit, “Measurement of Surface Roughness Using Dichromatic Speckle,” Opt. Commun. 22, 231 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Visualization of Microcircular Flow by a Laser Speckle Image Sensor,” in Proceedings, Fourth World Congress for Microcirculation, M. Tsuchiya, Ed. (The Japanese Society for Microcirculation, Tokyo, 1987), to be published.

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Laser Speckle Skin Blood Flowgraphy Using an Image Sensor (I),” in preprints 34th Spring Meeting, Japan Society of Applied Physics, 34, No. 3, 625 (1987).

Giddon, D. B.

R. W. Wunderlich, R. L. Folger, B. R. Ware, D. B. Giddon, “Laser Doppler Blood Flow Meter and Optical Plethymograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

Gush, R. J.

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of Laser Scattering from Skin Tissue with Application to Laser Doppler Blood Flow Measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haina, D.

B. Ruth, D. Haina, W. Waidelich, “The Determination of a Blood-Flow Parameter by the Doppler Method,” Opt. Acta 31, 759 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, G. A.

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, “An Instrument to Measure Cutaneous Blood Flow Using the Doppler Shift of Laser Light,” IEEETrans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, “Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Spectroscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Jayson, M. I. V.

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of Laser Scattering from Skin Tissue with Application to Laser Doppler Blood Flow Measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jodal, M.

H. Ahn, J. Lindhagen, G. E. Nilsson, E. G. Salerud, M. Jodal, O. Lundgren, “Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the Assessment of Intestinal Blood Flow,” Gastroenterology 88, 951 (1985).
[PubMed]

Keiser, H. R.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, “Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Spectroscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

King, T. A.

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of Laser Scattering from Skin Tissue with Application to Laser Doppler Blood Flow Measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koyama, T.

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of Retinal Blood Flow Using Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, R. J. Adrian, Ed. (Ladoan, Lisbon, 1987), to be published.

Lappe, D.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, “Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Spectroscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

Lindhagen, J.

H. Ahn, J. Lindhagen, G. E. Nilsson, E. G. Salerud, M. Jodal, O. Lundgren, “Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the Assessment of Intestinal Blood Flow,” Gastroenterology 88, 951 (1985).
[PubMed]

Lit, J. W. Y.

H. Fujii, J. W. Y. Lit, “Measurement of Surface Roughness Using Dichromatic Speckle,” Opt. Commun. 22, 231 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lundgren, O.

H. Ahn, J. Lindhagen, G. E. Nilsson, E. G. Salerud, M. Jodal, O. Lundgren, “Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the Assessment of Intestinal Blood Flow,” Gastroenterology 88, 951 (1985).
[PubMed]

Nilsson, G. E.

H. Ahn, J. Lindhagen, G. E. Nilsson, E. G. Salerud, M. Jodal, O. Lundgren, “Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the Assessment of Intestinal Blood Flow,” Gastroenterology 88, 951 (1985).
[PubMed]

G. E. Nilsson, “Signal Processor for Laser Doppler Tissue Flowmeters,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 22, 343 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, “A New Instrument for Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Light Beating Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 12 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nohira, K.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Blood Flow Observed by Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” Opt. Lett. 10, 104 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Visualization of Microcircular Flow by a Laser Speckle Image Sensor,” in Proceedings, Fourth World Congress for Microcirculation, M. Tsuchiya, Ed. (The Japanese Society for Microcirculation, Tokyo, 1987), to be published.

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Laser Speckle Skin Blood Flowgraphy Using an Image Sensor (I),” in preprints 34th Spring Meeting, Japan Society of Applied Physics, 34, No. 3, 625 (1987).

Nossal, R.

Oberg, P. A.

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, “A New Instrument for Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Light Beating Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 12 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ogino, K.

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of Retinal Blood Flow Using Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, R. J. Adrian, Ed. (Ladoan, Lisbon, 1987), to be published.

Ohura, T.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Blood Flow Observed by Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” Opt. Lett. 10, 104 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Laser Speckle Skin Blood Flowgraphy Using an Image Sensor (I),” in preprints 34th Spring Meeting, Japan Society of Applied Physics, 34, No. 3, 625 (1987).

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Visualization of Microcircular Flow by a Laser Speckle Image Sensor,” in Proceedings, Fourth World Congress for Microcirculation, M. Tsuchiya, Ed. (The Japanese Society for Microcirculation, Tokyo, 1987), to be published.

Riedel, G. L.

A. P. Shepherd, G. L. Riedel, “Continuous Measurement of Intestinal Mucosal Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Velocimetry,” Am. J. Physiol. 242, G688 (1982).

Ruth, B.

B. Ruth, “Superposition of Two Dynamic Speckle Patterns: an Application to Non-Contact Blood Flow Measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 257 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. Ruth, D. Haina, W. Waidelich, “The Determination of a Blood-Flow Parameter by the Doppler Method,” Opt. Acta 31, 759 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Salerud, E. G.

H. Ahn, J. Lindhagen, G. E. Nilsson, E. G. Salerud, M. Jodal, O. Lundgren, “Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the Assessment of Intestinal Blood Flow,” Gastroenterology 88, 951 (1985).
[PubMed]

Schalla, W.

L. Duteil, J. C. Bernengo, W. Schalla, “A Double Wavelength Laser Doppler System to Investigate Skin Microcirculation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-32, 439 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, A. P.

A. P. Shepherd, G. L. Riedel, “Continuous Measurement of Intestinal Mucosal Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Velocimetry,” Am. J. Physiol. 242, G688 (1982).

Shintomi, Y.

H. Fujii, T. Asakura, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Blood Flow Observed by Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” Opt. Lett. 10, 104 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Laser Speckle Skin Blood Flowgraphy Using an Image Sensor (I),” in preprints 34th Spring Meeting, Japan Society of Applied Physics, 34, No. 3, 625 (1987).

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Visualization of Microcircular Flow by a Laser Speckle Image Sensor,” in Proceedings, Fourth World Congress for Microcirculation, M. Tsuchiya, Ed. (The Japanese Society for Microcirculation, Tokyo, 1987), to be published.

Smits, T. M.

Stern, M. D.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, “Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Spectroscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

M. D. Stern, “In Vivo Evaluation of Microcirculation by Coherent Light Scattering,” Nature London 254, 56 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takai, N.

T. Asakura, N. Takai, “Dynamic Laser Speckles and Their Application to Velocity Measurements of the Diffuse Object,” Appl. Phys. 25, 179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of Retinal Blood Flow Using Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, R. J. Adrian, Ed. (Ladoan, Lisbon, 1987), to be published.

Tenland, T.

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, “A New Instrument for Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Light Beating Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 12 (1980).
[CrossRef]

van der Plas, D.

van Spijker, J.

Waidelich, W.

B. Ruth, D. Haina, W. Waidelich, “The Determination of a Blood-Flow Parameter by the Doppler Method,” Opt. Acta 31, 759 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ware, B. R.

R. W. Wunderlich, R. L. Folger, B. R. Ware, D. B. Giddon, “Laser Doppler Blood Flow Meter and Optical Plethymograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, D.

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, “An Instrument to Measure Cutaneous Blood Flow Using the Doppler Shift of Laser Light,” IEEETrans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wunderlich, R. W.

R. W. Wunderlich, R. L. Folger, B. R. Ware, D. B. Giddon, “Laser Doppler Blood Flow Meter and Optical Plethymograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Visualization of Microcircular Flow by a Laser Speckle Image Sensor,” in Proceedings, Fourth World Congress for Microcirculation, M. Tsuchiya, Ed. (The Japanese Society for Microcirculation, Tokyo, 1987), to be published.

Am. J. Physiol.

M. D. Stern, D. Lappe, P. D. Bowen, J. E. Chimosky, G. A. Holloway, H. R. Keiser, R. L. Bowman, “Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Spectroscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. 232, H441 (1977).
[PubMed]

A. P. Shepherd, G. L. Riedel, “Continuous Measurement of Intestinal Mucosal Blood Flow by Laser-Doppler Velocimetry,” Am. J. Physiol. 242, G688 (1982).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

T. Asakura, N. Takai, “Dynamic Laser Speckles and Their Application to Velocity Measurements of the Diffuse Object,” Appl. Phys. 25, 179 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology

H. Ahn, J. Lindhagen, G. E. Nilsson, E. G. Salerud, M. Jodal, O. Lundgren, “Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the Assessment of Intestinal Blood Flow,” Gastroenterology 88, 951 (1985).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

L. Duteil, J. C. Bernengo, W. Schalla, “A Double Wavelength Laser Doppler System to Investigate Skin Microcirculation,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-32, 439 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Nilsson, T. Tenland, P. A. Oberg, “A New Instrument for Continuous Measurement of Tissue Blood Flow by Light Beating Spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-27, 12 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEETrans. Biomed. Eng.

D. Watkins, G. A. Holloway, “An Instrument to Measure Cutaneous Blood Flow Using the Doppler Shift of Laser Light,” IEEETrans. Biomed. Eng. BME-25, 28 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

B. Ruth, “Superposition of Two Dynamic Speckle Patterns: an Application to Non-Contact Blood Flow Measurements,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 257 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.

G. E. Nilsson, “Signal Processor for Laser Doppler Tissue Flowmeters,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 22, 343 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature London

M. D. Stern, “In Vivo Evaluation of Microcirculation by Coherent Light Scattering,” Nature London 254, 56 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Acta

B. Ruth, D. Haina, W. Waidelich, “The Determination of a Blood-Flow Parameter by the Doppler Method,” Opt. Acta 31, 759 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow Visualization by Means of Single-Exposure Speckle Photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujii, J. W. Y. Lit, “Measurement of Surface Roughness Using Dichromatic Speckle,” Opt. Commun. 22, 231 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

R. J. Gush, T. A. King, M. I. V. Jayson, “Aspects of Laser Scattering from Skin Tissue with Application to Laser Doppler Blood Flow Measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 29, 1463 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. W. Wunderlich, R. L. Folger, B. R. Ware, D. B. Giddon, “Laser Doppler Blood Flow Meter and Optical Plethymograph,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 1258 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Aizu, K. Ogino, T. Koyama, N. Takai, T. Asakura, “Evaluation of Retinal Blood Flow Using Time-Varying Laser Speckle,” in Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, R. J. Adrian, Ed. (Ladoan, Lisbon, 1987), to be published.

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Laser Speckle Skin Blood Flowgraphy Using an Image Sensor (I),” in preprints 34th Spring Meeting, Japan Society of Applied Physics, 34, No. 3, 625 (1987).

H. Fujii, K. Nohira, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Shintomi, T. Ohura, “Visualization of Microcircular Flow by a Laser Speckle Image Sensor,” in Proceedings, Fourth World Congress for Microcirculation, M. Tsuchiya, Ed. (The Japanese Society for Microcirculation, Tokyo, 1987), to be published.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical system for dynamic speckle field detection with a CCD array sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the signal processor and the control circuit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pairs of output pulse lines from the CCD sensor for successive scans of the speckle field produced by skin blood flow.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results of 1-D blood flow map at the backside of the finger: The blood flow at the tip of the finger in (a) is stressed at the place pointed to by the arrow; (b) shows the flow map along the dotted line in (a); (c) is obtained by spatially averaging the results in (b); (b) and (c) are detected with the interval time ΔT = 1 ms, while (d) is with the longer interval time ΔT = 5 ms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

One-dimensional flow map of the microcirculation around the scar on the backside of the hand. The map in (b) corresponds to the solid line shown in (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental arrangement of the visualization of the 2-D flow map with the CCD array sensor.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Color graphic display of the 2-D microcirculation map at the skin surface under tuberculin test. The original color photographs with thirty-two different color codes are reprinted in black-and-white for publication: (a) 6 h after the injection and (b) 24 h after the reaction.

Equations (2)

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D ( n ) = k = 1 N | I k ( n ) I k + 1 ( n ) | / [ I k ( n ) + I k + 1 ( n ) ] ,
I k ( n ) = 0 Δ T I ( t ) d t ,

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