Abstract

For lidar measurements of stratospheric aerosols; signal-induced noise (SIN) from a photomultiplier (PMT) has been a problem of particular interest. In this paper, we succeed in simulating lidar signals affected by the PMT, after finding a long tail with a decay time of ∼200 μs in the PMT's response to an impulselike light exposure. The PMT studied was an RCA 8852. Computer simulation quantitatively revealed that the SIN caused by the delayed response became greater than the real signal at high altitudes. Based on the results of simulation, a proposal was made to find a practical method for identifying and removing the SIN from the actual lidar signals. In addition, an improved method for the lidar signal calibration was proposed by taking into account the systematic noise component, including background light as well as SIN, in formulating the clean air calibration (the matching method). Validity of the proposed methods was demonstrated by using them both with an actual lidar signal and a simulated lidar signal with SIN.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Fiocco, G. Grams, “Observations of the Aerosol Layer at 20 km by Optical Radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. B. Russell et al., “Lidar Observation of the Stratospheric Aerosol: California, October 1972 to March 1974,” J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 102, 675 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for Error Analysis and Simulation of Lidar Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  4. H. Shimizu, Y. Sasano, H. Nakane, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, N. Takeuchi, “Large Scale Laser Radar for Measuring Aerosol Distribution over a Wide Area,” Appl. Opt. 24, 617 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the Linearity of Response of Gated Photomultipliers in Wide Dynamic Range Laser Radar Systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and Time Distribution of After Pulses in GaP First Dynode Photomul Tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 196, 199 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  7. U.S. Standard Atmosphere by NOAA, NASA, and U.S. Air Force (NOAA-S/T76-1562) (1976).
  8. P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-Lidar Aerosol Extinction Measurements and Their Relation to Measured and Calculated Albedo Changes,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. D. Klett, “Stable Analytical Inversion Solution for Processing Lidar Returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-Lidar Aerosol Extinction Measurements and Their Relation to Measured and Calculated Albedo Changes,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and Time Distribution of After Pulses in GaP First Dynode Photomul Tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 196, 199 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

P. B. Russell et al., “Lidar Observation of the Stratospheric Aerosol: California, October 1972 to March 1974,” J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 102, 675 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the Linearity of Response of Gated Photomultipliers in Wide Dynamic Range Laser Radar Systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116 (1975).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

G. Fiocco, G. Grams, “Observations of the Aerosol Layer at 20 km by Optical Radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323 (1964).
[Crossref]

Fiocco, G.

G. Fiocco, G. Grams, “Observations of the Aerosol Layer at 20 km by Optical Radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323 (1964).
[Crossref]

Grams, G.

G. Fiocco, G. Grams, “Observations of the Aerosol Layer at 20 km by Optical Radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323 (1964).
[Crossref]

Hunt, W. H.

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the Linearity of Response of Gated Photomultipliers in Wide Dynamic Range Laser Radar Systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116 (1975).
[Crossref]

Kawada, Y.

M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and Time Distribution of After Pulses in GaP First Dynode Photomul Tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 196, 199 (1982).
[Crossref]

Klett, J. D.

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-Lidar Aerosol Extinction Measurements and Their Relation to Measured and Calculated Albedo Changes,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204 (1984).
[Crossref]

Matsui, I.

McCormick, M. P.

Nakane, H.

Poultney, S. K.

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the Linearity of Response of Gated Photomultipliers in Wide Dynamic Range Laser Radar Systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116 (1975).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-Lidar Aerosol Extinction Measurements and Their Relation to Measured and Calculated Albedo Changes,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204 (1984).
[Crossref]

P. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, “Methodology for Error Analysis and Simulation of Lidar Aerosol Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3783 (1979).
[PubMed]

P. B. Russell et al., “Lidar Observation of the Stratospheric Aerosol: California, October 1972 to March 1974,” J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 102, 675 (1976).
[Crossref]

Sasano, Y.

Shimizu, H.

Sugimoto, N.

Swissler, T. J.

Takeuchi, N.

Yamashita, M.

M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and Time Distribution of After Pulses in GaP First Dynode Photomul Tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 196, 199 (1982).
[Crossref]

Yura, O.

M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and Time Distribution of After Pulses in GaP First Dynode Photomul Tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 196, 199 (1982).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

W. H. Hunt, S. K. Poultney, “Testing the Linearity of Response of Gated Photomultipliers in Wide Dynamic Range Laser Radar Systems,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22, 116 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

G. Fiocco, G. Grams, “Observations of the Aerosol Layer at 20 km by Optical Radar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323 (1964).
[Crossref]

J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. (1)

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, “Slant-Lidar Aerosol Extinction Measurements and Their Relation to Measured and Calculated Albedo Changes,” J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 23, 1204 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

P. B. Russell et al., “Lidar Observation of the Stratospheric Aerosol: California, October 1972 to March 1974,” J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 102, 675 (1976).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

M. Yamashita, O. Yura, Y. Kawada, “Probability and Time Distribution of After Pulses in GaP First Dynode Photomul Tubes,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 196, 199 (1982).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

U.S. Standard Atmosphere by NOAA, NASA, and U.S. Air Force (NOAA-S/T76-1562) (1976).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the signal processing unit of the NIES large-scale lidar with a LED installed for the PMT tests.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Response of a PMT (RCA 8852) to a square light pulse of 10-μs duration for three different cathode voltages (VPMT): (a) the gating circuit is kept ON; (b) the gating circuit is turned ON at 12 μs; ND filter is used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response of a PMT (RCA 8852) to a 10-μs square light pulse for three different gating times. Cathode voltage is 2000 V and no ND filter is used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Goodness of fit of exponential functions with a different decay time to the PMT's response shown in Fig. 2(a). The cathode voltage is 2000 V. Two curves show the standard deviations estimated from the data of different time ranges: a, 30–60 μs; b, 180–360 μs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated components of the lidar signal affected by the PMT. Three curves correspond to A, primary response (regarded as the real signal); B, delayed response with short decay time; and C, delayed response with a long decay time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated lidar signals affected by the PMT with different gating heights: a, 0 km; b, 8 km; and c, 16 km.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured lidar signals with different gating heights: a, 0 km; b, 8 km; and c, 16 km. The cathode voltage is set at 1800 V in the measurement.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Lidar signals after correction of the SIN. The SIN is estimated by fitting the exponential function with the 200-μs decay time to the data from 60 to 80 km. The dashed line denotes relative intensity of the simulated lidar signal without the SIN.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Backscattering ratio profiles derived by using three different lidar data processing methods: (a) conventional; (b) modified matching; (c) modified matching with modified preprocessing. Four curves show the lidar signal measured with different gating heights.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Systematic errors in the backscattering ratio derived by (a) modified matching method and (b) modified matching method with modified preprocessing. These two methods are applied to the simulated lidar signals.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Typical Parameters of PMT Response Function Estimated from the Experiments

Equations (20)

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y = g exp ( t / T ) .
Q ( r ) = g 0 δ ( r ) + g 1 exp ( r / R 1 ) + g 2 exp ( r / R 2 ) .
P ( R ) = C β ( R ) T 2 ( R ) / R 2 ,
P OUT ( R ) = 0 R P ( R r ) Q ( r ) d r .
P OUT ( R ) = g 0 P ( R ) + g 1 0 R P ( R r ) exp ( r / R 1 ) d r + g 2 0 R P ( R r ) exp ( r / R 2 ) d r .
P ( R ) = C β ( R ) T 2 ( R ) / R 2 + N ( R ) ,
N ( R ) = a exp ( r / R ) + b ,
β * ( R ) = β ( R ) exp R R * 2 α ( r ) d r ,
P ( R ) = C * β * ( R ) / R 2 + N ( R ) ,
C * = C exp [ 2 0 R * α ( r ) d r ] .
Q ( R ) = β m * ( R ) / R 2 ,
P ( R ) = C * Q ( R ) + N * ,
y i = C * x i + N * , R min R i R max ,
Ĉ * = i = 1 k ( x i x ̅ ) ( y i y ̅ ) / i = 1 k ( x i x ̅ ) 2 ,
N ̂ * = y ̅ Ĉ * x ̅ ,
σ ̂ 2 = [ i = 1 k ( y i y ̅ ) 2 Ĉ * i = 1 k ( x i x ̅ ) 2 ] / ( k 2 ) .
σ ̂ C 2 = σ ̂ 2 / i = 1 k ( x i x ̅ ) 2 ,
σ ̂ N 2 = σ ̂ 2 [ 1 / k + x 2 / i = 1 k ( x i x ̅ ) 2 ] .
r ( R ) = 1 + β a ( R ) / β m ( R ) ,
r ( R ) = β * ( R ) / β m * ( R ) .

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